Adolf Stoecker

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Court preacher Adolf Stoecker

Adolf Stoecker (born December 11, 1835 in Halberstadt , Province of Saxony , Prussia , † February 2, 1909 in Gries near Bozen , County of Tyrol , Austria ) was a Protestant German theologian and politician .

With the Christian Socials, Stoecker founded the so-called Berlin movement , which combined backward-looking with modern elements. Programmatically, it appeared anti-capitalist , anti- liberal and anti-socialist on a Protestant basis , linked by a sharp anti-Semitism , which was directed against the "Judaized" big capitalism as well as against the "Judged" left . The long-term political goal of Stoecker was a Christian-German state of God as a corporate state . Stoecker represented a political splinter group.



Adolf Stoecker was born as the second of four children of the constable and former blacksmith Johann Christian Stoecker in a middle-class family in Halberstadt. After graduating from the Halberstadt Domgymnasium he studied in Halle and Berlin theology . He initially joined the Neoborussia country team , but resigned from it in 1855 to reopen the suspended Corps Borussia . In 1859 he completed his studies with theological and senior teacher exams. He then worked until 1862 as a private tutor for two noble families in Zernickow in the Neumark and in Rindeln in Kurland . In 1862 he traveled to Italy via Germany and Switzerland, taking an interest in Protestant movements such as the Waldensians and visiting the Vatican.

Adolf Stoecker is not related to the women's rights activist Helene Stöcker .

On the professional and ecclesiastical biography

In 1863 Stoecker became pastor in Seggerde ( Altmark ). In 1867 he was transferred from the consistory to the industrial town of Hamersleben near Magdeburg . In the same year he married Anna Krüger, daughter of a Brandenburger Kommerzienrat . In his pastoral work he represented a simple theology, which he justified with the assumed simplicity of his addressees. “It is not about new, original thoughts” that his listeners would not understand, but rather about “the old simple truths”. “A happy Christianity” is his “ideal”, namely in the sense of “rejoice, the Lord is near”.

In 1871 Stoecker had to leave his pastor in Hamersleben. The community had opposed a ban he had imposed on a dance event for moral reasons. Having become untenable, he asked for his transfer. In the same year he was able to go as a divisional pastor to Metz in Alsace-Lorraine , which had been incorporated into the German Reich , which had just been founded . His field of activity was the Prussian soldiers of the fortress Metz , he saw himself surrounded by "German enemies" from the established butchers.

When he took up his first pastor's position in 1863, he began correspondence with the editor of the New Evangelical Church newspaper , Hermann Messner. She initiated an author activity for this magazine that lasted until 1886.

On October 17, 1874, Stoecker took up a position as fourth court and cathedral preacher in Berlin. At court he had become aware of his nationalistic and loyal articles in the New Evangelical Church newspaper , and the religious Mary von Waldersee had also advertised him. In the same year he became a member of the General Synodal Board of the Old Prussian Regional Church .

In 1877 Stoecker took over the management of the Berlin city mission . The city mission developed into a diakonia that took care of the sick, the disabled and socially disadvantaged groups. "Pfennig Sermons", which he wrote and reproduced, achieved a large number of copies at times. In 1883 he was appointed second court and cathedral preacher and in 1887 editor of the German Protestant church newspaper .

In 1890 he was recalled as court preacher due to his parallel and controversial political activities. In the same year he founded the Evangelical Social Congress . Liberal intellectuals such as Friedrich Naumann and Adolf von Harnack or Otto Baumgarten also belonged to it.

After liberal theologians dominated the Evangelical Social Congress , Stoecker, who fought liberalism , resigned in 1896 and founded the Free Church Social Conference with some like-minded people . The members of this association "belonged exclusively to the ecclesiastical right".

Political biography


In 1878 the "Christian Social Workers' Party" was founded largely on Stoecker's initiative. In 1881 it was renamed the “ Christian Social Party ”. In the year it was founded, the Reichstag passed the so-called Socialist Laws (1878–1890). They intensified the repression against the Socialist Workers' Party (SAP), which had risen to become a mass party, and against other socialist alliances.

The aim of the CSAP was to influence the workers, the social base of the socialist movement (“social democracy”), in order to alienate them from their original political representatives, who are now threatened with illegalization.

