Junkers J 1

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Junkers J 1
Junkers J 1
Type: Experimental airplane
Design country:

German EmpireThe German Imperium German Empire


Junkers & Co.

First flight:

December 12, 1915

Number of pieces:


Junkers J 1 rear view

The Junkers J 1 was the world's first tension-free (cantilever) airworthy all-metal aircraft . With the construction designed as a single-seat middle - decker , Hugo Junkers implemented the concepts of an ideal structure for the first time ; a cantilevered, unrestrained, thick wing to accommodate parts that do not generate lift. He had set out the concept in 1910 in his patent no. 253788 , which later became known as the flying wing patent .


Hugo Junkers and his staff of 15, despite the imperfect welding technology at the time , succeeded in bringing this revolutionary new concept to the Döberitz airfield for its first flight on December 12, 1915 after only three months of construction . The pilot of the first flight was Lieutenant Friedrich von Mallinckrodt . However, the aircraft was damaged on landing. After the repair, three more test flights were carried out in January 1916. The flights demonstrated the practical feasibility and airworthiness of the all-metal concept and showed that the J 1 was a relatively fast machine. With the engine, which was relatively weak in terms of its weight, the climb performance was not acceptable.

The only copy was handed over to the Deutsches Museum in Munich in 1926 , where it was destroyed in one of the air raids on Munich in 1944.

Since 2015, a faithful replica of this pioneer aircraft on a scale of 1: 1 has been built in the Hugo Junkers Technology Museum in Dessau, financed with crowdfunding .


The aircraft, which was planked with 0.1-0.2 mm thick sheet steel, was too heavy (937 kg empty weight compared to 400 kg for the Fokker E-III ), which is why the inspection of the air force did not issue a construction order. However, a new test order for an improved version was given, which led to the Junkers J 2 . However, it was also the first aircraft to use corrugated iron ; This resulted in a higher rigidity inside the wing .

Another innovation realized in the J 1 was the patented Junkers nozzle cooler , which gained additional thrust from the thermal energy of the cooling water.

Technical specifications

Daimler D II
Parameter Data
crew 1
length 8.62 m
span 12.95 m
Wing area 24.60 m²
Wing loading 4.75 kg / m²
height 3.11 m
Preparation mass 937 kg
Payload 233 kg
Total mass 1170 kg
drive 1 × 6-cylinder in-line engine Daimler D II with 120 hp (90 kW) at 1400 min -1
Top speed 170 km / h at sea level
normal range 230 km
Climbing time to 2000 m 32 min

See also


  • PM Grosz, G. Terry: The way to the world's first all-metal fighter. AIR Enthusiast 25, 1984.
  • Wolfgang Wagner: From the J 1 to the F 13 . From the "sheet metal" to the first all-metal airliner. Leuchtturm-Verlag, Konstanz 1976, ISBN 3-88064-015-7 .
  • Wolfgang Wagner: Hugo Junkers: Aviation pioneer - his aircraft . In: German aviation . tape 24 . Bernard & Graefe, Bonn 1996, ISBN 3-7637-6112-8 . , Pp. 80–83: J 1 first all-metal cover.
  • Paul Zöller: The last Junkers aircraft 1 , BoD, Norderstedt 2017, ISBN 978-3-7448-0050-1 , pp. 23-26
  • Günter Schmitt: Junkers and his aircraft , transpress, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-344-00065-9 , pp. 26-27
  • Uwe W. Jack: Junkers J 1: The first all-metal airplane. In: FliegerRevue X , No. 83 of 2020, pp. 8-17

Web links

Commons : Junkers J 1  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ J1 Project. Förderverein Technikmuseum “Hugo Junkers” eV, 2017, accessed on November 20, 2017 ( swarm financing for the replica of a J 1 ).
  2. Thomas Steinberg: The return of an aviation legend. Mitteldeutsche Zeitung, November 11, 2018, accessed on September 21, 2019 (article / photos of the replica).
  3. ^ The World's First All Metal Aircraft - The Junkers J1. In: junkers.de. Accessed March 5, 2018 .
  4. Mornement, A .; Holloway, S .: Corrugated iron - building on the frontier . Frances Lincoln, London 2007, ISBN 978-0-7112-2654-8 , pp. 115 .