district and statistical district No. 15 of Dresden
|Residents||3186 (December 31, 2017)|
|Population density||425 inhabitants / km²|
The Albert town is a district of the Saxon state capital Dresden and was one of the largest contiguous barracks in Germany. It bears its name in honor of King Albert I , who as Crown Prince in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 - two years before the founding of Albertstadt - was the commander of the Meuse Army. Along with Friedrichstadt , Johannstadt and Antonstadt, it is one of the suburbs of Dresden named after a Saxon monarch , but as a military town it played a special role among them.
The role of the district and its structure changed several times. Albertstadt, for example, housed one of the largest contiguous industrial settlements in the city and has become the cultural and administrative city of the present.
Albertstadt is located in the north of Dresden, about three kilometers from the city center, the inner old town . It is surrounded by the Radeberger Vorstadt , the Antonstadt and the Leipziger Vorstadt in the south, the Dresdner Heide and the Heller in the north. It is on the one hand by the transport corridor of Königsbrücker Straße and the remote railway Görlitz divided and the other by the flood plain of Prießnitz so that the green areas of the Dresden Heath up to the densely built Outer Neustadt rich, flowing through the complex from north to south. Only in the north-west does the built-up urban area continue behind the Heller in Hellerau and Klotzsche .
In the south-east the district is only about 700 meters away from the Elbe, but already there is 125 meters above the level of the valley floor ( ) and on the terrain rising to the industrial site and Heller it reaches heights noticeably above the city center up to ; The Proschhübel is striking at .
Due to the incorporation of large rural communities and the Dresdner Heide, Albertstadt is relatively central in the area of Dresden.
|Leipzig suburb||Dresden Heath|
|Outer new town||Radeberger Vorstadt|
Most of the city districts incorporated into Dresden can be described using the historical village centers, which often still exist in whole or in part. Even in the suburbs there are still some historical village centers, such as in Kaditz or Loschwitz . Albertstadt lacks such a space, as it was planned as a military city on a previously unpopulated area. The barracks were built between the city and the Heller or Dresdner Heide, so that there was a lot of space for a shooting range and training area directly behind the barracks.
In large parts of Albertstadt, for example, it has the character of a planned city based on an axis concept. This means that it does not have a representative center that could be used to depict the even more heterogeneous structure of Albertstadt.
At Olbrichtplatz, the central military square, the barracks area on the wide Paradestrasse Stauffenbergallee can be understood. There, the buildings are separated by green spaces and parks, at greater intervals. Paths cross orthogonally or at half-right angles. The building orientation in the individual complexes also follows a symmetrical arrangement of at least the main building.
The construction of the industrial area ("industrial site") with the much more organic streets and curved property runs contrary to this plan. The course of the industrial structures is derived from the eastern boundary of the Prießnitz, even if the railway line and Königsbrücker Strasse also form an axis on which the area is based.
Albertstadt lies in an area of Dresden that represents the transition from the fluviatilically eroded valley of the Elbe to the Pleistocene- shaped northern German landscape. It belongs to the natural area of West Lusatian hills and mountains . Albertstadt lies on the moderately north-rising slope of a sander , which was formed in the Saale Ice Age and marks one of the southernmost expansions of the Fennoscan Ice Sheet .
These deposits by breaking the Kerbsohlental the Prießnitz . As the most important alluvial forest zone of the otherwise dry and sandy Dresden Heath, this was placed under the protection of the Fauna-Flora-Habitat Directive (FFH 161 in Saxony). The aim is to protect the predominantly alder and ash forests in the valley landscape, which is also partially characterized by sections of bog . This goes hand in hand with the goal of deregulating the Prießnitz, creating slow-moving areas and providing habitats for beech forest types and other softwood meadows . This protected area extends as far as the Prießnitztal viaduct (formerly the Carolabrücke ) of the Stauffenbergallee in Albertstadt. The fauna-flora-habitat area of the dune and open landscape of the Hellers connects directly to the north of Albertstadt.
Along the Stauffenbergallee, i.e. crossing the fauna and flora habitat, a park landscape runs along the wide avenue, which has a closed deciduous tree vegetation, especially on the Olbrichtplatz.
The location on the Saxon-Silesian Railway , which connected it to the rest of the railway network, was important for the barracks . This made it easier to relocate troops and did not have to cross the districts inhabited by civilians. Later artillery regiments also required larger firing ranges, which were primarily located in Jüterbog , West Lusatia and Upper Lusatia and could be reached by rail. The Königsbrück military training area belonging to Albertstadt could also be reached by rail. Until 2004, the (armaments) industrial site, which was mainly built between the 1890s and the 1940s, was connected to the railway line.
Albertstadt extends around the two main axes from Prinz-Georg-Allee as an extension of Carolaallee and Königsbrücker Straße . Carola Avenue and Prince George's Avenue were in honor of the Supreme Claus von Stauffenberg in Stauffenbergallee renamed. The Paradeplatz in front of the Arsenal (today the Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr ), originally called Königsplatz, was renamed Olbrichtplatz after 1990. Friedrich Olbricht , later General of the Infantry, was division commander in Dresden from 1933 to 1939 and part of the resistance group around Stauffenberg. In the far east are the feeder tunnels of the Waldschlößchenbrücke .
