Hans Baluschek

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Hans Baluschek, 1912

Hans Baluschek (born May 9, 1870 in Breslau , † September 28, 1935 in Berlin ) was a German painter , graphic artist and writer . He belonged to the Berlin Secession , was a member of the German Association of Artists and belonged to the Association of German Illustrators . After 1920 he was an active member of the SPD . From 1929 to early 1933 he was director of the Great Berlin Art Exhibition .

Baluschek was a main exponent of German critical realism , although he himself rejected any form of "-ism" for his art, and depicted the life of the proletariat in an accusatory manner . Accordingly, his pictures primarily focus on the working class in Berlin.

He was best known for his paintings, illustrations of books such as Peterchens Mondfahrt and articles for various magazines of the Weimar Republic .


Childhood and Adolescence (1870–1889)

Hans Baluschek was the son of Franz Baluschek, government surveyor and railroad engineer. He had three sisters, two of whom died of tuberculosis in childhood. Due to the euphoria in Wroclaw as the Prussian residence city after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871, Franz Baluschek tried his hand at being an independent entrepreneur in the railway sector and worked primarily in Haynau (today: Chojnów), which accordingly became his son's main residence alongside Wroclaw. Through the father, the fascination for the railroad was manifested for the first time in early childhood.

In 1876 the family moved to Berlin with the only six-year-old Hans Baluschek, and by 1886 they moved a total of five times, always staying in the expanding new building areas for workers in front of Halleschen and Kottbusser Tor , today's Berlin-Kreuzberg . Berlin was at that time in a by the global economic crisis triggered in 1873 Depression and in particular the private railroad industry was after the collapse of the companies of Bethel Henry Strousberg in a very difficult position. Franz Baluschek worked as a royal railway engineer for the state railway, into which the private companies were transferred, and was thus able to support the family, who lived in a middle-class to petty-bourgeois- proletarian milieu in the midst of other working-class families. After attending the community school, Hans Baluschek was admitted to the Ascan High School, which was founded in 1875, at the age of nine . It was one of the few higher schools in Berlin that taught students on the basis of a humanistic and scientific curriculum.

Vasily Vereschtschagin : The Apotheosis of War , 1871

In the years 1882 to 1886, the Russian artist Vasili Vereschtschagin exhibited his paintings from the Russian-Ottoman War 1877–1878 and other depictions of war, which were widely discussed in Berlin and made the artist popular due to its content and unusual realism. Visiting the exhibitions represented a decisive and formative experience for Baluschek. He began to copy pictures and paint them himself. In his early works he tried, among other things, depictions of war based on Wereschtschagin; The clear influence of this model is also evident in later war images.

His father was transferred to Stralsund in 1887 to build the railway on the island of Rügen , where Baluschek spent the last two years of his school years up to his Abitur. Here he met the teacher Max Schütte, who familiarized his students with the ideas and goals of socialism and explained the class structures of society and economic relationships. Due to the still valid Socialist Law , Schütte was dismissed from teaching. Baluschek and his classmates began to study socialist writings and the writings of Leo Tolstoy and Emile Zola, which were becoming popular in Germany . In 1889 Baluschek finished his school career with the Abitur and the desire to become a painter.

Early artist years (1890-1894)

Death , 1895

After graduating from high school, Hans Baluschek was admitted to study at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin that same year , where he met Martin Brandenburg , with whom he had a lifelong friendship. The university was headed by Anton von Werner , who led it very conservatively despite many innovations. Above all, he rejected the currents shaped by German Impressionism around the painters Max Liebermann , Lesser Ury and Franz Skarbina, who were just becoming popular , and tried not to allow any influence of these artistic forms to flow into the teaching of the academy. Instead, he attached great importance to tried and tested subjects in academic painting and placed history painting , which was highly valued in the official art perception, into the focus of the training.

Baluschek lived in Berlin-Schöneberg ; his oldest known sketchbook dates from 1889 and shows him in a self-portrait as a student with a cap and ribbon in the color of a corps student . It is not known whether he was part of a student union ; later pictures show knowledge of the organization and the topic is also taken up in his novellas. In the early works, there are also noticeably frequent war scenes and military battle scenes alongside depictions of Stralsund and Berlin street life. In the 1890s, the number of depictions of social class differences and working-class life in Berlin increased significantly, which led him to increasingly break away from academic painting.

