Matthias Erzberger

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Erzberger in 1919 as a member of the Weimar National Assembly

Matthias Erzberger (born September 20, 1875 in Buttenhausen , Kingdom of Württemberg ; † August 26, 1921 near Bad Griesbach in the Black Forest , Republic of Baden ) was a German publicist and politician ( center ) in the Empire and the Weimar Republic .

As plenipotentiary of the Reich government and head of the Armistice Commission, Erzberger signed the Compiègne Armistice Agreement in 1918 , which formally ended the hostilities of the First World War . Subsequently, as Reich Minister of Finance from 1919 to 1920, he implemented the Erzberger Reform , named after him , which is considered to be the most extensive reform work in German tax and financial history.

He was murdered in 1921 by right-wing terrorist assassins from the Consul organization .

Life

Birthplace, today a memorial to Matthias Erzberger

Childhood, youth, studies, first job

Matthias Erzberger was born in Buttenhausen as the son of the tailor and part-time postman Josef Erzberger and his wife Katherina (née Flad). While the population of the small town was made up of about half each of Jews and Protestants , the Erzberger family , who came from nearby Gundelfingen , were one of the few Catholic families in the town. Matthias was the oldest of six children. In Bichishausen he attended the Catholic elementary school and continued his education in Gundelfingen. One of his teachers recognized his dormant talent and suggested that his parents guarantee their son a teacher training, which at the time was free of tuition fees. After finishing school, Erzberger first attended the preparatory institute in Schwäbisch Gmünd and then the Catholic teacher training college in Saulgau , where he passed the elementary school teacher examination in 1894 as the best of his year. During this time he was already grappling intensively with political issues. At the age of 20 he was considered an "encyclopedia" of everyday life in Württemberg.

After working as a primary school teacher in Marbach , Göppingen and Stuttgart , Matthias Erzberger began studying constitutional law and economics in Freiburg im Üechtland in 1896 , which he did not graduate, however, because in the same year he had already started to work as an editor for the Catholic German Volksblatt in Stuttgart . At the same time he was involved in Catholic workers' associations and in the Center Party . In 1899 Erzberger participated in the founding of Christian trade unions in Mainz, a farmers' association and the Swabian handicrafts association.

In 1900 Erzberger married Paula Eberhard in Rottenburg , the daughter of a wealthy businessman. The marriage had two daughters and one son. The son fell ill with the Spanish flu as a soldier in 1918 and died.

Member of the Reichstag

As early as 1903, Erzberger was elected to the Reichstag as the youngest MP for the constituency of Württemberg 16 ( Biberach , Leutkirch , Waldsee , Wangen ) and represented the new type of professional politician there . His political foster father was Richard Müller , a member of the Reichstag . He quickly developed into an expert in military, colonial and financial policy.

Criticized at the very beginning of his political career Erzberger sharp as a colonial policy spokesman of his group and partly against party members the colonial scandals . If, not least with a view to the missionary idea, he did not fundamentally oppose colonization, he also warned that the rights of Africans, who often had to do forced labor, should be taken into account , and that the sometimes inhuman working conditions in the colonies should be more closely monitored. In doing so, he contributed to the fact that the Bülow government resigned in the dispute over the budget for military use in the colonies in 1907, leading to new elections for the Reichstag (so-called "Hottentot elections "). With his participation, German conservatives and the center overthrew Bülow's government in 1909 , as no agreement could be found on the question of the planned inheritance tax , which Erzberger was only able to introduce as finance minister in 1919.

During these first years of his political activity, Matthias Erzberger realized more and more that the ruling political system in Germany urgently needed a renewal. This, he was of the opinion, could primarily be achieved through a fundamental renewal of parliamentarism. Steps towards this could be the assumption of ministerial responsibility by parliamentarians, the removal of the emperor from daily events, in order to avoid above all the prestige of the monarchy and being scrapped in the quarrels of daily politics. In terms of foreign policy, however, he continued to follow the prevailing zeitgeist for a long time and at that time was still convinced that Germany needed a strong army in order to be able to pursue its interests internationally.