There are eleven bus and nine tram stops in Albertstadt, as well as the industrial area S-Bahn stop. Although only two orthogonal roads are served in local public transport , public transport easily reaches 87% of the population. The two tram lines 7 and 8 of the Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe run on Königsbrücker Strasse and cross the city bus route 64 at Olbrichtplatz, which runs on Stauffenbergallee. In addition to S-Bahn (S-Bahn) line 2, several regional train lines also stop at the Industriegelände station , so that this station is connected to Dresden-Neustadt station five times an hour . It takes four minutes to get there. In addition, 812 cars per 1000 residents and 940 cars per 1000 adult residents are registered.
Until 1945 the tram line 9 still ran from Albertplatz via Bautzner Straße on a single track through Forststraße and Marienallee to the end point Grenadierkaserne in front of the former guard building (see the map from 1917).
The line 5 from Bischofsplatz through Hechtstrasse, which originally ended at Buchenstrasse and was extended to Sankt-Pauli-Friedhof in 1926, also existed until 1945. The own track structure below the Hechtpark is still clearly visible today as a strip of green.
Albertstadt has almost 3200 inhabitants. With 7.55 km² it is one of the largest urban districts in Dresden, which means that this area has a low population density of 425 inhabitants per km². In 2007 there were around 2000 residents in Albertstadt. As a result of various new construction projects, the number of residents has increased significantly in recent years. This value is comparable to that of the Dresden localities on the outskirts of the city and is in stark contrast to the Äußere Neustadt , which begins in the immediate vicinity south of the Alaunplatz and has the highest density in Dresden with 11,526 inhabitants per km². The garden city of Hellerau and the Wilhelminian-style suburb of Klotzsche in the north are also more densely populated.
The average length of living in the district is around five years. This has an impact on the age distribution with an average age of 38.7 years. Compared to the city as a whole, the almost twice as strong group of 20 to 30 year olds is particularly striking. Albertstadt was only opened up as a residential area in the years after the reunification, so the proportion of senior citizens is slightly lower than in the entire city.
Families with children under the age of 18 make up around a fifth of households. In 2011, 15 people were born for every 1000 inhabitants; a value that is also above the average for all districts. 13.5% of the inhabitants of Albertstadt are not adults.
Statistical part of town and districts
Albertstadt forms a statistical district within the Neustadt district , for which these figures are given. This district consists mainly of the northern part of the Neustadt district and a smaller southern part of the Hellerberge and Klotzsche districts. The area of the allotment garden “Hellersiedlung” ( see below ) was allocated to Albertstadt in 1991 as part of the reorganization of the Dresden urban area, but only enlarged the area in terms of area.
Since the inauguration in 1877, units of various branches of arms have been housed in the barracks . Even today, a small part is still used for military purposes. Significant turning points were the end of the First World War , when the industrial site was removed, and the end of the Second World War , when a large number of the buildings were again used for civilian purposes.
The second Dresden airport was located on the part of the Heller, which belongs to the statistical district of Albertstadt, from 1926 to 1935 . The terminal building, which is tiny by today's standards, was located next to the railway line at the height of today's S-Bahn stop “Industriegelände”. An “airship anchorage” is already shown on a map from 1910 on the Heller.
After the Congress of Vienna , from which the Kingdom of Saxony emerged as an independent state through clever negotiations, the Saxon army was limited by the resolutions of the Congress and concessions to Prussia. It was not until an agreement with Prussia in 1867 that Saxony allowed an enlarged army and made it possible to introduce general conscription . The Royal Saxon Army took part in the Franco-Prussian War with an army just a few years later . This army, known as the Maas Army, was led by Crown Prince Albert and took part in the Battle of Sedan alongside two other German armies . Prince Albert gave the barracks its name, as he made it possible to build it by defeating France. The construction costs of the garrison were u. a. paid for by reparations.
As the royal residence and capital of Saxony, Dresden was a large garrison town even before the complex was founded. In the 19th century the city of Dresden grew enormously. It enclosed most of its historic barracks in the suburbs .
The situation before the barracks was built was therefore rather unsatisfactory, as there were numerous barracks in the city, especially on the main street in the new town. As the city and urban population grew, so did the demand for plots for residential development. The Jägerhof between Carolaplatz and Neustädter Markt , where a cavalry unit was recently located, is one of the buildings that had to give way to the necessary residential development due to the move to Albertstadt . Only one of the wings of this Renaissance building survived the relocation of the army quarters. The Jägerkaserne at the Albertbrücke in Johannstadt remained until it was destroyed in the Second World War.
On February 7, 1873, the plans for the construction of the facility were approved by the Saxon Estates Assembly and the construction of the garrison began. The plans for the barracks complex go largely back to the general of the cavalry Alfred von Fabrice . Before Albertstadt was built, the Dresden Heath, as a dense wooded area and former hunting ground for the Saxon nobility, extended as far as the Jägerkaserne on Alaunplatz . The Königsbrücker Strasse and the railway line already existed at the time. In 1878 the large military road was laid out and named Carolaallee and Prinz-Georg-Allee (from 1902 König-Georg-Allee ). However, the population never correctly adopted these names and always called both parts of this wide avenue "Heerstraße". The forest edge of the Dresdner Heide was moved to the north.
Around 20,000 soldiers could be stationed in the first facilities. According to the current army structure , this corresponds roughly to the size of one or two divisions . In fact, a Saxon division with headquarters, division troops and a few brigades were housed in the complex. Albertstadt was a self-sufficient military town from the start and had its own supply units, workshops and construction troops.