In the summer of 1893 Baluschek finished his studies at the academy to work as a freelance artist. Unlike most academically trained painters, he continued to focus on class differences and so very quickly became an outsider in the Wilhelmine art world. He was mainly influenced by the writings of Gerhart Hauptmann , Leo Tolstoi, Henrik Ibsen , Johannes Schlaf and Arno Holz , who represented the center of the naturalistic literary movement in Berlin, and combined them with his studies of theoretical writings in socialist literature and other studies in medicine , Philosophy and economics.

Artistic discovery (1894–1914)

Postcard from Baluschek to Arthur von Wallpach , 1896

The main period of artistic discovery by Baluschek began in 1894 and lasted until the beginning of World War I in 1914. During this time, he developed his individual position in the Berlin art scene, where he increasingly strengthened the opposition to traditional academic painting and built friendships with like-minded people. He found this primarily among artists close to Liebermann. His motifs mainly represented the outskirts of Berlin, in which enormous growth took place due to the construction sites for housing and the railroad. Here he encountered the factories, cemeteries and, above all, the people he used as protagonists in his works. For him, literary naturalism became the decisive artistic influence that accompanied his struggle against conventions and the authority of content and formalities and defined his very independent style well into the 20th century.

In his painting, Noon , from 1894 , in which he depicted a section of a procession of women and children who bring their husbands lunch in baskets in the factories, this impression is very clear. The protagonists have become de-individualized types “through the same endless toil and the scarcely different poor living conditions [...]. […] Each and every one of the women is only part of the crowd, because not the individuals, but the crowd working in the same way is a social factor. "

This content is continued at the railroad workers' evening from 1895. The crowd is represented here by the workers themselves, who come tired from work in front of a background of railway systems, chimneys and overhead lines and are sometimes greeted by serious-looking children. At the time of its creation, Baluschek had a friendly relationship with the writer Richard Dehmel , who became known for poems such as The Worker and Fourth Class and whose collection of poems Woman and World , published in 1896, was given a cover sheet designed by Baluschek. Baluschek drew a portrait of the poet in 1897. Further connections existed with Hermann Bang , Caesar Flaischlen , Hans Land and above all Arno Holz, to whose close circle of friends he belonged. In 1897 Baluschek played the role of "Sprödowski", his first and only role as an actor, in Holz's self-financed performance of the social aristocrats under the pseudonym Fritz Gieseke. For Baluschek, wood is regarded as a key figure of naturalism and a spiritual mentor, although Baluschek's work only began when literary naturalism was already ebbing.

Baluschek developed his own painting technique, which is based primarily on watercolors and gouaches , but comparatively seldom used oil paints. The subsurface was prepared with oil chalk pens to create a very colorful and at the same time dull overall impression. According to Baluschek, this should correspond to the Berlin atmosphere “as I feel it in its gray character.” He went on to write: “The oil paint was too full and too greasy for me for this purpose; In addition, with the relatively small formats, it does not allow me to express the lines of my figures sharply or certain details, such as the sharpened pencil with which I could draw in color. "

Amusement park - In der Hasenheide , 1895
Families can make coffee here , 1895

In the second half of the 1890s, Baluschek became more and more aware of the Berlin art scene, especially through his exhibitions in the Gurlitt Gallery in 1895, 1896 and 1897 together with Martin Brandenburg , where he presented his pictures to a larger audience for the first time presented. Although there had already been depictions of the petty and philistine bourgeoisie in Berlin and Max Liebermann, Franz Skarbina , Fritz von Uhde and other painters of German realism painted depictions of the world of work and big city scenes, Baluschek's pictures were novel and extraordinary for his time. According to Bröhan (2002), Baluschek differed “through a direct truthfulness that gave his painted extracts of reality something disturbingly provocative”. The depiction of the inhuman living conditions and the bleak working conditions emerged from behind the often amusing facade. The critic Willy Pastor pointed out that “there was something hidden in this harmless novel that was more than a mere narrative”. After his portrayal, the critics went from picture to picture in amusement or turned away because Baluschek belonged to the “tasteless people of the naturalists” and was characterized by “too little perfume, too much puddle”.

This contrast becomes clear in works such as amusement park - In der Hasenheide (1895), in which the superficial festive mood is relativized by the faces of the protagonists and the representation of the fairground stalls. In the picture Here Families Can Make Coffee (1895), the communicative representation of six women in front of coffee pots is broken up by the wrinkled and wrinkled facial features, while in Tingeltangel (1890) the interior of an entertainment establishment adorned with an imperial bust and black, red and gold hangings and contrasted by the performances of a dancer. In the Berlin fairground with a colorful carousel display, a cigarette-smoking worker boy is confronted with a child inflating a balloon. The watercolor New Houses (1895) shows an anticipation of the New Objectivity , which shows a monotonous and deserted complex of houses near the factory without any fining.

