Alexander Alexandrovich Mikulin

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Alexander Mikulin, 1941
Mikulin's grave bust in the Novodevichy Cemetery

Alexander Alexandrowitsch Mikulin ( Russian Александр Александрович Микулин , scientific transliteration Aleksandr Aleksandrovič Mikulin ; * February 2 July / February 14,  1895 greg. In Vladimir ; † May 13, 1985 in Moscow ) was a Soviet engine designer .


Alexander Mikulin grew up in the house of his uncle Nikolai Jegorowitsch Schukowski (1847–1921). This aerodynamicist is considered one of the fathers of Russian aviation . After finishing secondary school, Mikulin began studying at the Polytechnic Institute in Kiev in 1912 , where he met the later helicopter designer Igor Sikorski and designed a single-cylinder engine with him . After an internship as a fitter and former in the RBWS works in Riga in 1914, he moved to the Imperial Technical University in Moscow. During his studies there in 1916, in collaboration with Boris Stetschkin, the first Russian aircraft engine AMBS-1 with 300 hp at 1800 rpm was created. Mikulin graduated in 1922.

In 1923, Mikulin began his work at the NAMI (Scientific Institute for Automobile Engines) under the direction of Stechkin. In 1926 he became chief designer at NAMI.

From 1925 to 1928, Mikulin, who had also learned English and German in his childhood, developed the AM-13, a V-12 engine of 880 hp at 2150 rpm, based on Hugo Junkers ' designs. With this experience, Mikulin began in 1930 at the Central Institute for Aircraft Engines (ZIAM) founded in the same year, the construction and development of the first Russian aircraft engine with water cooling, the Mikulin AM-34 , which delivered up to 920 kW with a compressor . The engine went into series production in 1931 and became famous for the long-haul flights of the Tupolev ANT-25 . In 1936, Mikulin opened his own experimental design office, where he designed the first Soviet high-altitude engine, the AM-35 , in 1937 . It was mainly used in the MiG-3 high altitude fighter and the Pe-8 long-range bomber . The best-known design and one of the most commonly built aircraft engines was the AM-38F with around 1300 kW, which was built into the Ilyushin Il-2 in particular . Mikulin also developed the first Soviet variable displacement propeller and later the first turbine compressor .

In 1943, the NTK “Soyuz” Mikulin collective was established in Moscow as Plant No. 300 by the Ministry of the Aviation Industry. At that time, Mikulin was already working on the further development of piston engines as well as jet engines.

In the same year, on September 27, Mikulin also became a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences . In 1940 he was awarded the Order of Hero of Socialist Labor , and in 1944 he was appointed Major General Engineer. In the years 1941-1943 and 1946 he received the State Prize and 1975 the Order of the Red Banner of Labor .

After the Second World War, Mikulin devoted himself to the manufacture of gas turbines for aviation, where he also worked with the German Junkers designer Brunolf Baade , who was brought to the Soviet Union . In the 1950s, Mikulin and Tumanski developed the world's most powerful jet turbine engine at the time, the Mikulin AM-3 M with 9500 kg of thrust, which went into production from 1952 for the first passenger jet in the Soviet Union, the Tupolev Tu-104 .

Aircraft engines

Mikulin AM-42

Jet engines


Web links

Commons : Aleksandr Mikulin  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b High distinction for A. A. Mikulin. In: Fliegerrevue No. 5/1975, p. 207