After the failure of their strategy in the Reichstag elections in 1878 , the Christian Socialists turned away from the working class as the Christian Social Party and oriented themselves towards the middle classes with anti-Semitic propaganda . They gave up their political independence and incorporated into the German Conservative Party (DKP). In terms of electoral politics, they remained a splinter. Stoecker remained her only member of the Reichstag until the turn of the century. From 1879 to 1898 he was a member of the Prussian House of Representatives for Minden-Ravensberg . From 1881 to 1893 and from 1898 to 1908 he represented the constituency of Siegen - Wittgenstein - Biedenkopf in the Reichstag , until 1896 as a representative of the German Conservative Party . Here, contrary to the political failures of his movement and his person in the rest of the Reich, he was regularly elected with unusually large majorities (1887 in the main elections, i.e. before the runoff: 77.9%).

In the political spectrum of the imperial era, the Christian Socials formed the "extreme right wing" while they belonged to the German Conservative Party. At this time Stoecker also wrote articles in the Kreuzzeitung and was closely connected to the conservative politician and editor-in-chief of this newspaper, Wilhelm Joachim von Hammerstein , in personal friendship. Between 1887 and 1888 Stoecker came more and more into contradiction to the politics of Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck . However, he had a strong influence on Prince Wilhelm, the future Kaiser Wilhelm II , whom he tried to take against Bismarck. The forward , the central organ of SAP, pointed to the publication of a document called "funeral pyre letter" that Stoecker intrigued against Bismarck.

After Bismarck's dismissal by Wilhelm II, Stoecker regained influence among the German conservatives. At their “Tivoli Party Congress” in 1892, the anti-Semites in the DKP managed, under his leadership, to anchor anti-Semitism in the party program. When, after the Reichstag elections of 1893, which had brought the socialist left a great success despite their ban, the German Conservatives discussed the elimination of universal suffrage, Stoecker - not elected to the Reichstag - supported this position. He has always wanted to abolish democratic voting rights.

In 1896 Stoecker had to leave the DKP. The reason for this were scandalous events in which he was entangled. His friend von Hammerstein was found to have grievous embezzlement, forgery of checks and moral misconduct, which stood in sharp contradiction to the deep Christianity of his way of life, which was shown to the outside world. Stoecker had covered the attacked. His intrigues against Bismarck were also held against him. After Stoecker was kicked out of the DKP, his movement resumed as the Christian Social Party. She has now entered into close alliances with other also decidedly anti-Semitic parties and associations.

Grave of Adolf Stoecker

Adolf Stoecker died on February 2, 1909 at the age of 73 in Gries near Bozen in what is now South Tyrol . His grave is in Cemetery II of the Trinity Community on Bergmannstrasse in Berlin-Kreuzberg (field J).

The stoecker program and anti-Semitism

The Christian Socials, which Stoecker led, programmatically combined the old with the new.

At the same time, they brought three new moments into the right wing political camp.

  • On the one hand, as a new form of politics, the populist "movement", with which they responded to the general demand for democratic participation and supported their parliamentary activities outside of parliament.
  • Second, an anti-capitalist phraseology.
  • The unifying element was anti-Semitism : whether “big business” or the socialist left, the opponents were “Jewish”. In the Christian-social worldview, Jews and “ Jew friends ” stood for all varieties of socialism , for left-wing liberalism , capitalism , materialism , and atheism . They are all forms of expression and productions of " international Judaism ", which conspiratorially plans the infiltration and destruction of the "German people" - to which they do not count German Jews.

In this sense, Stoecker saw himself as the “founder” and “father of the anti-Semitic movement”. He was "the first to make anti-Semitism the central creed of a modern political party". Anti-Semitism was and remained his “fundamentally central” guiding theme. He was "an integral part of all his thinking and public speaking ... Anti-Semitism structured and vitalized everything he said, wrote and did."

Stoecker was one of the first to sign the " anti-Semite petition" of prominent anti-Semites . She denounced the members of the minority as a collective “danger to our folk culture”. Among other things, it demanded the registration of the Jewish part of the population, the exclusion of Jewish Germans from all official functions and the teaching post of elementary schools, their only limited use in secondary schools and the judiciary, and a ban on Jewish immigration. In this sense, Stoecker represented the Christian Socialists in 1882 at the International Anti-Semite Congress in Dresden .