Due to the dissatisfaction of the Berlin artists with the supremacy of the official art view of Anton von Werner and the overcrowded art exhibitions with large numbers of pictures, the art scene in Berlin split in the late 19th century. Under the leadership of Leistikow, the Association of the XI was founded in 1892 as an exclusive exhibition community. Baluschek was also asked to take part in the association's exhibitions.

The scandal surrounding the cancellation of an exhibition by Edvard Munch by Anton von Werner in the autumn of 1892 led to further dissatisfaction among the Berlin artists, which in 1898 resulted in the foundation of the Berlin Secession by the city's modern artists , also led by Leistikow. Baluschek was also one of the founding members of the Secession and was elected secretary. Together with Käthe Kollwitz , Otto Nagel and Heinrich Zille , he represented the down-to-earth and socially critical art in the Secession, which differentiated them from the artists of the association, who were largely influenced by French impressionism , pointillism and symbolism . While Zille and Kollwitz as draftsmen were dependent on the black and white exhibitions of the drawing arts, Baluschek was able to present his paintings regularly at the exhibitions of the Secession and thus represented a constant provocation for the conservative circles. Already the picture Singknaben (1895) , which Baluschek presented at the first exhibition of the Secession in 1899, contrasted with the society that had appeared in elegant cloakroom for this social event. While the “more harmless side of the Secession” was viewed as a gain, for example for the national liberal Reichstag deputy Waldemar von Oriola, “painting of misery” was a “rampant product beyond aesthetic norms”.

In 1902 Baluschek married the theater actress Charlotte von Pazatka-Lipinsky , whom he had met a few years earlier through his connections to the theater world. In 1900 he created a painted declaration of love in the form of a fairy tale picture, on which, as a knight of the elves, he presented a rose to a lady with the facial features of Charlotte von Pazatka-Lipinsky. Together with her he moved into a house on Klopstockstrasse in Berlin-Tiergarten . The marriage, which was very romantic at first, turned out to be unsatisfactory and was divorced in 1913 without children.

Jury for the exhibition of the Berlin Secession (1908), v. l. No. Fritz Klimsch , August Gaul , Walter Leistikow , Hans Baluschek, Paul Cassirer , Max Slevogt (seated), George Mosson (standing), Carl Max Kruse (standing), Max Liebermann (sitting), Emil Rudolf Weiß (standing), Lovis Corinth ( standing)

In 1904, a monograph on Hans Baluschek by Hermann Eßwein was published for the first time in the Modern Illustrators series , inspired by the publisher Reinhard Piper . The series, which in addition to Baluschek portrayed the illustrators Thomas Theodor Heine , Eugen Kirchner , Adolf Oberländer , Edvard Munch, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Aubrey Beardsley , concentrated on the work on book illustration, but in the case of Baluschek showed above all alongside his fairy tale illustrations his pictures of Berlin.

In 1908 Baluschek became part of the board of directors of the Berlin Secession; as a result, however, this too came under increasing criticism. The openness it showed towards the new painting of Impressionism when it was founded changed with the rise of Expressionism . As director of the Secession, Max Liebermann prevented an exhibition by Henri Matisse ; other artists like the Secession member Max Beckmann complained about "one outrageous cheek after another". In 1910, following the rejection of other artists, the New Secession around Georg Tappert and Max Pechstein split off and the "exhibition of works by those rejected by the Berlin Secession". In 1913, the autumn exhibition with works by Edvard Munch , Pablo Picasso and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a last attempt to calm the situation in the Berlin Secession. In the same year, however, massive allegations against Paul Cassirer in his dual function as a jury member of the Secession and as an art seller led to the withdrawal of 42 artists from the Secession. Among them were Max Liebermann and the entire board, who now founded the Free Secession . In the Berlin Secession, Lovis Corinth in particular remained as an internationally known artist who continued to lead the association.

The year after his divorce, Baluschek married his former painting student Irene Dröss, who was 25 years younger than him. He stayed with her until his death. During the war years of 1916 and 1918, she gave birth to their daughters, Regine and Renate.