History of the district
Assignment of the estate district
On January 1, 1892, Albertstadt was incorporated into Dresden, but on January 1, 1934, it was again outsourced from the city. Statistically, Albertstadt was still included in Dresden, but only civilians were counted as the resident population. Until the end of the Second World War , Albertstadt was an independent manor district and was then again incorporated into Dresden on July 1, 1945. The areas of the manor district, which originally belonged largely to the Dresdner Heide, have now been incorporated into the Neustadt district. Shortly afterwards, the state of Saxony recognized the value of the facilities and took ownership of the buildings. The Albertstadt was thus civilly administered by the city of Dresden and was owned by Saxony and later by the German Democratic Republic.
It was only after the dissolution of the National People's Army and the withdrawal of the Soviet western group of troops after 1990 that Albertstadt became a normal civil district.
The Hellersiedlung was created after 1945. It is located in the Hellerberge district outside the actual Albertstadt, i.e. the northern part of the Neustadt district, but was added to the newly formed statistical district of Albertstadt in 1991. At the old parade ground of the cavalry north of the barracks on the former Prinz-Georg-Allee, the parallel access roads of this allotment garden begin. They do not have a name, but are labeled from south to north with the letters "A" to "N".
Royal Saxon Army
The original user of the facility was the Royal Saxon Army , which with two corps provided part of the Second Army Inspection of the Army of the Empire . The facilities were essentially designed according to the type and requirements of the units of the Royal Saxon Army and are therefore listed in more detail below.
The headquarters of the First Royal Saxon Army Corps was in Dresden . Subordinate to this was the 23rd (1st Royal Saxon) Division of the German Reich, whose command was also housed in the barracks. The staffs were located in the buildings around the arsenal , today's Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr , in the middle part of the barracks complex.
The units stationed in the infantry barracks included some infantry brigades and regiments.
The "45. (1st Royal Saxon) Infantry Brigade "belonged to the 23rd Division and comprised the two regiments of the 1st Royal Saxon Leib Grenadier Regiment No. 100 and Grenadier Regiment" Kaiser Wilhelm, King of Prussia "(2nd Royal Saxon) No. 101 . The two regiments were housed in the infantry barracks to the left and right of the main guard on Carolaallee.
The "46. (2nd Royal Saxon Infantry Brigade ”was also part of the 23rd Division. The Royal Saxon Rifle Gun Regiment No. 108 “Prince Georg” and other regiments outside Albertstadt were subordinate to her . The regiment was stationed in the old barracks on Alaunplatz .
For the 32nd Division in Bautzen , the staff of the “64. (6th Royal Saxon Infantry Brigade ”stationed in Albertstadt. In addition, the 12th Royal Saxon Infantry Regiment No. 177 of this brigade was in Albertstadt. For the regiment, the infantry area was expanded to include another building opposite the cadet accommodation.
Artillery and Cavalry
The 23rd (1st Royal Saxon) Cavalry Brigade and its Guard Rider Regiment were in the cavalry barracks . This was with its five squadrons on the front part of the Prinz-Georg-Allee. The military riding institute was located at the intersection with Königsbrücker Strasse as a teaching facility; it also served for the riding training of the officer's students. In addition, the staff of the "32. (3rd Royal Saxon) Cavalry Brigade ”in the facilities.
In the artillery barracks the "23. (1st Royal Saxon) Field Artillery Brigade ”and its 1st Royal Saxon Field Artillery Regiment No. 12 and 4th Royal Saxon Field Artillery Regiment No. 48 . Both used the building at the end of Prinz-Georg-Allee in the west of Albertstadt.
At the intersection of the two main axes was the barracks of the "Pioneer Battalion 13". The machine-gun troops' quarters were a little closer to town than those of a small, specialized troop.
Names of the barracks
The barracks have been given names of honor since 1917. The " Kaiser-Grenadier-Kaserne " and the "Leib-Grenadier-Kaserne" were located directly on Carolaallee . The subsequently built infantry barracks on Marienallee was called "König-Friedrich-August-Kaserne". The old cavalry barracks were run in 1917 as "Fabrice barracks" and the artillery barracks as "King Albert barracks". The barracks on Alaunplatz was simply called the Schützenkaserne, while the barracks of the relocated Pioneer Battalion, which housed foot artillery in 1917 , was called the “König-Johann-Kaserne”.
After the First World War, the four large German states, including the Free State of Saxony, lost their military autonomy in peacetime due to the Defense Act of March 23, 1921. With the law, the Reichswehr was created as the armed forces of the German Republic . The Reichswehr was constantly and completely under the authority and leadership of the Reichswehr Ministry and under the supreme command of the Reich President . In the federal states, state commanders were used to coordinate the state and the Reich.
As far as the type of regiments in Dresden was concerned, the army of the Reichswehr was linked to the Royal Saxon Army . Some units traditionally continued to use their designation as "Saxon" regiments. The strength of the entire German army was limited to 100,000 soldiers in the Treaty of Versailles and conscription was prohibited. The Albertstadt barracks could have provided the capacity for a fifth of the entire army and were therefore too big for the Reichswehr. The police therefore took over the two barracks on Alaunplatz .
In 1926 the infantry school of the Reichswehr was relocated from Munich to Albertstadt, where it is now the Army Officer School . The pioneer school remaining in Munich was relocated to Berlin-Karlshorst on October 1, 1936.
The 4th Artillery Regiment , the 10th (Saxon) Infantry Regiment and some departments for intelligence and transport were reorganized to support the military district command IV. In 1927, the remaining barracks had their names from the Empire. The facilities were not expanded during the time of the Reichswehr.
The staff of the 4th Division was housed in the barracks town. For this division the 4th (Saxon) intelligence department was formed from two brigade intelligence departments. The training center for officers also existed during the Weimar Republic.