Since Stoecker had the reputation of being a riot-causing agitator, he tried to appear serious, conciliatory and prudent in public appearances in front of a dignified audience. This resulted in lies over and over again. His signature on the anti-Semite petition is a vivid example. In 1881 he answered the question “Did you sign?” In the Prussian state parliament with “No”, whereupon his signature was held in front of him.

Occasionally Stoecker distanced himself from racial anti-Semitism. On the other hand, he and his Christian Socialists showed their solidarity with Hermann Ahlwardt , the most desolate and dodgy representative of " radical anti-Semitism ". Stoecker supported Ahlwardt, who was in constant financial need and had been dismissed from school service for embezzling a student fund, also financially. The anti-Semitism widespread in Wilhelmine society did not go far enough for Stoecker. He tried to radicalize it. He and his Christian Socialists regarded the German-conservative “Tivoli Party Congress” as an anti-Semitic success, especially since they had succeeded in preventing a condemnation of the “excesses of anti-Semitism”, but at the same time criticized the “great ambiguities in relation to the Jewish question "of many German conservatives.

Stoecker's anti-Semitic statements shimmered between traditional Christian anti-Judaism and modern economically, ethnically and racially justified variants, which increased their connectivity. He contributed significantly to the spread of anti-Semitism in politics, church and society, but mainly in Protestantism and the conservative parties. He boasted that he had "introduced the Jewish question from the literary field into the popular assemblies and thus into political practice".

Reception, culture of remembrance

Stoecker in the popular illustrated book Das deutsche Führergesicht , 1939

The national right and with it the National Socialists received Adolf Stoecker as their forerunner and pioneer. He was consistently well received within Weimar Protestantism. In 1928 the first comprehensive, influential biography was published by the historian Walter Frank (court preacher Adolf Stoecker and the Christian social movement) . According to Frank, it emerged “from the experience of the National Socialist movement” and from the “personality” of Adolf Hitler , to whom he brought his work “with sincere admiration”. Frank saw in Stoecker as in Hitler in the same way "savior of the fatherland". In 1935 a second edition, unchanged in terms of content , was published by the author, who had meanwhile risen to the position of advisor of the NSDAP for questions of historical literature on Rudolf Hess's staff . In 1933 a book by the university theologian Paul Le Seur appeared on Stoecker as the “prophet of the Third Reich”. "Some of the words from Stoecker's words" were brought into the great newness that was ... under God's guidance through Adolf Hitler. Also in 1935 a Protestant publisher published a positive appreciation for Stoecker by the Christian social theologian Friedrich Brunstäd .

Even after the end of National Socialism, the West German reception did not abandon this fundamentally affirmative line. The authors no longer praise Stoecker's anti-Semitism, they suppressed, relativized and reduced it. He was only “opportunistic” and motivated by “social and ecclesiastical considerations”. Stoecker received consistently positive support from authors from Siegerland . It would not do to portray Stoecker as a pioneer of National Socialism. He was no more an “extreme” anti-Semite than a nationalist. He was concerned with “German nationality and German custom” and with Christianity. The article in the popular Siegerland Personalities and Gender Lexicon , whose author Lothar Irle was an avowed anti-Semite, active National Socialist and leading home chronicle, provides a list of merits and appreciations . There is still a street named after him in the main town of his constituency, Siegen-Wittgenstein-Biedenkopf. As early as 1947 there was a proposal by the British military government to rename the street, which was named after a “notorious Jew propagator”. The CDU and FDP opposed the minority from the SPD and KPD. Ernst Bach, as spokesman for the CDU, posthumously declared Stoecker a potential savior from National Socialism. All efforts to remove the street name have been unsuccessful until recently. His memorial day on February 7, which was set up in 1969 with the introduction of the Evangelical Name Calendar , was only abolished with effect from the 2013/2014 church year. The calendar was deliberately designed as revisable. In this, however, comparatively little known directory, Stoecker stood for some time next to numerous church opponents and victims of National Socialism. At the request of the Synod of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany, the Board of Directors of the Liturgical Conference finally decided not to include Adolf Stoecker in the name calendar. The major cities of Bielefeld , Bochum and Mülheim an der Ruhr renamed their Stoecker-Strasse in 1987, 2007 and 2012 respectively. The Protestant Church runs a care facility in Duisburg with his name. In Brieselang (Havelland district in Brandenburg) a street is named after Adolf Stoecker to this day, the last time the Brieselanger Kurier reported critically about it in November 2003. In Hille-Eickhorst (North Rhine-Westphalia) there was a five and a half year public discussion between the “working group Anti-Semitism ”and representatives of the Protestant Church to rename the Eickhorster parish hall. This was in 2007 by “Adolf Stoecker House” in “Ev. Eickhorst parish hall ”. In connection with the Berlin City Mission, which Adolf Stoecker was involved in founding, this institution itself also reports uncritically about Adolf Stoecker and there is no historical-critical analysis. Stoecker is mentioned on the homepage as the founding father without any further information or remarks about himself.

