Pushkin Museum

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pushkin Museum (main building)

The Pushkin Museum in Moscow (officially State Museum of Fine Arts AS Pushkin , Russian Государственный музей изобразительных искусств имени А.С. Пушкина, transcription: Gossudarstwenny musei isobrasitelnych iskusstw imeni AS Pushkina ) is one of the most important art collections in Russia. When it opened on May 31, 1912, it was called the Kaiser Alexander III Museum of Fine Arts , and from 1917 to 1937 the Museum of Fine Arts . In 1937, a hundred years after the death of Alexander Sergejewitsch Pushkin , it was named after the Russian national poet . From 1961 to 2013 the museum was headed by Irina Antonova , her successor as director is Marina Loschak .


The ideas for a civic education museum go back to the 1850s, an important impetus was the transfer of Count Nikolai Petrovich Rumyantsev's art collection from Saint Petersburg to Moscow in 1862 , which was exhibited there in its own museum.

Since the so-called Rumyantsev Museum constantly suffered from a lack of finances and exhibition space , an initiative arose under its director Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev , who was also a professor at Moscow University, that finally set the ball rolling for the foundation of the museum. He overcame all obstacles and collected the funds for a new museum building. The foundation stone was laid in 1898, according to plans by the architect Roman Klein with the participation of the engineers Wladimir Schuchow and Iwan Rerberg . After a construction period of 14 years, the museum was officially opened on May 31, 1912.

Collection history

Paul Cézanne: Pierrot and Harlequin (1888)

The basic holdings of the collection consisted of plaster casts of famous sculptures of Western art from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance . But that one did not want to be satisfied with just copies, the fact that from the beginning there was also a considerable collection of ancient Egyptian originals, which Tsvetaev had acquired in 1909 from the Egyptologist Vladimir Semyonovich Golenishchev , and 12 early Italian paintings that the Russian diplomat MS Shchukin , Consul General in Trieste , had donated. This collection of paintings was continuously expanded in the following years and developed into the most important and internationally best-known part of the museum's collection.

Further additions were made in the period that followed from the Hermitage and, to a large extent, from numerous donations from numerous art collectors. After the October Revolution , expropriations made the stock grow at a rapid pace. In addition to sending entire collections from private sources, the paintings of the Western European schools from the Rumyantsev Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery were also taken over. In the period that followed, works could still be acquired from private sources, but the collection only grew in small steps from the 1930s onwards. During the Second World War , the holdings were relocated inland. The building was badly damaged, and reconstruction work began in 1944.

In the following period, in addition to its own holdings, numerous holdings from German and other European collections came to the museum, not all of which were returned to their rightful owners. The dispute over this so-called looted art , which affects not only German, but also Hungarian, Dutch and French property, is still ongoing. In 1948 the decision to divide the holdings of the “Museum of New Western European Art” between the Pushkin Museum and the Hermitage brought the museum another significant increase in works of art, especially the well-known collection of works of French Impressionism .

The treasure of Priam , Heinrich Schliemann's finds from ancient Troy, has also been exhibited there since 1996 . In 2007, the Merovingian exhibition showed looted art that was part of the collection of the Museum of Prehistory and Early History in Berlin before 1945 , such as the Eberswalder gold treasure , the sword scabbard from Gutenstein , Depot I from Dieskau and the gold find from Cottbus . In 2016, 59 statues that were formerly in the Bode Museum in Berlin were found in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow.


The following departments are dedicated to art and other cultural assets:

  • Department of the Ancient Orient
  • Department of Ancient Art and Archeology
  • Department of the Art of the Old Masters
  • Department of 19th and 20th Century European and American Art
  • Graphics department
  • Numismatics Department
  • Private collections
  • Manuscript room
  • Department of Music Culture
  • Photographic Art Department

The I. W. Tsvetaev Museum of Art , the "MUSEION" Center for Art Education for Children and Young People, the Scientific Library and the Department for Scientific Popularization are geared towards education . There is also an editing and publishing department as well as a department for recording and completing, restoration and conservation, exhibitions, provision of information, visual information, PR and development, foreign relations.

Collections of the Gemäldegalerie

The collection contains an important cross-section of Western European art history. In the following some outstanding artists are listed, some with a selection of works. The list is not complete:

Italian painting 13th to 18th centuries

Giambattista Pittoni:
Death of Sophonisba
Pietro Perugino:
Maria with the child

Spanish painting

Old Dutch painting

Flemish painting of the 16th / 17th centuries Century

Dutch painting of the 17th century

Sitting old woman

German painting

Monogrammist AB:
The Flight into Egypt

English painting

French painting of the 17th / 18th centuries Century

19th century French painting

Édouard Manet:
Country inn
Vincent van Gogh:
Prisoner Tour
Paul Gauguin:
Are You Jealous?

20th century European painting



  • Tatyana Sedova: Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts , Leningrad, 1975, ISBN 0-569-08160-2
  • Irina Antonowa : The picture gallery of the Pushkin Museum in Moscow , Leipzig, 1977
  • Irina Antonova: The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts , Moscow, 1986
  • Georg W. Költzsch (ed.): Morosow, Schtschukin, the Russian collectors: From Monet to Picasso , Cologne, 1993, ISBN 3-7701-3144-4
  • Wladimir P. Tolstikow and Michail J. Trejster: The treasure from Troja: Schliemann and the myth of Priam's gold , Stuttgart, 1996, ISBN 3-7630-2333-X

Web links

Commons : Pushkin Museum  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Welt.de: The Gold of the Merovingians Moves Moscow , March 13, 2007
  2. ^ Welt.de: Sculptures from Berlin appeared in Moscow
  3. a b Departments of the Pushkin Museum arts-museum.ru
  4. http://www.arts-museum.ru/data/media/artguide/all_directors/index.php

Coordinates: 55 ° 44 ′ 50 ″  N , 37 ° 36 ′ 18 ″  E