First World War

Even at the beginning of the First World War , Erzberger was a clear advocate of far-reaching annexations and thus shared the majority view in the German Reichstag. In September 1914 he drafted a "war target program" that was in no way inferior to the forces of the "Pan-German Association". But the first months of the war already showed that the mood of the population in neutral foreign countries quickly changed and that in individual areas there were devastating tendencies towards German hostility. Already at this time officers of the Reichsmarinamt had approached him with the suggestion to set up a central bureau to control the propaganda in neutral foreign countries.

Although he had little experience in this field himself, he quickly built a news office out of the ground, which soon passed into the management of the Foreign Office . This was the first time Matthias Erzberger entered the service of the executive. This office formed the core of the “ Central Office for Foreign Service ” that was established in October 1914 . He held the strings in his own hand. The Foreign Office placed the former ambassador of Germany in Japan Freiherr Alfons Mumm von Schwarzenstein (1859-1924) at the head of the office . Erzberger developed numerous initiatives in order to quickly achieve the expected performance of the foreign intelligence service. For example, he published a multilingual dispatch service for foreign newspapers, had brochures, books and articles about German culture and the “will for peace” printed and distributed by various foreign publishers, launched several foreign-language newspapers that were focused on certain population groups, and inspired the regular publication of a monthly "war chronicle" in seven languages.

With this new office, Matthias Erzberger now had access to internal consultations and stakeholder groups in the Foreign Office, the War Ministry and the Reichsmarineamt. He received secret documents and reports from these bodies that shaped his level of knowledge and his own attitude towards war and the military in a special way. The Prussian War Minister Karl von Eine (1853–1934) expressed his appreciation in this context when something new comes on the table “I ask Erzberger first. He can always give you information right away and knows a lot better than my officers and officials ”. Matthias Erzberger also came into contact with numerous “dubious people” at home and abroad through his activities. Because news distribution and news gathering abroad could hardly be separated from the intelligence service's information work. But in this area too he increasingly ventured into the special realm, initially just groping, later becoming increasingly confident.

During these years Matthias Erzberger developed numerous initiatives to bring about understanding through diplomatic channels and through his church networks, but also to bring about changes in the situation of the ongoing war for Germany. Some of these activities were thwarted or led ad absurdum by the far right, but also by military circles, who still represented the victory goals of 1914. However, some of his advances were also amateur diplomatic in nature. For example, his “Liechtenstein Plan” from 1916. This plan provided for the conflict between Italy and the Holy See, which had existed since 1870, which was supposed to free the Pope from dependence on Italy, to be resolved by a declaration by Liechtenstein. When even the Habsburgs were skeptical of this project, Erzberger had to abandon the plan. Even as a special envoy, with the support of the Foreign Office and the Reich government , he tried in vain at the diplomatic level to prevent Italy and Romania from entering the war against the Central Powers . He managed to get an audience with Pope Benedict XV. to obtain. For the first time, in March 1915, he also had a "one-to-one conversation" with Kaiser Wilhelm II. His conclusion from this encounter was that the Kaiser always spoke up and was not used to hearing the opposite opinion.

The work of the Central Office for Foreign Service bore important fruits in the second half of 1916. Thus Matthias Erzberger succeeded in defying the adversities of the war through the strictest control of travel and information routes in Stockholm to create a branch that reached into Russia. From mid-1916, this “Stockholm branch” provided important information on a regular basis, mostly at intervals of 7 to 14 days. These came from the Russian Imperial Headquarters, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in St. Petersburg, and the Ministry of the Interior in St. Petersburg. This news was partly from official, but also from secret official sources and was, as was confirmed in the files of the Reich Chancellery in 1919, of "considerable value" for the war. His personal colleague during these years was Heinrich Hemmer (1886–1942) , who worked in the Political Department of the Foreign Office .