On the contrary, the conclusions of non-German social scientists or those who have fled Germany: Here we find a historical-critical perspective as early as the 1950s, which German church and contemporary historians began to adopt since the late 1980s. In the meantime it has prevailed.

The historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler comes to the conclusion that Stoecker was the “mouthpiece of radical anti-Semitism”. He "took up without hesitation those vicious clichés that contributed to driving forward the fateful development by which modern anti-Semitism was made socially acceptable". "How unscrupulous he did this is revealed by his poisonous tirades against named men of Jewish origin [...] and his perfidious sympathies for vigorous action against Jewish Germans". Stoecker represented a "politics of the gutter".

Fonts (selection)

  • The religious spirit in the people and the army during the French war. Lecture, Berlin 1876
  • Modern Judaism in Germany, especially in Berlin. Two speeches in the Christian Social Workers' Party. Berlin 1879 (The speech Our Demands on Modern Judaism is available in full on Wikisource)
  • To the craftsman question. Lecture, Breslau 1880
  • The movements of the present in the light of the Christian worldview. Heidelberg 1881 online (PDF; 1.1 MB)
  • The personal responsibility of the haves and the non-haves in the socialist movement and present. Lecture. Basel 1881
  • A decisive hour in German history. Hall 1881
  • “Work as long as it is day!” Sermon at the 50th anniversary celebration of the Elberfeld Barmer Prison Society on October 14, 1883 about Ev. Joh. 9, v. 1-4. Elberfeld 1884
  • One thing is necessary. A vintage of popular sermons on free texts. Berlin 1884
  • Christian-social. Speeches and essays. Bielefeld 1885
  • Sermons. Berlin 1886
  • The gospel is preached to the poor. A vintage of popular sermons on the gospels of the church year. Berlin 1887
  • The social and church emergencies in big cities. Lecture, Stuttgart 1888
  • The Sunday sermon. Berlin 1889
  • Walk in the spirit. A vintage of popular sermons on free texts. Berlin 1889
  • Social democracy and social monarchy. Leipzig 1891
  • Rich and poor. Lecture, Basel 1891
  • Inner mission and social question. Leipzig 1891
  • The salt of the earth. A vintage time sermon. Berlin 1892
  • Wake up, evangelical people! Berlin 1893
  • Thirteen years of court preacher and politician. Berlin 1895
  • Promise and fulfillment. A century of popular sermons on Old Testament texts. Berlin 1897
  • Leadership of the Church. A wake up call. Victories 1899
  • Speeches in the new Reichstag in 1899. Siegen 1899
  • At the border of two centuries. Berlin 1900
  • The gospel a power of God. A vintage popular sermons on the gospels of the new pericopes. Berlin 1900
  • The Christian ideal of morality and the Goethe Bund . Hamburg 1901
  • Can a Christian be a social democrat, can a social democrat be a Christian? Berlin 1901
  • Constant in the apostolic teaching. A vintage of popular sermons on the epistles of the Eisenach series of pericopes. Berlin 1901
  • What dangers threaten the church confession on the part of modern theology and what can the evangelical congregations do to counter it? Gütersloh 1902
  • The three paladins of the old emperor. Memories from a long time. Essen 1906
  • Church and the question of women. Wismar 1907


