Prehistory and early history
The word combinations prehistory and early history , prehistory and early history as well as prehistoric archeology are often used synonymously and denote an archaeological discipline that encompasses prehistory and early history equally and sees itself as a branch of historical science that focuses on the development of human culture from its beginnings dedicates.
Prehistory or prehistory
The prehistory or prehistory is the prehistory, prehistory and cultural history of the time from which written records are not yet known. The academic research institutions use the terms prehistory and prehistory equally, at the universities the subject is referred to as prehistoric archeology, prehistory and early history or prehistory and early history. As the list of seminars and institutes also shows, the term prehistory outweighs the term prehistory in a ratio of around 2: 1. The use of the term prehistory emphasizes that the period examined is seen as part of history. In contrast, the term prehistory contrasts the unwritten with the written "history".
In Europe, joins the Upper Paleolithic to the short transition period Mesolithic (Mesolithic) the Neolithic Age (Neolithic) to. This is followed by the regionally limited Copper Age and continuously by the Bronze Age , then the Pre-Roman Iron Age (in Central Europe: Hallstatt and Latène Ages ). With the introduction of the first written documents in Central Europe in the 1st millennium BC BC (in the Orient from the 3rd millennium BC), which are used in addition to the archaeological sources, the Central European Early History begins, which is subdivided into Roman Imperial Era , Migration Period and the Early Middle Ages ( Merovingian and Carolingian Era ). Northern European early history divides its early Middle Ages into the Vendel period and the Viking period . The following European time periods cover the archeology of the Middle Ages and modern times .
Subject of research
In contrast to the other historical disciplines, the subject of research is objective sources ( ceramics , metals , wood , bones , glass , stone artifacts , etc.) in their respective contexts, e.g. B. soil monuments such as settlements, burial mounds , castle systems. These are produced by excavations , prospecting discovered and chance findings made available and using formenkundlich-typological, historical and social history and science ( Dendrochronologie , 14 C-dating and others), statistical and geographic information system examines -assisted methods of analysis.
Her particular potential for knowledge in the concert of historical and cultural-scientific disciplines lies in two peculiarities:
- The enormously large period of time examined: from the beginnings of human history to modern times . This enables comparisons across epochs and the parallel observation of long-term trends and short-term events (what is general, what is special?).
- This depth of time and the vastness of the supervised rooms make it possible to observe an enormous number of very different human cultures.
Differentiation from the other archaeological subjects
The prehistory and early history differs from the archaeological subjects like
- the Ägyptologie , at the same time a philological is subject,
- the Near Eastern archeology , which researches the Mesopotamian, Asia Minor, Levantine, Iranian and neighboring high cultures,
- of classical archeology that deals with the ancient eras of Greek and Roman culture,
- the provincial Roman archeology , which is dedicated to the material culture of the Romans in the provinces of the Roman Empire, and
- of Christian Archeology , the first priority, the monuments of the Christian Roman Byzantine Empire treated.
Medieval archeology or archeology of the Middle Ages and modern times represents a borderline case , which in places exists as an independent discipline, in places is also treated by representatives of prehistory and early history. As early history, it incorporates the parallel transmission of written and pictorial sources to a much greater extent than archaeological methods.
After a degree in prehistory and early history, the archaeological preservation of monuments at the state monuments offices as well as museums, universities and private excavation companies form areas of activity. Archaeologists are also employed as specialist journalists, for publishers and in various areas in the cultural sector.