Development during the war (1914-1918)

Rain , 1917

The First World War had a great influence both on the artistic environment in Berlin and on the individual artists. The declaration of war by the German Reich against Russia and France led to a discharge of pent-up tension in the population that had previously been built up by a belligerent and aggressive mood. There were also optimistic expressions of war among the artists , for example by Lovis Corinth , Karl Scheffler or Thomas Mann ; patriotic works emerged. Few artists like Käthe Kollwitz and Otto Nagel did not allow themselves to be carried away by this mood. To provide artistic support for the war, magazines such as the wartime period published by Paul Cassirer were published , for which Max Liebermann and Hans Baluschek also contributed. Heinrich Zille invented the humorous characters “Vadding and Korl” for the joke , “which make the front experience appear as an involuntary Sunday stroll”, and for the weekly artist papers on the war , in addition to Liebermann, Corinth, Zille and Baluschek, Philipp Franck , Friedrich Kallmorgen and Martin Brandenburg . Even Max Slevogt , Gerhart Hauptmann , Ernst Barlach , August Gaul and many others involved with their work on the patriotic support of war or troops came forward as Richard Dehmel , Erich Heckel and Max Beckmann even volunteered for army use.

As with others, Baluschek's participation in this support was due to a generally positive attitude towards the constitutional monarchy despite his rebellion and, at the same time, to a long-standing dissatisfaction with the preference for French art in particular in the German art scene. In previous years Baluschek had participated in art exhibitions of the Werdandibund 1907/1908 and supported militaristic works commemorating the wars of liberation against Napoleon Bonaparte 1813–1815 with drawings by members of the military in private surroundings. Due to the rapidly emerging anti-Semitic and intolerant attitudes on the part of the federal government, he broke the merger.

In 1915 a portfolio with the title Der Krieg 1914–1916 with 22 pictures by Baluscheks appeared, which was published by the Association of German Sick Nursing Agencies of the Red Cross . It contained a "glowing patriotic text" by the historian Richard Du Moulin-Eckart , which was illustrated by Baluschek's drawings of modern military equipment such as mortars and other artillery pieces, submarines, airplanes and zeppelins. There were also twelve full-page color plates with scenes of war, "in which people who fell under the war fury are shown in horrific scenes [during] the destruction of the enemy". Depicted are war destruction, wounded and corpses in different war scenes, whereby the series of panels ends in the picture Die Hilfe , on which a Red Cross tent with wounded is shown.

Self-portrait , 1918

Baluschek, like other colleagues, probably also volunteered for military service and was deployed in the Landsturm in 1916 on the Western Front and later in the East. During this time he continued to illustrate war scenes, including a. in the watch fire , which however became more sober and which show the services of their husbands taken over by the women. Baluschek's close friend Martin Brandenburg was seriously wounded by a shot in the head and lost an eye in 1915, and died in 1919 as a result of this war injury. In his picture Zur Heimat , in which a coffin is loaded with military honor, in 1917 Baluschek processed the contrast between the soldier's patriotic devotion and the sacrifice of his life. The end of the war and, above all, the catastrophic outcome for Germany shook Balushek and many others. The November Revolution in 1918, he took only true from a distance. Baluschek painted very little in 1918, during this time his oeuvre is limited to a few drawings of the Berlin street fights and a self-portrait that Baluschek shows in calm concentration.

Work in the Weimar Republic (1918–1932)

Hans Baluschek, 1930

In the following years, illustration of fairy tales came to the fore. To this day, a wide audience is familiar with his illustrations for Peterchen's journey to the moon from 1919, which he created on behalf of the Klemm Verlag for the fairy tale written by Gerdt von Bassewitz . For this commission, Baluschek painted and drew 16 full-page ink newspapers and 37 pen drawings. In earlier years he had occasionally dealt with fantasy representations and earned a corresponding reputation as a book illustrator - the pictures of Peterchen's journey to the moon became his best-known fairy tale illustrations. In contrast to Max Slevogt , who illustrated fairy tales on behalf of Bruno Cassirer in the 1920s, Baluschek was able to immerse himself in the children's world of thought and created corresponding imaginative images.

Hans Baluschek illustrated other books for children and fairy tales for the Klemm publishing house, including Was der Kalender Teller (1919), Pips, der Pilz (1920), In's Märchenland (1922), Princess Huschewind (1922) by Fritz Peter Buch and Von Menschlein, Tierlein, Dinglein (1924). He also illustrated an edition of Grimm's Fairy Tales (1925) for Comenius Verlag . There were also costume drawings, posters and stage designs for the theater and, in some cases, for the film. In addition, in 1927 he designed the basement of the Lutter & Wegner wine bar with imaginative and at the same time humorous scenes from Berlin.

