Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was an army corps of the armed forces of the British Empire in the First World War . It was formed from Australians and New Zealanders . The ANZAC fought at the Battle of Gallipoli , in the Middle East as well as in France and Belgium .
In Australia, New Zealand and Tonga , ANZAC Day is celebrated to commemorate those who fell in the corps. This holiday is celebrated every year on April 25th, the day when the ANZAC landed on the Gallipoli peninsula in 1915 during the Allied Dardanelles operation .
The original formation, which fought against the Turkish defenders in the spring of 1915 in what was later to be called the ANZAC Bay on Gallipoli, was under the command of General William Birdwood . It was composed of the 1st Australian Division under Major General William Throsby Bridges and the New Zealand and Australian Division under Major General Alexander Godley . Three Australian and one New Zealand cavalry brigades were deployed as infantry units during this battle . The 2nd Australian Division reached the peninsula in August 1915. A few more battalions joined in the last few months of the fighting.
After the failed Dardanelles operation, the ANZAC was reorganized in Egypt . The New Zealand share was separated from the corps as an independent New Zealand division . The Australian units went through a restructuring. Three divisions each were formed into two new army corps, the I. ANZAC Corps and the II. ANZAC Corps . The 4th Australian Division and the 5th Australian Division were reorganized. The 3rd Australian Division had already been assembled in the home country and then sent directly to Great Britain and France .
During this time "ANZAC" became a common short form. This was used to describe all associations that were composed of Australian and New Zealand units. The I. ANZAC Corps, under the leadership of General Birdwood, was posted to France in March 1916; the II. ANZAC Corps, commanded by General Godley, followed a short time later.
On the Western Front, the ANZACs were involved in many battles. Australian and New Zealand units were included in the Somme battle as part of some British units . During the Battle of Pozières the ANZAC appeared for the first time (I. ANZAC consisting of the 1st, 2nd and 4th Australian divisions). In the further course of the war, the Australian Corps was formed under General Birdwood (later John Monash ) with all five Australian divisions at the end of 1917 . The New Zealand Division served under various British corps.
In 1919 General Birdwood was named " Baron Birdwood , of Anzac" as a peer .
ANZAC military cemeteries
- Arıburnu Anzac Bay , Turkey
- Kanlı Sırt (Lone Pine) , Turkey
- Twelve Tree Copse Cemetery , Krithia, Turkey
- Be'er Sheva , Israel
In connection and as a reminder, various things were named after ANZAC:
- Anzac Bay , a small bay on Waiheke Island , New Zealand
- Anzac Bay , a small cove at the tip of Bowentown , New Zealand
- ANZAC biscuit , a pastry baked in support of troops in Australia and New Zealand during World War I
- ANZAC Bridge , is a road bridge over Johnstons Bay west of downtown Sydney
- ANZAC Day , a memorial day in Australia and New Zealand
- ANZAC Mounted Division , was a mounted division of light cavalry during the First World War
- ANZAC Parade , a street in Canberra, Australia
- ANZAC class , a class of guided missile frigates
- Anzac Highway , a major thoroughfare in the southwest of the city of Adelaide