State capital Dresden
|Height :||187–227 m above sea level NN|
|Incorporation :||July 1, 1950|
|Postal code :||01109|
|Area code :||0351|
Location of the Hellerau district in Dresden
Based on the garden city idea of Ebenezer Howard , the furniture manufacturer Karl Schmidt founded the garden city settlement Hellerau in 1909 on the northern periphery of Dresden am Heller on the corridors of Rähnitz and Klotzsche together with the new construction of his Dresden workshops for handicrafts . The unity of living and work, culture and education, in an organism shaped by the life reform , is the built claim of the garden city of Hellerau.
The architect Richard Riemerschmid commissioned by Schmidt planned the construction of the workshops and also a housing estate with small houses for the workers, spacious country houses, a market, shops, wash and bath houses, practices, single dormitories, schools and student dormitories. In addition to Riemerschmid, Heinrich Tessenow , Hermann Muthesius and Kurt Frick , but also Theodor Fischer, were among the renowned architects who built entire streets or at least rows of houses in Hellerau. During the time of its construction, Hellerau, like the Essen garden city Margarethenhöhe , was exempt from all building regulations by a government decree.
Reform enthusiasts from all over Europe came to witness the life reform actually practiced. Some only visited Hellerau for a short time, others stayed.
Émile Jaques-Dalcroze , a composer and music teacher from Switzerland , who tried to inspire people with performances of his self-developed “ rhythmic gymnastics ” in Germany , came to Hellerau at the invitation of Schmidt and his “right hand” Wolf Dohrn , where he initially worked in Schoolroom of the workshops taught. The then young architect Heinrich Tessenow built his own building for him, the “Educational Institute for Rhythmic Gymnastics” (“Hellerauer Festspielhaus”). With Gret Palucca and Mary Wigman , Hellerau became a center for modern expressive dance.
Also around 1912 a "Hellerauer Verlag" was founded by Jakob Hegner, who published works by Theodor Haecker and translations by Paul Claudel in 1912 for the sophisticated artistic design of books of the highest quality .
The festival hall
With the design of this ensemble - the mighty Festspielhaus , which is framed by the pavilion same pension houses the forecourt, the rear open-air arena and the revolving light and solar farms - sat Tessenow unconditionally the ideas of Émile Jaques-Dalcroze and the stage designs of his stage designer Adolphe Appia to .
In the following years up to 1914 many well-known representatives of the European cultural elite gathered there for the annual festival, including a. Emil Nolde , George Bernard Shaw , Franz Kafka , Oskar Kokoschka , Henry van de Velde , Djagilew and Stefan Zweig as well as the American socially critical writer Upton Sinclair .
End of the Sturm und Drang era
The death of Wolf Dohrn and the outbreak of World War I ended Hellerau's Sturm und Drang period.
In the following years, under the direction of Wolf Dohrn's brother Harald , Hellerau was able to build on the initial heyday for a short time with individual reform pedagogical concepts and cultural projects . For example, in the Festspielhaus, a school with a reform pedagogy started its work. Its international branch was founded by Alexander Neill in December 1921 (also considered the founding date of the internationally renowned Summerhill School).
In 1939 the educational institute for rhythmic gymnastics was converted by the National Socialists into a barracks yard, in which the Hellerau Police School, from August 1943 the Hellerau I Police Weapons School, was housed. After 1945 the Soviet Army continued to use the site for military purposes until it was returned to the Federal Property Office in 1992 .
Hellerau and Festspielhaus today
In 2003 the Dresden Center for Contemporary Music moved into the western side building of the Festspielhaus . Its director at the time, the composer Udo Zimmermann , has since been pushing ahead with the renovation of the festival hall; it reopened on September 7, 2006 after two years of renovation. Zimmermann headed the European Center for the Arts at the Hellerau site until 2009 and cooperated a. a. with the choreographer William Forsythe , whose dance theater company has found a new venue in Hellerau. With various events from the fields of theater, music, dance and overarching forms (e.g. the CYNETart , festival for computer-aided art; appearance by avant-garde bands such as The Residents in April 2013), he wanted the Hellerau location to be based on its original idea, the Emergence of contemporary art, trace back. In 2009 the cultural manager Dieter Jaenicke succeeded Zimmermann as artistic director.
The Deutsche Werkstätten Hellerau have long been building on their old craft traditions in the neighboring new workshops and are internationally successful in high-quality interior design.
The historic premises of the workshops, the so-called building ensemble Deutsche Werkstätten Hellerau , are today the location for engineering and service companies.
Today, the whole of Hellerau is a monument, not excluding the fact that something modern is also created; It is precisely the tradition of Hellerau to produce new and future-oriented things.
The Hellerau interest group was founded under the umbrella of the Kulturbund der GDR to protect the architectural monument. The Hellerau Citizens' Committee was founded in 1990 , and this resulted in the Hellerau Citizenship Association , which is based in the restored former Waldschänke Hellerau pub designed and restored by Riemerschmid .
The Citizenship Association of Hellerau is trying to get Hellerau on the UNESCO World Heritage List .
Extension of the garden city of Hellerau
The buildings at Am Pfarrlehn / Kirchsteig / Am Schulfeld / Meisensteig are part of a settlement expansion in the garden city of Hellerau near Dresden. The building complex is characterized by combining Hellerau's design approaches from the turn of the century with the modern demands of contemporary living. This connection was "extremely successful".
Wolfram Baltin won first prize in the open ideas and implementation competition announced by the City of Dresden in 1993 and, together with Höhne + Langenbrunner, Grünewald + Heyl, designed the extension for Hellerau.