Like many other artists, Baluschek had got into a crisis as a result of the outcome of the war, but at the same time he actively used the opportunities for redesign. He decided that in the August 11, 1919 Weimar proclaimed the Weimar Republic to actively support and influence, especially in the field of culture and education. In 1920 he was among the first organizers and lecturers of the newly founded adult education center in Greater Berlin , where he taught painting. As early as 1919 he was a member of the official film examination committee, where he tried to counteract superficial entertainment films by promoting political films. The film Mother Krausens Fahrt ins Glück , made by Piel Jutzi in 1929 and celebrated as the first real Zille film, was under the protectorate of Baluschek, Otto Nagel and Käthe Kollwitz. Also in 1919 he was one of the founders of the Federation for Proletarian Literature , and in 1924 he was appointed to the literary advisory board of the social democratic book circle alongside Arno Holz, Martin Andersen Nexø , Karl Henckell , Paul Kampfmeyer and Friedrich Wendel .

In 1920 he joined the SPD and became chairman of the art deputation in Schöneberg. Also in 1920 his short story book Unveiled Souls appeared . Together with the actors Erwin Piscator and Leopold Jessner , under the chairmanship of Berlin's Lord Mayor Gustav Böß, he became a citizen's deputy in the deputation for art and education and was therefore responsible for economic issues in the field of art and artists. He played a leading role in founding the Berlin Artists' Relief Fund . He was temporarily chairman of the Reich Association of German Artists .

Baluschek drew for the magazines Derrue Jacob , Lachen links , Frauenwelt , Kulturwille , Der Bücherkreis , Proletarian and the Illustrierte Reichsbannerzeitung as well as for school books and novels, showing his enthusiasm for technical progress, especially for rail transport. Within the SPD, Baluschek belonged to the left wing. He had no reservations about communist activities. His painting Zukunft from 1920 appeared on the cover of the communist magazine Sichel und Hammer . For the Amsterdam International Anti-War Days in 1924 Otto Nagel published the brochure 8 Hours of Artists Aid, a response to the KPD's call for the “call to preserve the 8-hour day” by Baluschek, Zille, Dix, Grosz, Sella , among others Hasse , E. Johansson, Völker, Schlichter and E. Hoffmann.

Baluschek opens the Great Berlin Art Exhibition in 1931 in Bellevue Palace
Hans Baluschek (right) with Hans Lohmeyer at the inauguration of the new house of the Reich Association of the German Press, 1931

Baluschek opened the Great Berlin Art Exhibition together with Reich President Friedrich Ebert in 1923 and was its director from 1929 to 1933. At the same time he was chairman of the art deputation of his residential district Schöneberg and tried to preserve the historical tradition of the district. For example, he wrote the text Das alte Schöneberg im Bild for an exhibition . He received an honorary apartment in the studio tower in the then newly built Ceciliengärten in the Schöneberg district , where he lived and worked.

Outlawed by the National Socialists

The National Socialists deposed Baluschek in 1933 as a “ Marxist artist” from his offices and later excluded him from all work and exhibition opportunities. They branded his works as “ degenerate art ” in contrast to so-called German art . In 1933 and 1934, however, his work could still be seen at the Great Berlin Art Exhibition .

Gravestone at the Wilmersdorfer Waldfriedhof in Stahnsdorf

Hans Baluschek died on September 28, 1935 in the Franziskus Hospital in Berlin and was buried in the Wilmersdorfer Waldfriedhof in Stahnsdorf (grave site: Dept. LI – S III – 334).

Honors and afterlife

Hans Baluschek was not one of the best-known artists of the Berlin Secession, so his reception was relatively low, especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, while it was definitely there in the GDR , primarily due to the activities of the Märkisches Museum . Here there were regular short commemorative messages about Baluschek on the anniversary of his death, for example on the 30th anniversary of his death in the newspaper Neue Zeit on September 28, 1965. In addition, his pictures of the working population were regularly used for illustration.

His grave is dedicated to the city of Berlin as an honorary grave .

Memorial plaque for Hans Baluschek in the grounds of the Ceciliengärten in Berlin-Schöneberg

There were exhibitions mainly on the anniversary of the artist's death. A special feature was the special exhibition on the 100th anniversary of the Märkisches Museum in 1974. In 1975, the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe showed paintings, drawings and graphics on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of Baluschek's death Special exhibition on the 50th anniversary of his death, again in the Märkisches Museum. The last major exhibition was shown in 1991 in the Staatliche Kunsthalle Berlin , organized by the Berlin art collector Karl H. Bröhan . On the occasion of his one hundred and fiftieth birthday, an honoring exhibition is taking place in the Bröhan Museum , which is, however, affected by the corona epidemic and will only open a little late on May 12, 2020.