Seminars and institutes
In Germany there are currently 24 institutes or seminars specializing in prehistory and early history. Of these, 15 have the term “Prehistory” in their name, eight the term “Prehistory” or “Prehistory” and one the term “Prehistoric Archeology”:
- Professorship for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology at the Institute for Archeology, Historical Monuments and Art History of the Faculty of Humanities and Cultural Studies at the Otto Friedrich University of Bamberg
- Institute for Prehistoric Archeology in the Department of History and Cultural Studies at the Free University of Berlin
- Subject Prehistory and Early History at the Institute for Archaeological Sciences of the Faculty of History of the Ruhr University Bochum
- Institute for Art History and Archeology, Department of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
- Institute for Prehistory and Protohistory at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
- Department III of the Institute for Archaeological Sciences: Prehistory and Early History of Department 09: Linguistics and Cultural Studies of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main
- Institute for Prehistory and Early History and Archeology of the Middle Ages at the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg im Breisgau
- Seminar for Prehistory and Protohistory at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
- Institute for Art History and Archeologies of Europe; Philosophical Faculty I - Social Sciences and Historical Cultural Studies of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
- Department I: Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology of the Archaeological Institute of the University of Hamburg
- Institute for Prehistory and Early History and Near Eastern Archeology (ZAW) at Heidelberg University
- Department of Prehistory and Early History of the Philosophical Faculty of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena
- Institute for Prehistory and Protohistory at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel (Faculty of Philosophy and Mathematics and Natural Sciences)
- Institute for Prehistory and Protohistory at the University of Cologne
- Professorship for Prehistory and Protohistory with Collection for Prehistory and Protohistory of the History Department of the University of Leipzig
- Institute for Prehistory and Early History at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
- Prehistory seminar in the Department of History and Cultural Studies at the Philipps University of Marburg
- Institute for Pre- and Protohistoric Archeology and Provincial Roman Archeology of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich
- Department of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology of the History Department of the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
- Chair for Prehistory and Early History in the Philosophical Faculty III of the University of Regensburg
- Chair of Prehistory and Protohistory at the Heinrich Schliemann Institute for Classical Studies at the University of Rostock
- Subject 3.7: Prehistory and Early History and Near Eastern Archeology at the University of Saarland Saarbrücken
- Institute for Prehistory and Early History and Archeology of the Middle Ages of the Eberhard Karls University Tübingen with the Departments of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology (Faculty of Geosciences), the Department of Younger Prehistory and Early History (Faculty of Cultural Studies) and the Department of Medieval Archeology (Faculty of Cultural Studies)
- Chair of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology at the Institute for Classical Studies at Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg
In 2005, the chair for Prehistory and Protohistory at the Historical Institute of the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald was dissolved.
In 2011, the oldest chair in this subject, the Chair of Prehistory and Protohistory at the Institute for Historical Studies at the Humboldt University in Berlin , founded in 1902, was dissolved.
- Faculty of Archeology, European Prehistory Department, Leiden University
- Prehistory and early history at the Institute for Archeology at the Leopold Franzens University Innsbruck
- Institute for Prehistory and Protohistory at the University of Vienna
- Seminar for Pre- and Protohistory, University of Basel (Department of Classical Studies and Oriental Studies, Faculty of Philosophy and History)
- Institute for Prehistoric and Scientific Archeology, University of Basel (Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy and Natural Sciences)
- Institute for Prehistory and Early History and Archeology of the Roman Provinces, University of Bern
- Department of Prehistoric Archeology, Institute for Archeology, University of Zurich
For the introduction
- Reinhard Bernbeck : Theories in Archeology . Francke, Tübingen / Basel 1997, ISBN 3-7720-2254-5 . (UTB for Science, Volume 1964, ISBN 3-8252-1964-X )
- Hans Jürgen Eggers : Introduction to the prehistory. Newly published by Christof Krauskopf. With an afterword by Claudia Theune . 6th edition, scrîpvaz, Schöneiche bei Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-942836-17-3 . With a list of the writings of Hans Jürgen Eggers.
- Manfred KH Eggert : Prehistoric Archeology. Concepts and Methods . Francke, Tübingen / Basel 2000, ISBN 3-7720-2274-X . (UTB for Science, Volume 2092, ISBN 3-8252-2092-3 )
- Manfred KH Eggert, Stefanie Samida: Pre- and Protohistoric Archeology. Francke, Tübingen / Basel 2009, ISBN 978-3-7720-8309-9 . (UTB Basics, Volume 3254, ISBN 978-3-8252-3254-2 )
- Uta von Freeden , Siegmar von Schnurbein (ed.): Traces of the millennia. Archeology and History in Germany . Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8062-1337-2 . (together with the next title: companion books for the “Exhibition of State Archaeologists”).
- Wilfried Menghin , Dieter Planck (ed.): People, times, spaces. Archeology in Germany . Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-88609-467-7 .
- Hermann Parzinger : The children of Prometheus. A history of mankind before the invention of writing. 5th, reviewed edition. CH Beck, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-406-66657-5 .