The Wehrmacht took over the existing structures of the Reichswehr and thus also the existing regiments and departments in Dresden.
On October 15, 1935 the division in Dresden was renamed “4. Infantry Division " . The regiments remained in Albertstadt as "Infantry Regiment 10" and "Artillery Regiment 4", as well as the intelligence and supply departments. In the so-called “peace army” of the Wehrmacht in January 1939, the “ 4th Army Corps ” with staff had already been set up in Dresden. The 4th Infantry Division was relocated to Reichenberg in the Sudetengau . The barracks, which were transferred to the police in 1921, were again used for military purposes and housed the "Machine Gun Battalion 7".
During the Second World War, the facilities were used for training; Numerous replacement troops and reserve divisions were also set up there. The "IV. Army Corps "of the" Peace Army "was encircled and destroyed as part of the 6th Army at the Battle of Stalingrad during the war against the Soviet Union .
Albertstadt was not the main target in any of the air raids in 1945 , but a barracks building was hit on February 13, 1945 and burned down. In March 1945 an infantry division was set up in Dresden. Attacks on Dresden-Neustadt train station , however, also restricted the barracks' rail connection, particularly in the south.
People's Police and NVA
After 1945, numerous names for buildings and streets changed. Carolaallee and König-Georg-Allee were renamed Nordallee on July 1, 1946 and Dr.-Kurt-Fischer -Allee on July 18, 1950 ; the Königsplatz in Dr.-Kurt-Fischer-Platz.
The People's Police moved into buildings after some Soviet army units had been relocated to barracks in the wider area around Dresden. This made the artillery barracks free for the riot police . The police still use the old riding school to this day. The officers' school was originally used by the barracked People's Police and, when the National People's Army was founded, it was once again used for military purposes.
The National People's Army stationed the staff of the 7th Panzer Division in Albertstadt . The "Reconnaissance Battalion 7", the "Intelligence Battalion 7" and the "Medical Battalion 7" emerged from the previous departments at the divisional headquarters. The divisional headquarters company was in the cadet institution . The military academy Friedrich Engels emerged from the training center for officers, but moved to Strehlen . The officers' college of the land forces "Ernst Thälmann" was reorganized in Löbau . The artillery school of the National People's Army was set up in Albertstadt, following on from the local tradition of the artillery regiments.
In addition, as before 1945, administrative offices were established in Albertstadt, such as the military area and district command and a military court of the National People's Army.
During the Prague Spring , the 7th Panzer Division was incorporated into the military operations of the Soviet Army. For this purpose, she was placed under the Soviet High Command on July 29, 1968 and relocated to Upper Lusatia , from where she was to march into Czechoslovakia via the Zittau Mountains if necessary . That never happened and so on October 16, 1968 the division was again placed under the command of the NVA and returned to Albertstadt a day later with its staff and command units.
Group of the Soviet Armed Forces in Germany
The GDR National People's Army mainly used the central part of the barracks area.
At the eastern end of Stauffenbergallee, after moving from Radebeul until 1992, the staff of the 1st Guards Armored Army of the Soviet Army was in the building of the original “2nd Royal Saxon Grenadier Regiment ”.
Because of the resident in the town of Albert military staffs, a large number showed imputed units and agencies of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSSD), in Dresden and in the region deployed were. With the telecommunications troops and staffs of the army and the subordinate divisions and their administrations, it made Dresden a significant military target in the Cold War.
Bundeswehr and subsequent use
On October 3, 1990, the Bundeswehr took over the NVA facility. With the withdrawal of the Soviet Army in 1992, the Federal Republic of Germany was able to take over the entire site and initiate subsequent use. Only a few parts still belong to the Bundeswehr. The Army Officer School was re-established (see below). The GDR Army Museum, the predecessor of which had existed since 1914, was transferred to the Bundeswehr Military History Museum . In 1998 a private investor bought the garrison church, which had been run as a federal property since 1990, together with the surrounding building land.
When they were used for civil purposes, most of the barracks buildings that were still in their original state in the 19th century were placed under monument protection. Previously, the use of the cultural property protection symbol by military use was not possible.
Other parts of the former barracks are used for a variety of civil purposes. The officers' buildings were converted into residential buildings and the barracks into office buildings. The room layout of the accommodation building with the dormitories and corridors simplifies the subsequent use as an office building. The Dresden City Archives , the Saxon State Broadcasting House of Central German Broadcasting and other office users and public institutions are located in Albertstadt . The State Office of Saxony, Dresden location is located in the left and the State Office for Finance in the right part of the Kaiser-Grenadier-Kaserne. Parts of the Dresdner Heide on Albertstadt and some facilities have remained in the military security area .
A cadet institute as a training facility for officers of the Saxon Army existed before 1873, when barracks were built in Albertstadt. In Albertstadt, a small barracks complex of residential and teaching buildings was built according to the then modern standards.
The officers of the Saxon Army were trained there until 1920, before the institution was used by the Saxon State School until 1926 , which received new buildings in Klotzsche in 1927 . The premises, consisting of accommodation, teaching rooms, auditorium and sports hall, offered this use. In 1926 the training center for officers was reopened as the infantry school of the Reichswehr.
Well-known graduates were Max Immelmann ( eponymous for the flight maneuver of the same name ), who originally belonged to the infantry as a cadet and did not receive training as a pilot until the beginning of World War I, and Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg , who was assigned to the institute for training in 1927 and 1928 was, and Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim . Ulrich de Maizière was trained at the institute in the Reichswehr, and later he was Inspector General of the Bundeswehr . Erwin Rommel taught at the school from 1929 to 1933.