  • Friedrich Brunstäd : Adolf Stoecker. Will and fate . In Wichern-Verlag; Berlin 1935
  • Günter Brakelmann : Adolf Stoecker as an anti-Semite , part 1, life and work of Adolf Stoecker in the context of his time. Spenner, Waltrop 2004, ISBN 3-89991-017-6 .
  • Günter Brakelmann: Adolf Stoecker as an anti-Semite. Part 2: Texts by the party politician and the cleric. Spenner, Waltrop 2004.
  • Günter Brakelmann, Martin Greschat , Werner Jochmann: Protestantism and politics. Work and impact of Adolf Stoecker (=  contributions to social and contemporary history. Vol. 17). Christians, Hamburg 1982, ISBN 3-7672-0725-7 .
  • Helmut Busch: The Stoecker movement in Siegerland. Diss. Phil. University of Marburg (1964), ed. from the research center Siegerland, Siegen 1968.
  • Hans Engelmann: Church on the Abyss. Adolf Stoecker and his anti-Jewish movement (=  studies on the Jewish people and Christian community. Vol. 5), West Berlin 1984, ISBN 3-923095-55-4 .
  • Dieter Fricke : Lexicon of party history. The bourgeois and petty bourgeois parties and associations in Germany (1789–1945). Vol. 1, Cologne 1983, pp. 440-454.
  • Martin Greschat : Protestant anti-Semitism in the Wilhelmine era. The example of the court preacher Adolf Stoecker. In: Günter Brakelmann, Martin Rosowski (ed.): Antisemitism. From religious hatred of Jews to racial ideology. Göttingen 1989, pp. 27-51.
  • Eckhard Hansen, Florian Tennstedt (Eds.) U. a .: Biographical lexicon on the history of German social policy from 1871 to 1945 . Volume 1: Social politicians in the German Empire 1871 to 1918. Kassel University Press, Kassel 2010, ISBN 978-3-86219-038-6 , p. 158; (PDF; 2.2 MB).
  • Urs Hofmann: The reception of Adolf Stoecker and his speeches in the Protestant press of the 1880s. Anti-Semitism in Basel. In: Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde , Vol. 104, 2004, pp. 83–116. ( Digitized version )
  • Michael Imhof: “We won't find anyone better than Stoecker.” Discourse-analytical studies on Christian-social agitation in the German Empire (=  Oldenburg writings on historical science. Vol. 3). Oldenburg 1996, ISBN 3-8142-0560-X ( online ).
  • Wanda Kampmann: Adolf Stoecker and the Berlin Movement. In: History in Science and Education. 13, pp. 558-579 (1962).
  • Grit Koch: Adolf Stoecker 1835–1909. A life between politics and church (=  Erlanger Studies. Vol. 101). Palm u. Enke, Erlangen / Jena 1993, ISBN 3-7896-0801-7 .
  • Paul W. Massing: Prehistory of Political Anti-Semitism. Frankfurt a. M. 1959.
  • Franz Mehring : Mr. Court Preacher Stöcker the social politician. A polemic. Schünemann, Bremen 1882.
  • Ulrich Friedrich Opfermann: "In the people's body worse than the tuberculosis bacillus". On the spread and reception of Christian social anti-Semitism 1881–1914. In: Siegener contributions. Yearbook for Regional History , 11 (2006), pp. 109–146; 12 (2007), pp. 81-113.
  • Peter GJ Pulzer: The emergence of political anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria 1876-1914. Göttingen 2004.
  • Uwe PuschnerStoecker, Adolf. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 10, Bautz, Herzberg 1995, ISBN 3-88309-062-X , Sp. 1507-1511.
  • Stefan Scheil: The development of political anti-Semitism in Germany from 1881 to 1912. An investigation into the history of elections. Berlin 1999.
  • Jeremy Telman: Adolf Stoecker. Anti-Semite with a Christian mission. In: Jewish History , 9 (1995), No. 2, pp. 93-112.
  • Shulamit Volkov : The Jews in Germany 1780–1918. Munich 1994.
  • Hans-Ulrich Wehler : German history of society. 1849-1914. Volume 3. Munich 1995, pp. 921-934.
  • Joachim Bennewitz: Adolf Stoecker: theologian, politician and anti-Semite . In: Berlin monthly magazine ( Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein ) . Issue 3, 1999, ISSN  0944-5560 , p. 11-18 ( ).

