Friedrich Albert Lange

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Friedrich Albert Lange

Friedrich Albert Lange (born September 28, 1828 in Wald near Solingen ; † November 21, 1875 in Marburg ) was a German philosopher ( Neo-Kantian ), educator , economist and socialist .


Friedrich Albert was the son of the Reformed pastor Johann Peter Lange . He grew up in Solingen, Langenberg and Duisburg . From 1841 the father taught in Zurich , where the family now moved.

Lange studied theology , philosophy and philology in Bonn from 1848 to 1851 . In 1851 he received his doctorate with a dissertation on Questiones Metricae . After graduating, he was a grammar school teacher in Cologne from 1852 to 1855 and from 1857 private lecturer in philosophy and education in Bonn. Shortly afterwards, Lange left Bonn and remained a high school teacher in his hometown of Duisburg until 1861 . To protest against Bismarck's policies , Lange resigned from teaching in 1862 because he resisted a royal circular intended to prevent teachers from any political agitation.

Shortly afterwards he became secretary of the Duisburg Chamber of Commerce and editor for the Rhein- und Ruhrzeitung, which is published in Duisburg . The paper, which is close to the Progressive Party, dismissed Lange after several press trials because it considered it intolerable. Lange devoted himself increasingly to political questions and appeared more and more as a speaker at meetings and was a member of the standing committee of the Association of German Workers' Associations from 1864 to 1866 , to which August Bebel also belonged. From October 1, 1865 to June 29, 1866, Lange published the messenger from the Lower Rhine in Duisburg , in which he mainly addressed the Prussian Junkers and the Prussian government. In 1865 he published the work Die Arbeiterfrage , which is also considered to be an important contribution to the foundation of (scientific) economics .

Long became a member of the First International . After that, Lange, who suffered from the increasing number of lawsuits against him, gradually withdrew from German politics and began to write his main work (later split in two), the history of materialism , which was published in 1866. In the same year, a discussion of the work of John Stuart Mills appeared .

In 1866, Lange then moved with his wife and children to Winterthur in the canton of Zurich , where he was able to work as a high school teacher again. He also worked as an editor of the Winterthur newspaper Der Landbote and dealt with a response to its history in the book New Contributions to the History of Materialism . During his stay in Switzerland , Lange was intensely involved in the democratic movement and was instrumental in drafting a constitution for the canton of Zurich, which, compared to the previous one, is characterized, among other things, by the fact that all key decisions are made by means of popular initiative , optional and mandatory referendum ties back to the citizens. During this time he took on a large number of offices, including constitutional councilor , 1870–72 cantonal councilor , bank councilor and 1870/71 city ​​councilor of Winterthur. He also founded the Winterthur consumer association .

Langes residence in Marburg

In 1868 Lange received civil rights , in 1869 he qualified as a private lecturer at the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Zurich . From 1870 to 1872 he taught inductive philosophy as a professor in Zurich before he was appointed to the University of Marburg . He was offered further professorships in Würzburg , Königsberg , Kiel , Gießen and Jena . Until his death, Lange held lectures in logic, philosophical education, on Schiller's philosophical poems, psychology and in the history of education.

At that time, Lange, who was already suffering from a serious illness (presumably rectal cancer), taught and wrote for three years in Marburg before he died on November 21, 1875. It should be emphasized that he brought about the appointment of Hermann Cohen to Marburg and thereby gained the reputation of the founder of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism .


  • 1855: About the connection between educational systems and the prevailing world views of different ages. Inaugural lecture Bonn, in: Ellissen, OA (Hrsg.) 1928, material on working lessons in secondary schools, No. 71, Bielefeld / Leipzig
  • 1862: The position of the school in public life. Speech given at the school celebration of His Majesty the King's birthday on March 22nd, Duisburg.
  • 1863: The physical exercises. A representation of the development and nature of the art of gymnastics in its educational and cultural-historical significance. Extended print from the encyclopedia of the entire education and training system
  • 1865: The Workers' Question in its Significance for Present and Future, Hildesheim / New York 1979. (Reprint of the copy of the Duisburg City Library Sig. I 10/515), online
  • 1866: History of Materialism and Critique of Its Significance in the Present . Verlag J. Baedeker , Iserlohn 1873. MDZ Reader , see also Vol. 1 (1873) , Vol. 2 (1875) (reprint in 2 volumes: 1974, Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp, ​​stw 70) ISBN 3-518-07670- 1 .