Between 1945 and 1990 only part of the institution served as a branch of the officers' college of the land forces of the NVA . The military academy of the NVA , as the highest training facility for military science with its seat in Dresden, was not in Albertstadt.
On September 14, 1998, after three years of construction, the Army Officers' School (OSH) was built in the Graf-Stauffenberg-Kaserne (then Albertstadt-Kaserne). This uses the buildings of the old cadet accommodation and a modern teaching center. As before 1945, every officer in the German Army goes through training levels in Dresden; previously the schools were in Hanover , Munich and Hamburg . The universities of the Bundeswehr are now located in Munich and Hamburg . On September 14, 2013, the 15th anniversary of the OSH opening, the Albertstadt barracks were renamed Graf-Stauffenberg barracks.
The Treaty of Versailles in 1919 stipulated the destruction of existing weapons stocks and production facilities under international control for the German Reich. The ammunition factories and magazines north of the arsenal had, however, been continuously expanded during the years of the war, which had degenerated into a trench warfare with consuming material battles. As a result of the peace treaty, this also affected the magazines, which were subsequently cleared and torn down.
From 1922 onwards, the "Industriegelände-Gesellschaft Dresden-Albertstadt", founded by private investors, transferred the remaining buildings and facilities to civil use. The company rented the property and production facilities to other companies and continued to operate some utilities such as the power plant itself. For many companies in Dresden, the site was a good location for expansion. Well-known Saxon and Dresden companies with new branches settled on the site. The result was a factory of Ernemann-Werke AG , later Zeiss Ikon , a factory of Gläser-Karosserie GmbH , the textile machine construction of the Sächsische Maschinenfabrik Chemnitz , the AG für Cartonnagen (Sic!), The radio factory Mende and the turbine factory von Brückner, Kanis and Co .
From 1935 onwards, the area was gradually transferred to the "Dresden site administration" of the Wehrmacht. However, the full integration was delayed by legal conflicts until the end of the war in 1945. The companies remained in the industrial area and, beginning in 1936, increasingly switched their production to comply with state requirements. Around 1938/39 the turbine factory built a high pressure test field for the German Navy. When Dresden became accessible for bombing raids in 1944 and attacks on the armaments factories were feared, the expansion of industrial operations was stopped. The distinctive landmark of the industrial site, two tall, thick white chimneys (next to the bridge on Königsbrücker Strasse over the railway tracks), were blown up so as not to provide a point of orientation.
During the Second World War, forced laborers were also used in the factories, primarily for the companies Mende and Brückner, Kanis and Co. The now so-called North Industrial Area in Dresden survived the world war almost undamaged despite the air raids. The location in the north of Dresden was advantageous, as it was difficult or impossible to fly to the industrial site as an alternative to the main destinations in Dresden.
Most of the production facilities on the industrial site were dismantled after 1945 and taken to the Soviet Union. The "Council of the City of Dresden" administered the site. From the end of the 1940s, after nationalization, production was continued in the form of state-owned companies. The most well-known companies were VEB Flugzeugwerke Dresden, VEB Turbinenfabrik Dresden (from 1967 VEB Turbo Machines Pirna , Dresden Works), VEB Starkstromanlagenbau "Otto Buchwitz" and the Kombinatbetrieb (KB) repair and prefabrication (area work place, An der Runde / Sandgrubenstrasse) of VEB BMK Coal and energy. Thus, the industrial site continued to be an important industrial area in Dresden until 1990. Numerous company liquidations and downsizing after 1990 resulted in mixed use of the site in the present. The new creations include the establishment of the Dresden Chamber of Crafts and the “Zeitstromung”, a project that is dedicated to old and modern vehicles of all kinds.
Buildings and installations of the garrison
The buildings were built in the young empire and are therefore representative designed and arranged. Most of them are shaped by classicism . The appearance of the secular buildings is similar to the ministry buildings in the government district and the police headquarters on Pirnaischer Platz , which are also state symbols of power.
In Albertstadt, the military buildings are divided into three parts:
- in the east the infantry barracks, the military hospital and the cadet institute
- centrally the arsenal complex and the supply institutions, the garrison church and other barracks
- to the west the cavalry and artillery barracks.
At the time when most of the military quarters were still in the city, the Albertinum and its powder tower on Brühl's Terrace served as Dresden's armory . This was near the castle and the middle-class city center around Neumarkt.
A new arsenal was built in Albertstadt. The three-winged main building there was built from 1873 to 1877 and served as an arms store on two floors. Guns were housed on the ground floor and handguns on the first floor. The front of the building with the eye-catching portal points to Königsplatz, now Olbrichtplatz, from which a parade street and a wide staircase lead to this main entrance. Repair workshops for weapons of all kinds were located behind the building. To the north of this, the arsenal was expanded to include additional depots and magazines for military equipment. In 1901, the site was given a siding ( see below ) to allow weapons to be transported more quickly .
The main arsenal building was completely converted into a museum in 1918, like its predecessor Albertinum. To the present day, regular armed forces look after the collection, which is now the Bundeswehr Military History Museum . The building, which is now separated by a striking metal wedge, was redesigned according to a design by Daniel Libeskind and reopened in autumn 2011.
The garrison church on Stauffenbergallee was built between 1893 and 1900, also centrally located. It was planned as a modern double church with only one tower, but both a Catholic and a Protestant church room (compare simultaneous church ). However, it was never an ecumenical institution and also has separate entrances to the two worship rooms. The church originally only served the garrison, so it was not a parish church. Saxony was predominantly Evangelical-Lutheran, but there were many Catholic parishes, especially in Lusatia and in the south-west. In this way, the large garrison's demand for church services for both denominations could be met.
