OKB-1 EF 132

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OKB-1 (Junkers) EF 132
Type: Strategic bomb plane
Design country:

German Reich NSGerman Reich (Nazi era) German Empire / Soviet Union
Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union 


Junkers / OKB-1

First flight:

not happened

Number of pieces:


OKB-1 EF 132 was the project of a six-engined , strategic bomber aircraft that was started at Junkers in Dessau towards the end of the Second World War and continued under Soviet supervision after the end of the war, but was ultimately not implemented.


The first drafts were made in Europe in 1945 shortly before the end of the war , but were still in the drawing board stage when US troops occupied the Junkers main factory in Dessau. At the beginning of July 1945, the city was placed under Soviet control and Soviet specialists immediately began looking for plans for advanced German aircraft technology in the production facilities. Since most of the documents had fallen into the hands of the US Army, some of the last projects of the Junker research department were therefore reconstructed by its last head Brunolf Baade , including that of the EF 132. This met with great interest from the Soviet side, as the Soviet Union, at the dawn of the nuclear age and the Cold War with the Western powers , no suitable long-range bomber was available because the only type in existence, the Pe-8 , was a pre-war design and hopelessly out of date, while the first nuclear-weapon capable model was the Tu-4 , based on the US B-29 , was still in development, not to mention long -range jet-propelled bombers. The projected performance of the draft with 90,000 kg take-off mass at a top speed of 950 km / h and a range of almost 4,000 km also contributed to sticking to the development. The design department of the Junkers factory was therefore put back into operation as a “special technical office” (Ossoboje technitscheskoje bjuro, OTB) on the instructions of the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR (MAP) with the remaining German specialists and Brunolf Baade was appointed its chief designer. In addition to the EF 132, the continuation of work on the EF 131 bomber and the EF 126 attack aircraft received top priority.


On April 19, 1946, the MAP instructed Baade to complete the planning phase by December of that year and to begin building full-size dummies and prototypes the following year . After some investigations and calculations, the designers abandoned the use of negatively swept wings similar to that of the EF 131 and opted for wings with a 35 to 37 ° positive arrow in a shoulder- wing arrangement . A pressurized cabin was provided in the bow for the crew , behind which the bomb bays and fuel tanks were to be housed in the fuselage. As defensive armament, three remote-controlled weapon stands equipped with twin cannons were to serve in the stern and in the upper and lower sides of the fuselage at about the same height close behind the cabin. In order to achieve the required 4,000 km range, the EF 132 should rise to at least 8,000 m altitude under operating conditions and carry out the flight at an altitude of up to 13,4000 m to save fuel. The Baade Group planned a total of six Jumo 012 propulsion units, three of which were to be found on each side next to each other in the wing roots that were more than one meter thick . Two auxiliary rockets with 50 kN thrust each were provided to support the launch process . In addition to the retractable nose wheel landing gear, drop-off additional wheels should help to reduce the ground pressure .

In October 1946, the construction plans had largely been drawn up and the construction of a 1: 1 model had begun when the designers were deported together with their relatives to continue their work to Podberesje in the Soviet Union as part of the Ossawakim campaign . It cannot be said with certainty whether production of a cell began, either in Dessau the previous summer or after the forced relocation. In any case, the MAP gave the instruction to complete an original dummy and two prototypes by September 1948, which resulted in some building preparations. In 1947, however, it was decided to use the Soviet AM TKRD-01 from Alexander Mikulin instead of the Jumo 012 engine, which was successfully under development , as was already used in the EF 131 and its successor, the EF 140 . This made it clear that the EF 132, like the other two types, would not be developed for series production, but only served as an experimental aircraft, which signaled the dwindling interest of the Soviet leadership in the program. At the same time, the redesign of the wings to accommodate the smaller and slimmer AM TKRD-01 compared to the Jumo 012 meant an unnecessary loss of time. In addition, there were bottlenecks in the delivery of equipment and parts of the landing gear and weapons system, which made the deadline for completion illusory. In June 1948, together with the discontinuation of the EF-131 program, the end of work on the EF 132 was finally ordered. The placement of the engines in the wing root and other features, however, found their way into the designs of the Tu-16 and the M-4 .

Technical specifications

Parameter Data Data
crew 5
span 36.40 m 34.40 m
length 38.86 m 39.4 m
height 8.00 m
Wing area 240.0 m²
Preparation mass 41,850 kg
Fuel mass 40,900 kg
Takeoff mass 90,100 kg 87,500 kg
drive six Jumo 012 jet engines with 29.43 kN (3,000 kp) each
spec. consumption 132 kg / kNh
Top speed 950 km / h
Marching speed 850 km / h
Landing speed 170 km / h
Summit height 9,750 m + 32% 11,400 m
Max. Range 3,900 km
Armament three twin MK four 15mm?
Bomb load 4,000 kg


  • Reinhard Müller: Brunolf Baade and the aviation industry of the GDR. Sutton, Erfurt 2010, ISBN 978-3-86680-721-1 .
  • Holger Lorenz: Junkers license plate. Engineers between the Faust claim and the Gretchen question. Printing and publishing company, Marienberg 2005, ISBN 3-931770-57-5 .
  • Dimitri Alexejewitsch Sobolew: German traces in Soviet aviation history. The participation of German companies and professionals in aviation development in the USSR. , Mittler, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-8132-0675-0 .
  • Rainer Göpfert: German aviation specialists in the Soviet Union 1945–1954. In: Fliegerrevue X , PPV Medien, Bergkirchen 2020, ISSN 2195-1233.

Web links

Commons : Junkers Ju EF 132  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Müller, p. 59
  2. Sobolew, pp. 176/177