Matthias Erzberger gained deep insights into the political reality through his contacts with the highest imperial authorities in Germany and the discussions in his political and private circle. This increasingly opened his eyes to the dangerous situation Germany had been in since 1916. Supplemented by the large amount of information of a political, military and economic nature that he gained on his trips abroad and that was also available to him from the enemy camp, he realized that Germany could not win the war. And yet he continued to look for opportunities for “peace initiatives”. For the first time in early 1916 he opposed the Admiralty's plans to ruthlessly use the submarine weapon. In March of the same year he swore his Reichstag faction of the Center Party to oppose the plans of the naval leadership for total submarine war. Not only did these plans violate international law, Erzberger had even made statistical calculations that the success praised by the Navy had to fail because the number of submarines Germany had at its disposal was far too small.

In October 1916, Erzberger demanded in the budget committee of the Reichstag that the Reich Chancellor should draw up and publish a "detailed overview of the entire personnel of all war societies [...] separated by gender, age of military age, earnings, denomination" as soon as possible. In addition to the Conservatives, the National Liberals and the Center Party, some SPD MPs also approved this motion . The national liberal MP Gustav Stresemann justified this procedure with the fact that one wanted to check the truth of the rumors about "Jewish shirking" and not create the impression that something had to be hidden. The majority of the SPD as well as the left-wing liberals rejected the application, since a distinction based on confessional criteria contradicts constitutional principles. It is only unclear whether Erzberger was already familiar with the War Minister's internal decree on the so-called Jewish census for October 1, 1916 and wanted to supplement it with his application, or whether he knew nothing about the planned Jewish census in the army. In relative terms, as many Jewish as Christian soldiers served in World War I, and accordingly the proportion of those killed was about the same.

Erzberger (center) as a member of the German Armistice Commission with General von Hammerstein and Undersecretary Langwerth von Simmern in
Spa in 1918
Erzberger (center) and German delegation on the way to negotiations for armistice extensions. (Trier January 16, 1919, NARA document )

After Erzberger had advocated a “ victory peace ” in early 1916 , he advocated a “ mutual agreement ” from the end of the year . For him that was a political reorientation. The events of the Russian February Revolution also changed his mood and opinion. And when the United States entered the war in April 1917, such a “peace” was the only possible option for him. In a debate in the Reichstag on July 6, 1917, he demanded that Germany renounce annexations . On July 19, 1917, the majority in the Reichstag approved the peace resolution that it had submitted in this regard .

During the World War Erzberger next was Karl Liebknecht (to 1916 Reichstag deputy SPD ) is the only politician who publicly the passive attitude of Germany to the policies of the Turkish allies against the non-Muslim population of the Ottoman Empire criticized primarily the genocide of the Armenians , the Persecution of the Greeks and the genocide of the Aramaeans . He traveled several times to Constantinople to negotiate with the Young Turkish rulers.

At the beginning of October 1918, the new Chancellor of the Reich appointed Prince Max von Baden Erzberger as State Secretary without a portfolio . He was appointed head of the German Armistice Commission and, at the request of Paul von Hindenburg , signed the Compiègne Armistice on November 11, 1918 as the first of the four-member German delegation , which ended the hostilities of the First World War.

Erzberger made numerous opponents through his actions in the last two years of the war and not least through his signature in Compiègne. In the last days of 1918 the " stab in the back legend " spread. Afterwards the "army invincible in the field" was "stabbed from behind" by the enemy within. In the person of Matthias Erzberger, these forces quickly found someone who could be blamed for the “blame”. Through his work in the armistice negotiations, he offered a larger target. Because actually these contracts should have been signed by members of the Supreme Army Command, who were responsible for the conduct of the war, at least in the years from 1916 onwards.

Time of the Weimar Republic

In January 1919, Erzberger was elected to the Weimar National Assembly. In Scheidemann's cabinet he was appointed head of the Armistice Commission to Reich Minister without portfolio and in this function he was responsible for overseeing the implementation of the armistice. It was then up to him to support the adoption of the Versailles Treaty . He advocated accepting the harsh terms of the peace treaty because otherwise, he is convinced, the occupation and dismemberment of the German Reich would be threatened. From 1919 Heinrich Hemmer worked as his personal advisor and secret councilor . Erzberger and Hemmer tried to set up a Reich authority to protect the constitution. On February 14, 1920, a cabinet proposal for the creation of a Reich Criminal Police Office was available, into which an intelligence agency was to be integrated.