The garrison church was planned by the Dresden architects William Lossow and Hermann Viehweger , who built numerous sacred and secular buildings in Dresden. In terms of style, the church must be assigned to late historicism; They are shaped by elements of the Romanesque style . The richly structured rear side is particularly striking with numerous niches and ancillary rooms that suggest a central building . The church tower is about 90 meters high and therefore about the same size as the church towers in the city center. Thanks to the elevated location, there is an excellent view of the entire city and the surrounding area. The bells in the church tower were cast from French guns that had been captured in the Franco-Prussian War.
The church was not damaged in the Second World War, and so began to be used again after 1945, which is rich in contrasts. With the expiry of the military chaplaincy, the use as a garrison church ended in 1945. The Catholic St. Franziskus Xaverius Church in the Inner New Town was destroyed, so the Catholic part became the Parish Church of St. Martin of the Catholic St. Franziskus Xaverius Congregation. For the much larger Protestant part there was initially a use by the parish of the destroyed St. Pauli Church ; This was given up in 1965 and the room has since been used for profane purposes: with the installation of false ceilings, part of a theater fund and the phonotheque of the former Saxon State Library (today: Saxon State and University Library Dresden ) was housed here. After they moved out, the Protestant part, which is no longer used by the church, has housed the puppet theater collection of the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden since 2004 . In addition to the Catholic parish, both the Catholic and the Protestant military pastoral care have used the Catholic part since 1998.
The former military cemetery of Albertstadt is the north cemetery . It is located in the southwest corner of the Dresdner Heide, east of Marienallee or the Kannenhenkels. Established in 1901, the cemetery was expanded several times in connection with the two world wars. The facility, which is also used civilly today, is the final resting place of many well-known Saxon military personnel, such as the generals and ministers of war Adolph von Carlowitz and Paul von der Planitz , as well as the resistance fighters Friedrich Olbricht and Hans Oster . In 1945, the Soviet garrison cemetery was added across the street , where members of the Red Army who died in or after the Second World War in Dresden are buried.
The Albertstadt should function largely self-sufficient as a garrison. In addition to cavalry supply, laundry and slaughterhouse, the army bakery, a water and power station belonged to the supply structures. The central area of the military complex around the arsenal and along Koenigsbrücker Strasse was dominated by the supply buildings. For the relocation of troops and for the transport of raw materials and products from the utilities, the Zeugmeistereibahn was built with a few rail connections.
The army bakery was built between Königsbrücker Strasse and the railway line . The bakery is thus located between the railroad systems for the supply of raw materials and the provision magazines in the arsenal building complex. The buildings were designed in the typical industrial style of the time.
The capacity of the system extended far beyond the supply of the Albertstadt barracks and so the army bakery served to supply the entire Saxon army with baked goods. The actual bakery included the bread magazine for the products and the grain silo, a mill and the flour magazine.
The actual bakery around the striking chimney that has been preserved has been converted into a restaurant.
The grain and grain silos were housed in two sandstone buildings to the north, lengthways between the railway line and a siding. The storage facilities were used until around 1990. One of them was demolished, the city archives of Dresden moved into the other after its extensive renovation in 2000.
The barracks should have an independent power supply. To this end, a coal-fired power station was built in the workshop area north of the arsenal between 1901 and 1902. As early as 1922, the power plant was removed from the barracks complex and used to supply the demilitarized industrial site, which was moved to the north from the barracks.
The DREWAG operates the building as a thermal power station Nord. It was converted to natural gas as fuel in 1995 and today, in addition to generating electricity, it is used for general district heating . The clinker facade was also renewed, which stands out between the buildings in Albertstadt, which are mainly made of sandstone.
As with the power plant, the waterworks should supply Albertstadt with fresh water separately from the city. Not only the soldiers needed water, but also the many horses in the cavalry and train departments. The utilities, especially the army bakery, also had a high demand for water.
In the vicinity of the power plant, the Albertstadt waterworks, Charlottenstrasse 13, was built between 1901 and 1903. Originally it had a capacity of 300 m³ per hour, but was expanded in 1908, 1915 and after 1990. The listed facility still serves as a waterworks and only supplies the Infineon plant , which is located adjacent to Albertstadt in the Heller Mountains.
The Zeugmeistereibahn was built to connect the military complex to the railway line . This reached from the north to the arsenal and was therefore about 1.6 kilometers long on its main line. The railway system was not built in the main construction phase of Albertstadt until 1877, but only between 1900 and 1901. After its construction, the power station was also built, which could be better supplied with coal via the railway. Later on, additional sidings and side lines added to the layout. In the main period of ammunition production between 1916 and 1918 there was the "Hp Dresden-Arsenal" for the employees of the factories, but this does not correspond to today's stopping point Dresden-Industriegelände. After the end of the First World War, the importance of the railway decreased, especially for the buildings around the arsenal, since only civil uses were permitted during the demilitarization according to the Versailles Treaty . The Zeugmeistereibahn was continued as an "industrial railway" for the civil industrial site.
In 1953 the facility was transferred to the "VEB Verkehrsbetriebe der Stadt Dresden", which was converted into the Dresden Transport Services in 1992 . Most recently, the transport companies themselves maintained three shunting locomotives. In 1992 the entire track length of the industrial railway added up to 15 km.