The architects developed three different house types. On the one hand there is a row building and two or three-story houses. Curved house fronts, a highlighted staircase, widened paths, gardens that can be traversed, bright and cheerful colors are the hallmarks of the estate. At the same time, the complex conveys intimacy and a "puritanical overall attitude".
Architects of the district
- Richard Riemerschmid (1868–1957)
- Hermann Muthesius (1861–1927)
- Heinrich Tessenow (1876–1950)
- Kurt Frick (1884–1963)
- Carl Sattler (1877–1966)
- Franz Schuster (1892–1972)
- Ernst Kühn (1859–1943)
- Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott (1865-1945)
- Theodor Fischer (1862–1938)
- Wolfram Baltin
- Karl Schmidt-Hellerau (1873–1948), founder of the garden city of Hellerau
- Richard Riemerschmid (1868–1957), architect
- John Ulrich Schroeder (1876–1947), Saxon attorney general
- Wolf Dohrn (1878–1914), General Secretary of the Deutsche Werkstätten
- Émile Jaques-Dalcroze (1865–1950), music teacher
- Nina Gorter (1866–1922), music teacher
- Harald Dohrn brother of Wolf, guardian of the school idea
- Valeria Kratina (1892–1983), dancer, choreographer and ballet master
- George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), writer
- Georg Mendelssohn (1886–1955), craftsman and goldsmith
- Jakob Hegner (1882–1962), publisher
- Bruno Tanzmann (1878–1939), publisher
- Peter de Mendelssohn (1908–1982), historian
- Paul Adler (1878–1946), writer
- Kurt Gerlach (1889–1976), writer and reform pedagogue
- Hubert Gerlach (1927–2015), writer
- Karl Peschel (1934–2019), prehistoric
- Michael Faßhauer (* 1935) reform teacher, local chronicle
- Durs Grünbein (* 1962), writer
- Thomas Nitschke (* 1967) historian and reform pedagogue
Selection / in chronological order
- Wolf Dohrn: The garden city of Hellerau and other writings. Hellerau-Verlag, Dresden 1992. ISBN 3-910184-08-1 .
- Hans-Jürgen Sarfert: Hellerau. The garden city and artist colony. Hellerau-Verlag, Dresden 1995. ISBN 3-910184-05-7 .
- Michael Fasshauer: The Hellerau phenomenon. The history of the garden city. Hellerau-Verlag, Dresden 1997. ISBN 3-910184-25-1 .
- Ingeborg flag : Dresden, city guide of contemporary architecture . The example, Darmstadt 2004, ISBN 3-935243-48-0 .
- Hans-Peter Lühr (Red.): Garden City Hellerau - The everyday life of a utopia. Dresdner Hefte, 15th vol., Issue 51, 3rd, modified edition Dresden 2007.
- Ralph Lindner, Hans-Peter Lühr (Ed.): Garden City Hellerau. The history of their buildings. Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2008. 223 pages. ISBN 3-940319-30-9 .
- Thomas Nitschke: The garden city of Hellerau as an educational province. Hellerau publishing house. Dresden 2003. ISBN 3-910184-43-X .
- Thomas Nitschke: The history of the garden city Hellerau. Hellerau publishing house. Dresden 2009. ISBN 978-3-938122-17-4 .
- German Werkbund Sachsen e. V .: Hellerau. The idea of the total work of art. Miriquidi Media, Leipzig 2009. ISBN 978-3-9809271-0-9 .
- Joseph August Lux : On the German road. Grethlein publishing house. Leipzig 1919.
- Kurt Gerlach: The boy in the forest. Hellenhaus Publishing House. Hellerau 1930.
- Peter de Mendelssohn : Hellerau. My captive Europe . Hellerau-Verlag, Dresden 1993. ISBN 3-910184-16-2 .
- Roland R. Wauer : Holy Hellerau. Saxonia Publishing House. Dresden 2001. ISBN 3-9806374-7-6 .
- Hubert Gerlach: Nobody's brother. Barn Publishing House. Dresden 2001. ISBN 3-931684-75-X .
- Ehrhardt Heinold, Günther Großer as editors: Hellerau shone. Contemporary witness reports and memories. Verlag der Kunst Dresden, Husum 2007. ISBN 978-3-86530-077-5 .
- Norbert Weiß , Jens Wonneberger : At the green tip and on the sand. Hellerau: literary. Neisse Verlag, Dresden 2013. ISBN 978-3-86276-085-5 .
- Thomas Nitschke: When the Soviet star shone over Hellerau . Notschriften-Verlag, Radebeul 2014, ISBN 978-3-940200-98-3 .
- Durs Grünbein : The years in the zoo. A kaleidoscope. Suhrkamp Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-518-42491-9 .
- Hellerau in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Hellerau - historical outline, cultural news etc.
- 2000 Hellerau garden city expansion
- Volker Klimpel: Medical from Hellerau (PDF; 322 kB)
- Association of citizens of Hellerau
- Blog article on the history of Hellerau
- Hinrich Siefken: Theodor Haecker: Life and work . In: Theodor Haecker, Bernhard Hanssler (ed.): Esslinger studies . tape 15 . Stadtarchiv, Esslingen 1995 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Hans-Christian Harten: The ideological training of the police in National Socialism. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2018, ISBN 978-3-506-78836-8 pp. 336–337.
DNN article from October 14, 2011
DNN article from August 9, 2013
DNN article from January 1, 2015 ( Memento of the original from January 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. : New attempt possibly between 2017 and 2019.
- flag, p. 35 (extension of the garden city of Hellerau, Am Pfarrlehn / Kirchsteig / Am Schulfeld / Meisensteig) and Gantz, no. 99 (Hellerau).
- jazzdomicile: Freelance Architect and City Planner BDA SRL DWB, The project Dresden-Hellerau. In: wolframbaltin.de. Retrieved March 19, 2017 .