Reich Ministry of Finance (approx. 1930)

On June 21, 1919, Erzberger became Reich Minister of Finance under Reich Chancellor Gustav Bauer ( Bauer Cabinet ). His reform measures known as the Erzberger Financial Reform of 1919/1920 with 16 finance and tax laws are considered the most extensive reform work in German tax and financial history. In particular, this includes the amalgamation of the 25 tax administrations of the federal states of the former Empire, the reorganization of a realm financial administration and the replacement of the different legal systems of the states with a uniform tax law. The measures brought a significant increase in the tax rate as well as a clear standardization and systematics of tax law. The core of the reforms were the Reich Tax Code , the Sales Tax Act, the Corporate Income Tax Act, the Reich Finance Administration Act and the State Tax Act , which centralized the financial equalization between the Reich, the states and the municipalities . Erzberger completely restructured the tax administration and thus laid the foundations for the German tax system that still exists today with the introduction of direct wage tax deduction . In his reform of the finances of the Reich in 1919, he also abolished the financial dependence of the central state on the federal states with the matricular contributions .

Staggering legend variant, postcard around 1924: Philipp Scheidemann is in the process of stabbing German soldiers from behind. Behind him Erzberger and two men stylized as Jews, sitting on money bags.

Through the centralization of tax revenues and the simultaneous collection of the Reichsnotopferabgabe to reorganize the Reich's finances, Erzberger became even more of a target and figure of hatred for right-wing propaganda. In particular, he was exposed to constant attacks from the former State Secretary of the Interior , Deutsche Bank representative and later DNVP MP Karl Helfferich . When the latter accused him in the brochure Fort with Erzberger (1919) of an “unclean mixture of political activity and his own financial interests”, Erzberger initiated a lawsuit against Helfferich for insulting. On March 12, 1920, the court finally announced that Helfferich would be sentenced to a small fine. The verdict is a well-known example of the typical political justice of the Weimar Republic, the judges who were often "blind in the right eye". Erzberger resigned as Reich Finance Minister on the day of the judgment (one day before the start of the Kapp Putsch ) (successor: Joseph Wirth ). The Bauer cabinet ended on March 27, 1920.

assassination

As a result of right-wing propaganda, Matthias Erzberger was the victim of political murder . On January 26, 1920, the former ensign Oltwig von Hirschfeld had shot at Erzberger twice when he was leaving the courthouse in Berlin-Moabit. Erzberger was slightly injured in the shoulder, a second bullet ricocheted off a metal object in his pocket. Hirschfeld was sentenced to only 18 months in prison. The attack left Erzberger with a deep shock. Although he tried to return to politics, he feared the consequences: "The bullet that is supposed to hit me has already been poured," he confided to his daughter Maria.

The order to murder Matthias Erzberger was given in writing to the two former naval officers Tillessen and Schulz in August 1921 by the former lieutenant captain Manfred von Killinger (1886-1944). On August 26, 1921, the former naval officers Heinrich Tillessen and Heinrich Schulz - both members of the right-wing organization Consul , the Freikorps Oberland and the Teutonic Order  - met Erzberger in Bad Griesbach in the Black Forest on a walk with his party friend Carl Diez . They shot the politician who was on vacation six times. Erzberger fell seriously injured down an embankment. Schulz then killed Erzberger at close range with two more shots in the head; Diez was also seriously injured. The crime was solved by the Baden Public Prosecutor Franz Schlimm. A memorial stone in a bend on Bundesstraße 28 between Bad Griesbach and Freudenstadt commemorates this bloody act.

Both assassins were able to flee abroad with the help of Killinger in August 1921. In 1933 they returned to Germany from Spain to receive amnesty under the 1933 Exemption from Punishment Ordinance, which overturned sentences for crimes in building Nazism. In 1946 Tillessen was tried for the murder. The District Court of Offenburg acquitted him on November 29, 1946, applying the impunity ordinance of 1933. This judgment met with protest throughout Germany. It was overturned by a French high court in early January 1947, which referred the case back to the German judiciary. Tillessen was then sentenced to 15 years imprisonment by the Constance Regional Court in March 1947 . On July 19, 1950, the Offenburg Regional Court imposed a sentence of 12 years in prison against the other perpetrator, Heinrich Schulz, including two years in pre-trial detention. Both of them lost only a small part of it and were released in 1952.