- Hermann Parzinger: Pre and Early History. In: Hans-Joachim Gehrke (ed.): The world before 600. Early civilizations (History of the world, Volume 1). CH Beck, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3406641015 , pp. 42-262.
- Colin Renfrew , Paul Bahn: Archeology - Theories, Methods and Practice . 5th edition. Thames & Hudson, London 2008, ISBN 978-0-500-28719-4 .
- Siegmar von Schnurbein (ed.): Atlas of the prehistory. Europe from the first humans to the birth of Christ. Theiss, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-8062-2105-3 .
On the ideological abuse of prehistory and early history
- Focke-Museum (ed.), With the collaboration of Sandra Geringer, Frauke von der Haar , Uta Halle , Dirk Mahsarski and Karin Walter: Graben for Germania: Archeology under the swastika . Konrad Theiss-Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-8062-2673-7 . (Accompanying publication to the exhibition of the same name in the Focke Museum Bremen from March 10 to September 8, 2013)
- Heiko Steuer : An outstanding national science: German prehistorians between 1900 and 1995 . de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2001, ISBN 3-11-017184-8 .
- Ingo Wiwjorra: The Germanic myth . Construction of a world view in antiquity research of the 19th century . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-19016-5 . ( Table of contents ; PDF; 94 kB)
- Ingo Wiwjorra: The Volkish Germanic myth as a consequence of German antiquity research of the 19th century . In: Heidi Hein-Kircher , Hans Henning Hahn (eds.): Political myths in the 19th and 20th centuries in Central and Eastern Europe. (Conferences on East Central Europe Research 24). Herder Institute, Marburg 2006, ISBN 3-87969-331-5 , pp. 157-166. (Revised version on Archeology online under the title Der völkische Germanenmythos. A consequence of German antiquity research of the 19th century. Last accessed on August 11, 2013)
- Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica
- Archaeologia Austria approx
- Archeology in Germany
- Archeology in East Westphalia (2010 in the 12th year)
- Archaeological information
- Archaeological correspondence sheet (prehistory, Roman times, early Middle Ages) (2010 in the 40th year)
- Archaeological news sheet
- Archeology of Austria (23rd year in 2012)
- Bavarian history sheets
- Report of the Roman-Germanic Commission
- Berlin yearbook for prehistory and early history
- The customer (Lower Saxony State Association for Prehistory)
- Kölner Jahrbuch (formerly Cologne Yearbook for Prehistory and Early History)
- Prehistoric Journal
- Sastuma (SAarbrücker Studies and Materials for Classical Studies)
- www.archaeologie-online.de . The German-language portal on archeology and prehistory.
- www.praehistorische-archaeologie.de . Online portal with an extensive knowledge database on prehistoric archeology
- Roman-Germanic Commission of the German Archaeological Institute
- www.jungsteinsite.de . Internet magazine about the Neolithic
- Internet magazine of the Roman-Germanic Commission
- AG Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archeology
- www.archaeologie-krefeld.de . Pages for the preservation of monuments
- Homepage of the Professorship for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology, Otto Friedrich University Bamberg
- Homepage of the Institute for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University of Bonn
- Homepage of the Institute for Prehistory and Protohistory, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
- Homepage of the Department of Prehistory and Early History, Friedrich Schiller University Jena
- Homepage of the Institute for Prehistory and Early History, University of Cologne
- German Society for Prehistory and Early History
- Homepage of the Chair for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology, Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg
- Homepage of the Institute for Pre- and Protohistory, University of Vienna
- Homepage of the Institute for Prehistory and Early History, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
- Homepage of the European Prehistory Department of the Faculty of Archeology, Leiden University
- Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 1991, p. 43.
- On the history of concepts: Jürgen Hoika : Archeology, Prehistory, Prehistory, Early History, History: A contribution to the history of concepts and the spirit of the times. In: Archaeological Information . 21, 1998, pp. 51-86. German Society for Prehistory and Early History: Prehistory, Prehistory and Other Archeologies. A clarification of terms . DGUF website 2011 .
- Stefanie Samida, Manfred K. H Eggert: Archeology as a profession: A survey among members of the German Society for Prehistory and Early History. Archaeological Information 30/2, 2007 (2009), pp. 39–52. (PDF; 725 kB)
- Review by Thomas Stöllner