Web links

Commons : Adolf Stoecker  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Adolf Stoecker  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. KCL 1910 , 96, 190
  2. All information according to: Grit Koch: Adolf Stoecker 1835–1909. A life between politics and church. (=  Erlanger Studies , Volume 101), Palm u. Enke, Erlangen and Jena 1993, p. 15 ff.
  3. Dietrich von Oerzen (ed.): Adolf Stoecker and Anna. Bridal letters. Schwerin 1913, quoted in after: Grit Koch: Adolf Stoecker 1835–1909. A life between politics and church (=  Erlanger Studies , Volume 101), Erlangen and Jena 1993, p. 19 f.
  4. Dietrich von Oerzen (ed.): Adolf Stoecker and Anna. Bridal letters. Schwerin 1913, quoted in after: Grit Koch: Adolf Stoecker 1835–1909. A life between politics and church (=  Erlanger Studies , Volume 101), Erlangen and Jena 1993, p. 39 f., 46.
  5. Helmut Busch: The Stoecker movement in Siegerland. A contribution to the history of Siegerland in the second half of the 19th century. Siegen 1968, p. 84.
  6. See Stoecker's speech on the draft program in: Collection of sources for the history of German social policy 1867 to 1914 , Section I: From the time when the Empire was founded to the Imperial Social Message (1867–1881) , Volume 8: Basic questions of social policy in public discussion : Churches, parties, clubs and associations , edited by Ralf Stremmel, Florian Tennstedt and Gisela Fleckenstein, Darmstadt 2006, no. 141; the program is printed under No. 142.
  7. Ulrich Friedrich Opfermann: "With clinking windows and hooting". Jews and the national community in Siegerland and Wittgenstein in the 19th and 20th centuries. Siegen 2009, p. 33.
  8. ^ Paul W. Massing: Prehistory of political anti-Semitism. Frankfurt a. M. 1959, p. 121.
  9. Grit Koch: Adolf Stoecker 1835–1909. A life between politics and church. (=  Erlanger Studies , Volume 101), Palm u. Enke, Erlangen and Jena 1993, p. 148 f.
  10. ^ Paul W. Massing: Prehistory of political anti-Semitism. Frankfurt a. M. 1959, p. 127 f.
  11. Ulrich Friedrich Opfermann: "With clinking windows and hooting". Jews and the national community. Siegen 2009, p. 35 f.
  12. ^ Dieter Fricke: Lexicon for the history of parties. The bourgeois and petty bourgeois parties and associations in Germany (1789–1945). Volume 1, Cologne 1983, pp. 440-454, here: p. 443; From Berlin. In yesterday's Stöckerversammlung ... In: Staatsbürger-Zeitung. July 22, 1893; Party movement. In: Siegerländer Volksfreund. April 15, 1893
  13. Shulamit Volkov: The Jews in Germany 1780-1918. Munich 1994, p. 49
  14. ^ Günther Brakelmann: Adolf Stoecker and the Social Democracy. In: Günther Brakelmann, Werner Jochmann , Martin Greschat: Protestantism and politics. Work and impact of Adolf Stoecker (Hamburg contributions to social and contemporary history, Volume XVII), Hamburg 1982, pp. 84–122, here: p. 106.
  15. Helmut Busch: The Stoecker movement in Siegerland. A contribution to the history of Siegerland in the second half of the 19th century. Siegen 1968, p. 5
  16. After: Johannes T. Groß: ritual murder accusations against Jews in the German Empire (1871-1914). Berlin 2002, p. 178
  17. See: Wanda Kampmann: Adolf Stoecker and the Berlin Movement. In: History in Science and Education. Volume 13, 1962, p. 575.
  18. The anti-Semite riots. In: Siegerländer Volksfreund. December 6, 1892; Wolfgang Benz: What is anti-Semitism? Munich 2004, p. 106; Paul W. Massing: Prehistory of Political Anti-Semitism. Frankfurt a. M. 1959, pp. 88-93.
  19. ^ Paul W. Massing: Prehistory of political anti-Semitism. Frankfurt a. M. 1959, pp. 67-71; The General Conservative Party Congress. In: Siegerländer Volksfreund. December 13, 1892; The Conservative Party Congress. In: Siegerländer Volksfreund. December 15, 1892.