  • Salomon Bleuler House Army: Friedrich Albert Lange. A biographical sketch and memories of the constitutional revision. In: The Landbote and Tagblatt der Stadt Winterthur. No. 2, January 2, 1876 to No. 11, January 13, 1876.
  • Nikolai Berdjajew : Friedrich Albert Lange and the critical philosophy in its relation to socialism. In: The New Time. Volume 18, 1900, Volume 2, pp. 132-140, pp. 164-174, pp. 196-207.
  • Eduard Bernstein : In appreciation of Friedrich Albert Lange. In: The New Time. Review of intellectual and public life. 6th vol., 1892, 2nd volume, pp. 68-78, 101-109, 132-141.
  • Heinrich Braun : Fr. Albert Lange as a social economist after his life and his writings. (Dissertation Halle August 5, 1881) Dissertation * Hermann Cohen : Friedrich Albert Lange. In: Hv Treitschke, W. Wehrenpfennig (Hrsg.): Prussian year books. Volume 37, Issue 4, 1876, pp. 353-381.
  • Georg Eckert: Friedrich Albert Lange (1828–1875) and Social Democracy in Duisburg. In: Duisburg research. 8, 1965, pp. 1-23.
  • Georg Eckert: Friedrich Albert Lange. About politics and philosophy. Letters and editorials 1862–1875. (= Duisburg research. Supplement 10). Duisburg 1968.
  • Otto A. Ellissen: Friedrich Albert Lange. A biography. Baedeker, Leipzig 1894.
  • Heinz-Dietrich Fischer: FA Lange as a political publicist. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 145-173.
  • Frank Freimuth: How do I cultivate freedom under pressure? Friedrich Albert Lange's understanding of education. Pfaffenweiler 1993.
  • Wilhelm Genz: Herbert Spencer's agnosticism with regard to August Comte and Friedr. Alb. Long . Dissertation. University of Greifswald, 1902.
  • Walter Grab : FA Langes Zeitung "Der Bote vom Niederrhein" and the continuity of democratic currents in Germany. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 83-91.
  • Andreas Gross, Andreas Klages: The popular initiative in the cantons using the example of the canton of Zurich. In: A. Auer (Ed.): Les origines de la démocratie directe en Suisse / The origins of Swiss direct democracy. (= Actes du Colloque organisé les 27-29 April 1995 par la Faculté de droit et le C2D). Bern 1996, pp. 267-281.
  • Gottfried Guggenbühl : The Landbote 1836–1936. A hundred years of politics in the mirror of the press. Winterthur 1936.
  • Franz Gundlach: Catalogus Professorum Academiae Marburgensis. The academic teachers at the Philipps University of Marburg. From 1527-1910. Marburg 1928, p. 298.
  • Ludger Heid : FA Lange and the Prussian Constitutional Conflict. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 56-70.
  • Ludger Heid: Biographical data on FA Lange. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 268-270.
  • Gustav Heinemann : Friedrich Albert Lange - The priority of political change over social. In: Walter Dirks, Eugen Kogon (ed.): Frankfurter Hefte. Magazine for culture and politics. 33rd vol., No. 2, February 1978, pp. 27-33.
  • Helmut Hirsch: FA Lange and the USA at the time of the American Civil War. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 92-107.
  • Franz WeinkauffLange, Friedrich Albert . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 17, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1883, pp. 624-631.
  • Friedbert Holz:  Lange, Friedrich Albert. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 13, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-428-00194-X , pp. 555-557 ( digitized version ).
  • Helmut Holzhey : Philosophical Critique. On the relationship between epistemology and social philosophy at FA Lange. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 207-225.
  • Peter Irmer: FA Lange - a political agitator in the German labor movement. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 1-19.
  • Bjarne Jacobsen: Max Weber and Friedrich Albert Lange. Reception and innovation. Wiesbaden 1989.
  • Wolfdietrich von KloedenFriedrich Albert Lange. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 4, Bautz, Herzberg 1992, ISBN 3-88309-038-7 , Sp. 1092-1097.
  • Joachim H. Knoll : FA Lange - a "strange marginal figure" in 19th century education. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 108-132.
  • Thomas Koller: Popular Education, Democracy and Social Issues. The Zurich Democratic Movement and its Education Policy from 1862 to 1872: Idea, Program and Attempt to Realize it. Zurich 1987.
  • Hermann Ley : FA Lange's "History of Materialism". In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 174-187.
  • Regina Majert: Friedrich Albert Lange as president of the board of the commercial Sunday school in Duisburg (1860–1865). In: Duisburg research. 23, 1976, pp. 238-248.
  • Shlomo Na'aman : FA Lange in the German labor movement. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 20-55.
  • Klaus Plump: The estate of FA Lange in the Duisburg city archive. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 236-267.
  • Klaus Plump: Attempt a bibliography of the writings published by Friedrich Albert Lange. In: Joachim Knoll, Uulius Schoeps (Ed.): Friedrich Albert Lange. Life and work. Duisburg 1975, pp. 236-265.
  • Naum Reichesberg: Friedrich Albert Lange as a social economist. Dissertation. Bern 1892.
  • Hans-Martin Sass : The standpoint of the ideal as a critical overcoming of materialistic and idealistic metaphysics. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 188-206.
  • Martin Sattler: FA Lange - »Social Conservative« or »Social Revolutionary«. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 71-82.
  • Julius H. Schoeps : FA Lange and the German gymnastics movement. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 133-145.
  • Eberhard Günter Schulz: Friedrich Albert Lange and the Catholic philosophy. Bochum 1991.
  • George J. Stack: Nietzsche and Lange. Berlin / New York 1983, ISBN 3-11-008866-5 .
  • Hans Vaihinger : Hartmann, Dühring and Lange. On the history of German philosophy in the 19th century. Iserlohn 1876.
  • Adam Weyer: Religion and Socialism at FA Lange. In: Duisburg research. 21, 1975, pp. 226-235.
  • Georg Wolff: Friedrich Albert Lange's socio-political views and his position on socialism and social reform. Dissertation. Giessen 1925.
  • Jürgen Zinnel: Friedrich Albert Lange's reflections on direct democracy taking into account contemporary contexts of discussion. Marburg 2000.

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