The funeral for Matthias Erzberger on August 31, 1921 turned out to be a political rally. Chancellor Joseph Wirth (1879–1956) gave the funeral speech. The murdered Erzberger was buried in the old Catholic cemetery in Biberach an der Riss.

Afterlife

The grave of Matthias Erzberger is decorated with a large group of figures by the sculptor Friedrich Thuma and is located in the old Catholic cemetery in Biberach an der Riss .

Erzberger's birthplace in Buttenhausen has been redesigned into the Matthias Erzberger Memorial . In Biberach a home and agricultural school was named after him, in Oberkirch (Baden) a bridge. In addition, streets and squares in many cities and towns in Germany bear his name.

On August 26, 2011, the ballroom of the Federal Ministry of Finance in Berlin was given the name “Matthias Erzberger Hall”. On March 23, 2017, the President of the Bundestag, Norbert Lammert, announced that the building used by the Bundestag , Unter den Linden 71, will from now on be called " Matthias-Erzberger-Haus ". In 2018 a street in Freiburg im Breisgau was named after Erzberger.

Fonts

  • Secularization in Württemberg. Stuttgart 1902. ( Digitized on Wikimedia Commons )
  • Contributions to parity in Württemberg. Stuttgart 1902.
  • Center politics in the Reichstag. 5 volumes, Koblenz 1904–1907.
  • The center's application for tolerance. Osnabrück 1905.
  • Customs Policy and Social Democracy. Munich-Gladbach 1905.
  • The chambers of labor in front of the Reichstag. Jena 1905.
  • The colonial balance. Images from German colonial policy based on the negotiations in the Reichstag in the 1905/06 session. Berlin 1906.
  • The new military pension laws. Berlin 1906.
  • Why was the Reichstag dissolved? An open word to the electorate. Berlin 1906.
  • Pictures from the Reichstag election campaign in 1907. The agitation of the opponents of the center is illustrated by their election papers. Berlin 1907.
  • The humor in the Reichstag. A systematically organized collection of parliamentary jokes. Berlin [1910].
  • Center politics in the Reichstag. Berlin 1910.
  • The League of Nations as a Question of Peace: Speech given on December 27, 1918 at the Berlin Commercial College at the invitation of the elders of Berlin's merchants. Hobbing, Berlin 1919. ( digitized version )
  • Experiences in World War. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, Berlin 1920. ( Digitized in the Internet Archive ).

Films and radio broadcasts

  • Erzberger was portrayed by Joachim Wolff in Dieter Meichsner's television play November Criminal .
  • Pia Fruth, martyr of the Weimar Republic. The politician Matthias Erzberger. SWR2, October 31, 2014.
  • Klaus Gietinger, Bernd Fischerauer, violent peace. The legend of the stab in the back and the Treaty of Versailles, ARD-alpha, Germany 2010