  20. Quoted from: Hans-Ulrich Wehler: Deutsche Gesellschaftgeschichte. 3rd volume, Munich 1995, p. 922.
  21. ^ Walter Frank: Court preacher Adolf Stoecker and the Christian social movement. Berlin 1928; 2nd edition, Hamburg 1935.
  22. Michael Imhof: “We won't find a better one than Stoecker.” Discourse-analytical studies on Christian-social agitation in the German Empire (= Oldenburger Schriften zur Geschichtswwissenschaft, Volume 3), Oldenburg 1996, p. 40.
  23. Paul Le Seur : Adolf Stoecker, the prophet of the Third Reich. Memories of P. Le Seur. Berlin 1933, p. 2.
  24. ^ Brunstäd: Adolf Stoecker. Will and fate. Berlin 1935
  25. See e.g. B .: Friedrich Brunstäd: Adolf Stoecker as a theologian. In: Friedrich Brunstäd: Collected essays and smaller writings. ed. by Eugen Gerstenmaier and Carl Gunther Schweitzer, Berlin 1957
  26. Grit Koch: Adolf Stoecker 1835–1909. A life between politics and church. (=  Erlanger Studies , Volume 101), Erlangen and Jena 1993, p. 94. The work, a dissertation, was financed by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation .
  27. Helmut Busch: The Stoecker movement in Siegerland. ed. by the research center Siegerland, Siegen 1968, p. 147. The work, a dissertation, was published by the city of Siegen.
  28. Lothar Irle: Siegerland Personalities and Gender Lexicon. Siegen 1974, p. 336.
  29. The street name spells the name incorrectly ("Stöcker"), but it matches the spelling variant of the name that occurs more frequently in Siegerland.
  30. Violent dispute over street names ; in: Westfalenpost , Siegerland regional section, November 14, 1947. Instead of fathers - spoilers of democracy ; in: Freiheit, November 18, 1947. The tradition is not changed […] ; in: Westfälische Rundschau, Siegerland regional section, November 15, 1947.
  31. Personal correspondence of a user with Dr. Goldschmidt, Liturgical Conference, December 9, 2013
  32. Adolf Stoecker . In:
  33. ^ Street names 2007: table of contents. Anne Frank Street. (No longer available online.) In: City of Bochum, archived from the original on December 4, 2017 ; Retrieved December 3, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  34. Renaming. In: March 1, 2012, accessed January 1, 2018 .
  35. "Origin of Brieselang street names. Today: Adolf-Stoecker-Straße “, Brieselanger Kurier, IV / 11 of November 11, 2003.
  36. The “Working Group on Antisemitism” is part of the “Contemporary Minden” project and is run by a social scientist and a hobby historian. Readers can find out more about the regional historical aspects of anti-Semitism and National Socialism in the Minden area on the homepage and in book form. New name for the parish hall. Hille parish reacts to criticism . In: Mindener Tageblatt , August 31, 2007, p. 13.
  37. On the website of the Berlin City Mission in the "History" section for the foundation of 1877 there is only the uncommented mention of Adolf Stoecker as the founding father, anti-Semitism is not mentioned.
  38. See e.g. E.g .: Louis Leo Snyder : German Nationalism. The Tragedy of a People. Extremism versus Liberalism in modern German History. Harrisburg 1952; Paul W. Massing: Prehistory of Political Anti-Semitism. Frankfurt a. M. 1959
  39. Born in the Calvinist and Free Church of Freudenberg near Siegen and raised in the neighboring, very similarly structured Oberbergischen, with fundamentalist Protestantism therefore also biographically familiar.
  40. ^ Hans-Ulrich Wehler: German history of society. 3rd volume, Munich 1995, p. 922.