|Myasishev M-4 / 3M|
A Soviet Myasishchev 3M (1982)
January 20, 1953
|Number of pieces:||
The Mjasishchev M-4 ( Russian Мясищев М-4 , NATO code name : Bison ) was a Soviet strategic bomber that was developed by OKB Myasishchev from 1951. The M-4 was an important weapon system for the Soviet long-distance air force for many years .
The built in the USSR MYASISHCHEV M-4, also known as "Molot" ( sledgehammer called) had, for the first time on 20 January 1953 F. Opadschi its first flight and was on July 20, 1954, the traditional air parade in Moscow Tushino presented to the public . The machine was the Soviet Union's first four-engined long-range strategic bomber and was intended to be an alternative to the Tupolev Tu-16 , which was developed at the same time . The range of the bomber was initially too limited to reach US targets, however, as Myasishchev was unable to develop a practicable method to refuel the aircraft in the air . However, this was initially not known to western military observers. Below the engines, an additional tank could be carried under each wing , but this was only rarely done. During the demonstration in 1954, the four existing copies were directed in large groups over the audience, as the impression was to arise that the Soviet Union had at least 28 machines of this type. The M-4 was developed into the M-4A with more powerful AM-3M engines and improved radar equipment. Equipped with a refueling probe directly in front of the cockpit, it was now also able to achieve greater ranges by taking fuel in the air.
The 3M , which flew for the first time in March 1956, was developed as a performance-enhanced version . In contrast to the M-4, it had four more powerful WD-7 engines, which enabled a higher take-off mass and range. The external distinguishing feature was the pointed, unglazed fuselage bow.
Machines of the type M-4 or their further developments M-4A and 3M ( NATO code name : Bison-B ) were in active use as strategic bombers, reconnaissance and tanker aircraft for decades . As a strategic bomber, the aircraft was operated by two heavy bomber regiments at the bases in Engels and Ukrainka. The special landing gear arrangement (support wheels under the wing ends) restricted the use of this aircraft because at least 50 meter wide taxiways had to be available on the airfields to be used.
In the 1950s , versions of this aircraft, designated the 103M and 201M , set 19 international records. On October 30, 1959, A. S. Lipko transported a payload of 27,000 kg over a distance of 1,000 km and reached a speed of 1,028.66 km / h. During another flight in the same month B. Stepanow carried 55,220 kg of payload to an altitude of 13,121 m.
Since 1986 a 3M has been exhibited in the Central Museum of the Air Force of the Russian Federation in Monino . The last military mission flight took place with a 3MS-2 on March 23, 1994.
Three M-4s of the Air Force were used for the Mjasishchev WM-T "Atlant" . The first specimen served as a static test cell , the other two were converted into airworthy specimens СССР-01501 and СССР-01502 , which were used to transport the space shuttle and parts of the Energija launch vehicle as part of the Buran space shuttle program . The aircraft was also known as the 3M-T . The project work began in the summer of 1979, the first flight took place on January 6, 1982. The most obvious feature was the modified tail unit with two side end disks. The first transport to Baikonur took place on April 4th of the same year. From 1989 the An-225 took over the tasks of the WM-T "Atlant".
|Parameter||Data M-4||Data 3M|
|length||47.20 m||49.00 m|
|Wing area||309 m²||320 m²|
|Empty mass||82,000 kg||k. A.|
|Payload||40,000 kg||k. A.|
|Takeoff mass||181,000 kg||210,000 kg|
|Top speed||900 km / h at an altitude of 11,000 m||950 km / h at an altitude of 12,000 m|
|Marching speed||835 km / h||860 km / h|
|Summit height||13,700 m||15,000 m|
|Range||9,800 km with 11,000 kg bombs||13,000 km with 12,000 kg bombs|
|Engine||four Mikulin AM-3D jet engines||four Dobrynin WD-7 jet engines|
|power||85.6 kN starting thrust each||127.48 kN starting thrust each|
|Armament||six to ten 23 mm cannons, up to 12,000 kg bombs|
- Karl-Heinz Eyermann , Wolfgang Sellenthin: The air parades of the USSR. Central Board of the Society for German-Soviet Friendship, 1967. p. 37
- Flieger Revue 2/90, page 60