Although the Zeugmeistereibahn has been used less and less since 1990 and has been closed since 2004, the route was restored in sections in 2000 when the road was renewed, so that the track systems are in very good condition. The connection to the railway line no longer exists, as the transfer goods station was dismantled in the course of the expansion of the S-Bahn line to the airport. In 2004 the DB refused to install a branch switch because it could only be connected to a central signal box. The renovation work at Dresden-Neustadt station that took place after 2000 did not include the restoration of the siding.
Military court and prison
For the garrison, in addition to the administration buildings, buildings for the military jurisdiction were also built. The military penal institution was established as early as 1835 and no longer met the demands of Albertstadt, which had grown in the 1870s. In 1879 the building was moved to the building complex on Königsbrücker Strasse at the corner of Fabricestrasse (until 2011 Proschhübelstrasse). The prison there, known as the fortress prison, was also used to carry out special fortress detention and is now the depot of the Bundeswehr Military History Museum . Fortress detention without being forced to work was considered honor-preserving and was used in particular against officers. Rooms have been set up in the guard buildings of the barracks for smaller arrest sentences. For longer sentences, the prison complex contained the separate disciplinary detention facility for sentences that were imposed over several weeks.
In the middle of the complex was the military court. It was created as the highest military court of the Saxon Army and received the three military criminal law levels of the corps, governorate and divisional court, each with its own courtrooms and administrative rooms.
A new, larger military court building was later built on Fabricestrasse. The old courthouse was used as a purely administrative building for the prison. The new building also has three floors, but is designed to be larger with side wings. It was given a neoclassical facade, mainly characterized by the portal. The military prisons were converted into a civil prison in 1920. The new military court building was used by the Soviet Army until 1992. The Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been located here since 1998 .
Of the barracks, which formed their own areas, often only the accommodation buildings for the soldiers have been preserved. Regardless of the type of troop for which the barracks were built, they still contained workshops, stores and shed houses as well as stables that were later unnecessary.
The " Kaiser-Grenadier-Kaserne " and the "Leib-Grenadier-Kaserne" were arranged symmetrically in one system. Both buildings are elongated neoclassical buildings, each 350 meters long, following the course of the avenue. The parade grounds and ancillary structures were located behind the barracks. The two main buildings each had four attached wings on the side facing away from the avenue. These wings, which probably contained the crews' quarters, extended into the parade ground. The three main parts between the wings had symmetrical main and secondary portals with large staircases. The barracks were modernly equipped. In particular, modern sanitary facilities should improve troop hygiene. In addition to simple accommodation rooms, there were dining and common rooms.
The main guard for both barracks is located between the elongated structures. This building is also a typical representative of historicism. Attached to the avenue, it has a portico made up of three columns that open up in arches to the third upper floor. Two wings are attached to the side of the building, making the house more like a villa of that time. The detention cells of both barracks were housed in this guard building.
During the air raids on Dresden in 1945, the western "Leib-Grenadier-Kaserne" was hit and largely destroyed. The remaining main buildings at Stauffenbergallee 2 and 4 are used for civil purposes.
The rifle barracks, originally called the Jäger barracks, rose like a palace on the north side of the Alaunplatz and, in terms of its effect, was one of the most monumental barracks buildings in Albertstadt. It was built until 1871, making it the oldest barracks in Albertstadt.
The building consisted of a central part, which was provided with portals and towers like a castle . The towers were about eight stories high, the entire building had five stories after extensions. Building wings were added to the left and right. The east wing formed the edge of the barracks and was therefore a little longer in the depth.
In the background of the building and also on the western edge of the area there were workshops and supply facilities. The barracks was built in front of the main part of Albertstadt and was originally dependent on self-sufficiency.
In 1945 the barracks was destroyed and later removed. The Alaunplatz itself - once laid out as a parade ground - was transformed into the Alaunpark on the edge of the Outer New Town without this building that towers above the square . This park continues without any major development to the garrison church on Stauffenbergallee.
Friedrich August barracks
The "Friedrich-August-Kaserne" is another infantry barracks on Marienallee. It was subsequently built in Albertstadt in 1894 and 1895. The main building of this barracks was behind the "Leib-Grenadier-Kaserne" and followed the course of Stauffenbergallee in the second row. The guard and gates were on Marienallee. The location of the barracks was chosen so that it was only a short distance from the shooting ranges. The auxiliary buildings and stores for the stationed units were located behind the main building.
On the opposite side of Marienallee was the cadet institute, which later also used the houses of the "Friedrich-August-Kaserne". In 1947 the barracks were put into civil use.
The Fabrice barracks was laid out in 1878 for a cavalry unit and had the largest stables and the necessary facilities for keeping horses.
As with the infantry barracks along the avenue, the main building with the accommodations is located in the front part of the area along the avenue. The main building has four short side wings. The portal to the main street was in the middle of the building. The larger exits to the back yard were on the outer connectors.
In the background were the five stables for the squadrons, each of which led 160 horses. These were connected by a connecting passage and were roughly in the middle of the barracks. In the background were the outbuildings, such as the forge, the forage magazine , the sick bay and a comparatively small carriage shed.
Between 2009 and 2010, 225 apartments were built in the barracks, and balconies and terraces were added.
King Albert Barracks
The "König-Albert-Kaserne" was created for the artillery. The main building was identical to the building of the cavalry barracks. The two buildings were only separated by a small barracks belonging to the Train department for two of their companies.
The field artillery needed not only carriage sheds for the cannons but also extensive stables, as horses were used as a means of pulling the cannons. In the middle of the barracks there were therefore four large stable buildings with an L-shaped floor plan, each of which housed 100 horses and guns for two batteries of the artillery regiment. Along the rear border of the facility were two long chamber buildings, in front of which there was a riding house.