On September 28, 1981, a commemorative plaque for Baluschek was placed on the house at Ceciliengärten 27 in Berlin-Schöneberg , where Hans Baluschek had an honorary apartment, and handed over by Ottokar Luban, who was then City Councilor for Education . In addition to the text “Here lived, painted, drew and wrote Hans Baluschek, 1929–1933”, the board shows a street scene in the style typical of Baluschek.

A green connection in Berlin has been named after him since 2004: The Hans-Baluschek-Park is a narrow green space between the Priesterweg and Südkreuz S-Bahn stations with a length of 1.5 kilometers and a size of seven hectares .

Baluschek's older daughter Regine, trained by Mary Wigman , was a dancer and actress.

One of his students was Anna Dräger-Mühlenpfordt .

Publications as a writer

  • Spreeluft. Berlin stories , 1913
  • Souls Revealed , 1920
  • Big City Tales , 1924


Web links

Commons : Hans Baluschek  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Hans Baluschek  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Full members of the German Association of Artists since it was founded in 1903 / Baluschek, Hans . ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. kuenstlerbund.de; accessed on March 7, 2016 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.kuenstlerbund.de
  2. Hans Baluschek: In the struggle for my art . In: The Gazebo . Issue 27, 1920, pp. 447-450 ( full text [ Wikisource ]).
  3. Classification of the Federal Archives, see portrait from 1912 .
  4. a b c d e f g h i A real Berliner from Breslau 1870–1893. In: Bröhan 2002, pp. 14–24.
  5. a b c d e f g h i Picture book of social life 1894–1914. In: Bröhan 2002, pp. 25–54
  6. Richard Dehmel: The worker . In: Weib und Welt , Berlin 1896, pp. 123–125.
  7. ^ Richard Dehmel: Fourth grade . In: Redemption , Stuttgart 1891, pp. 191–196.
  8. ^ Arno Holz: The Social Aristocrats . In: Naturalism - Dramas. Poetry. Prose. Volume 2: 1892-1899 . Berlin / Weimar 1970, p. 460 ff.
  9. after Eßwein, p. 14, and Bröhan, p. 30.
  10. Bröhan 2002, p. 39.
  11. a b Willy Pastor: Study heads. Berlin 1902. Quoted from Bröhan 2002, p. 39.
  12. Irmgard Wirth:  Kollwitz, Käthe, née Schmidt. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 12, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1980, ISBN 3-428-00193-1 , p. 470 f. ( Digitized version ).
  13. ^ Waldemar Graf von Oriola in the negotiations of the Reichstag, Vol. 198, Stenographic reports 1903–1904. P. 1006. Berlin 1904. Quoted from Bröhan 2002, p. 48.
  14. Hermann Eßwein: Hans Baluschek . Piper, Munich and Leipzig 1910.
  15. Anke Daemgen: The New Secession in Berlin , in exh. Cat .: Liebermann's opponents - The New Secession in Berlin and Expressionism , Brandenburger Tor Foundation, Max Liebermann Haus, Berlin 2011, p. 22
  16. a b c d wartime 1914–1918. In: Bröhan 2002, pp. 69-79.
  17. Hans Baluschek, Graf du Moulin-Eckart : The war 1914-1916. Hugo Bermühler Verlag, Berlin-Lichterfelde 1915. ( Wikimedia Commons )
  18. a b c In a better world. Fantasy and fairy tales. In: Bröhan 2002, pp. 80-85
  19. a b c d e f For the Republic. 1920-1935. In: Bröhan 2002, pp. 86-109
  20. Friedegund Weidemann: The collection proletarian-revolutionary and anti-fascist art in Otto-Nagel-house as the third division of the National Gallery. Research and Reports, Vol. 25, Art History, Numismatic and Restoration Contributions, National Museums in Berlin - Prussian Cultural Heritage 1985; Pp. 92-95.
  21. Märkisches Museum shows pictures by Hans Baluschek. In: Neues Deutschland , September 27, 1985.
  22. Memorial plaque for Hans Baluschek. In: Der Tagesspiegel , September 27, 1981.
  23. Information on Gina Baluschek at the German Dance Archive Cologne , accessed March 12, 2020.