literature

  • Christopher Dowe (Ed.), Matthias Erzberger. A Democrat in Times of Hate , Der Kleine Buch Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-7650-8436-2 .
  • Christopher Dowe: The camera as a political weapon ?: Matthias Erzberger in the focus of the press photographers (= small writings / Foundation Reichspräsident-Friedrich-Ebert-Gedenkstätte , Volume 32). Reichspräsident-Friedrich-Ebert-Gedenkstätte Foundation, Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-928880-34-3 .
  • Christopher Dowe: Matthias Erzberger. A life for democracy . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-17-021491-0 .
  • Klaus Epstein : Matthias Erzberger and the dilemma of German democracy. Princeton 1959
    • Klaus Epstein: Matthias Erzberger and the dilemma of German democracy . Translation by Irmgard Kutscher. Annedore Leber Publishing House, Berlin 1962; Ullstein, Frankfurt am Main 1976, ISBN 3-548-03227-3 )
  • Klaus Epstein:  Erzberger, Matthias. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 4, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1959, ISBN 3-428-00185-0 , pp. 638-640 ( digitized version ).
  • Theodor Eschenburg: Matthias Erzberger. The great man of parliamentarism and financial reform, R. Piper Verlag, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-492-00339-7 .
  • Reiner Haehling von Lanzenauer : The murder of Matthias Erzberger. Series of publications by the Legal History Museum. Karlsruhe 2008, ISBN 978-3-922596-75-2 .
  • House of History Baden-Württemberg (Ed.): Matthias Erzberger, a pioneer of German democracy. Book for the permanent exhibition of the Matthias Erzberger memorial in Münsingen-Buttenhausen. Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-933726-38-4 .
  • House of History Baden-Württemberg (ed.): Matthias Erzberger. A democrat in times of hatred . G. Braun Buchverlag, Karlsruhe 2013, ISBN 978-3-7650-8436-2 .
  • Michail Krausnick , Günter Randecker: Murder Erzberger - Matthias Erzberger. Bankruptcy administrator of the empire and pioneer of democracy. A portrait . Norderstedt 2005, ISBN 3-8334-3586-0 .
  • Christian Leitzbach: Matthias Erzberger. A critical observer of the Wilhelminian Empire 1895-1914, Peter Lang European Publishing House of Science, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-631-33492-3 .
  • Wolfgang Michalka (ed.): Matthias Erzberger: Reichsminister in Germany's most difficult time . Edited on behalf of the Federal Archives . Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Potsdam 2002, ISBN 3-935035-32-2 .
  • Alex Möller : Reich Finance Minister M. Erzberger and his reform work . Mommsen 1971.
  • Christoph E. Palmer , Thomas Schnabel: Matthias Erzberger 1875–1921, patriot and visionary . Hohenheim-Verlag, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-89850-141-5 .
  • Alfons Siegel: Ideas for creating peace at the end of the First World War and the East-West conflict. Developments and concepts by Matthias Erzberger and Dieter Senghaas, Agenda Verlag, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-89688-184-1 .
  • Alfons Siegel: League of Nations, Hexagon and the future of the UN. Kant references in peace concepts by Matthias Erzberger and Dieter Senghaas, in: Zeitschrift für Politik, Volume 55, 3/2008, pp. 337–361, ISSN 0044-3360.
  • Alfons Siegel: Erzberger's teachings for world peace. League of Nations, Solidarism and the Future of the UN, Biberacher Verlagsdruckerei, Biberach an der Riss 2018, ISBN 978-3-947348-22-0 .
  • Norman Domeier: Helfferich, Karl , in: Kurt Groenewold , Alexander Ignor, Arnd Koch (Ed.): Lexicon of Political Criminal Trials , online, as of January 2015

Web links

Commons : Matthias Erzberger  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Martin Sabrow: Organization Consul (OC), 1920-1922 . In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria .
  2. ^ Cord Gebhardt: The case of the Erzberger murderer Heinrich Tillessen. A contribution to the history of justice after 1945. Mohr, Tübingen 1995, ISBN 3-16-146490-7 , p. 7.
  3. ^ Kai-Britt Albrecht: Matthias Erzberger. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
  4. ^ Klaus Epstein:  Erzberger, Matthias. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 4, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1959, ISBN 3-428-00185-0 , pp. 638-640 ( digitized version ).
  5. Leaflet from the House of History Baden-Württemberg for schoolchildren ( memento of the original from November 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.3 MB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.hdgbw.de
  6. Christoph E. Palmer, Thomas Schnabel (Ed.): Matthias Erzberger 1875-1921. Patriot and visionary . Hohenheim-Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-89850-141-8 , p. 151.
  7. ^ Winfried Speitkamp : German Colonial History . Reclam, Stuttgart 2005, p. 139.
  8. ^ Walter Nicolai, Intelligence and Enlightenment, in Der Weltkampf um Ehre und Recht, edited by Max Schwarte, Deutsche Verlagsanstalten Stuttgart, 1921, p. 493
  9. Wolfgang Ruge, Matthias Erzberger, Berlin 1967, p. 49ff.
  10. ^ Fritz Fischer, German War Aims, Revolutionization and Separate Peace, 1959
  11. ^ Guntram von Schenck: Matthias Erzberger (1875–1921). Foreign politician and Reich Finance Minister
  12. ^ Klaus Epstein, Matthias Erzberger, 1973, pp. 185f.
  13. State Archives Potsdam, files Reich Chancellery No. 1391/4, sheet 37
  14. Egmont Zechlin: German politics and the Jews in the First World War. Göttingen 1969, p. 525.
  15. https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/erster-weltkrieg-als-juedische-soldaten-fuer-deutschland.886.de.html?dram:article_id=289401
  16. https://www.uni-trier.de/fileadmin/fb3/prof/GES/NG2/1918_TV-07.11.2018Seite2.pdf
  17. Dirk Emunds, From the Protection of the Republic to the Protection of the Constitution? The Reich Commissioner for the Monitoring of Public Order in the Weimar Republic, Hamburg 2017, p. 17ff.
  18. Eike Alexander Senger, The reform of the financial administration in the Federal Republic of Germany. Springer-Verlag 2009; P. 33
  19. ^ Law on the Reich Finance Administration of September 10, 1919
  20. including the Reich Tax Code of December 13, 1919, Income Tax Act of March 29, 1920, Corporate Income Tax Act of March 30, 1920, Inheritance Tax Act of September 10, 1919
  21. ^ Stefan Homburg , General Taxation. 7th edition Vahlen 2015; P. 45
  22. Manfred Schäfers, Century Reform in Tax Law , FAZ of December 27, 2019, page 20
  23. Georg Heuberger (Ed.): Stamped. Postcards hostile to Jews. Based on the Wolfgang Haney Collection , Heidelberg 1999, p. 268.
  24. On the Erzberger judgment cf. about Eberhard Kolb : The Weimar Republic . 6th, revised and expanded edition. Oldenbourg, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-486-49796-0 , p. 39f.
  25. Jörg von Uthmann: Assassination. Murder with a clear conscience . Verlag Siedler, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-572-01263-5 , p. 119.
  26. For this reason, Killinger, the leading head of the Consul organization, was arrested in September 1921. He was brought to trial in June 1922 at the Offenburg jury court, and on June 13, 1922, he was acquitted on extremely flimsy grounds - the two assassins he had previously helped to get abroad
  27. Heinrich Tillessen was the brother of one of the masterminds behind the murder of Walther Rathenau , Karl Tillessen , also an ex-officer and later an SS officer. Wolfram Bet , The Enemy Within . In: Die Zeit , No. 24/2003. On Heinrich Tillessen's résumé: For the national rebirth. Tillessen has not yet escaped . In: Der Spiegel , No. 1 of January 4, 1947.
  28. a b August 26, 1921 - Matthias Erzberger: Murder in Bad Griesbach. In: swr.de. Retrieved May 15, 2018 .
  29. http://www.verfassungen.de/de/de33-45/straffreiheit33.htm
  30. ^ Heinrich Tillessen . In: Der Spiegel . No. 10 of March 8, 1947, p. 13. - Online here , accessed December 1, 2014.
  31. ^ Cord Gebhardt: The case of the Erzberger murderer Heinrich Tillessen. A contribution to the history of justice after 1945. Mohr, Tübingen 1995 (contributions to the history of law in the 20th century, volume 14), ISBN 3-16-146490-7 . P. 328f.
  32. ^ Klaus Epstein: Matthias Erzberger and the dilemma of German democracy . Frankfurt am Main 1976.
  33. Jörg von Uthmann: Assassination. Murder with a clear conscience . Verlag Siedler, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-572-01263-5 , p. 124.
  34. Patriot in danger. In: Die Zeit , No. 34/2011.
  35. ^ Unter den Linden 71st German Bundestag, accessed on March 2, 2018 .
  36. zeit.de / Robert Leicht : Too late and just in time