The forge was next to the main building on the avenue and to the side was a large warehouse for dormant material.
Today the Dresden Police Department is housed in it.
King George Barracks
The "König-Georg-Kaserne" was built in 1900 for another artillery regiment. It is located at a narrow point between Stauffenbergallee and Fabricestrasse. The area is so comparatively small. The size of the accommodation building and the stable allowed it to be used for two batteries. The barracks still had several chamber buildings.
In 2006 there were 246 companies in Albertstadt that belonged to the Chamber of Industry and Crafts. The largest share of these was made up of the service industry with 37.4% without real estate business, followed by industry with 13% and the hospitality industry with 10.6%.
In 2011 the housing market in Albertstadt was characterized by a vacancy rate of around 18.2%, which was higher than the average vacancy rate in Dresden of 8.4%. In contrast, the unemployment rate in Albertstadt was 5.5%, lower than the average Dresden rate of 7.1%.
A barracks and training area for the Red Army was located north of the traditional industrial site until they were withdrawn. The Dresden Technology Center (branch office north) has now been built in the buildings, and the TechnoPark Nord industrial area next door on the former car parking space. To the north of the renatured practice area is the newly built Infineon plant in the forest area . The outer north of Dresden has been a destination around the airport for large settlements of manufacturing companies such as Globalfoundries in Wilschdorf and the AMTC . The partially listed building stock of the old industrial site and the renovation of the training area, which was not yet completed at the time, made the immediate expansion of the industrial site through this large settlement impossible.
The traditional industrial area around the thermal power station, known as the industrial site, is now known in Dresden and beyond for its entertainment industry. But it has also remained or has become the headquarters of many industrial companies. The Detroit automotive supplier Federal-Mogul , which took over Goetze AG, is one of the major manufacturing companies with two plants. The French electrical and nuclear technology group AREVA had taken over VEB Starkstromanlagenbau "Otto Buchwitz" Dresden from the now operating AEG, but part of the location was given back to the Coswig-based company SAM A&E. A recycling company is located in another workshop of the former high-voltage facility. The "Zeitströmung" project took over the area of the VEB flow machines and uses it to the present day.
In addition, a large number of workshops and former workshops offer space for smaller companies, etc. a. Car workshops, construction machinery rentals, studios and distribution centers (e.g. gases, building services, cables, ball bearings).
The industrial area is known to many as a venue and district of large discos. The settlement of large discos in the structures of industrial areas as subsequent uses of the production halls and warehouses is not only typical for Dresden. The venue, Street E , a continuation of the pragmatic street names of the initial development in the area, was able to gain national recognition. There are also other clubs with a variety of music in the area. The Albertstadt is thus at the center of nightlife in Dresden in the neighboring Äußere Neustadt.
The only hotel in Albertstadt is the “Quality Hotel Plaza Dresden” on Königsbrücker Strasse , a first-class hotel with 293 beds. It is located on the site of the old " Lindengarten dance hall ", known as the "League" during the GDR era ; Only the ballroom has been preserved as the hotel's event space.
The oven equipment on the high brick chimney of the army bakery has been converted into a restaurant.
Culture, leisure and sport
Albertstadt is part of the nightlife in the north, which is important for all of Dresden. The center of night life in the Outer Neustadt is within walking distance. Cultural institutions such as the art theater thalia in the Neustadt and the Hellerau Festival Hall are included in the cultural life . Albertstadt benefits from the fact that it can get involved between the narrow Wilhelminian style district of Äußere Neustadt, which has become a trendy district, and the garden city of Hellerau with the European Center for the Arts with its industrial culture.
Albertstadt has very few leisure facilities. There is an indoor swimming pool in the neighboring Klotzsche district .
In the very east of Albertstadt is the Jägerpark sports field, home of SC Borea Dresden . The SC Borea arose in part from the SG Dynamo Heide Dresden, which had already held its home there. He cooperates with Dynamo Dresden in the training of young people and runs a performance center with an attached boarding school in Albertstadt.
The city-run sports field on Meschwitzstrasse is located between the industrial site and the Arsenal. This is where the Sportfreunde 01 Nord play their football and tennis games. The football department of SG Klotzsche also uses the pitch.
Via the Prießnitz valley you can reach the Dresden Heath as a recreational area from Albertstadt. In addition to the parks, this “city forest” is a popular destination for jogging and cycling and covers about a third of the area of Albertstadt. The highest elevation of the forest area, the Dachsenberg , is just under 281 meters higher than the Albertstadt and is five kilometers away from it.
Military History Museum
In the arsenal building is the Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr , which emerged from the NVA Army Museum at the same location. There has been a public arms exhibition in this building since 1918. As a collection of Saxon military history, it forms a core of the collection, which was expanded to include Soviet and American military technology during the Cold War . The operator of the historical exhibition is the Bundeswehr.
The most famous exhibit is the Brandtaucher (the first German underwater boat). The collection also includes airplanes and smaller boats that are exhibited in an outdoor area. One focus is increasingly on the representation of military life through the exhibition of uniforms and everyday objects of the various armies.
In Albertstadt there are public facilities that mainly use the barracks. The municipal labor institute also used to be in Albertstadt. The civil conversion of military buildings began shortly after 1945, when many of the state capital's institutions were relocated from the city center and the military city was at least partially transformed into an administrative city. Among other things, the Saxon state parliament was housed in Albertstadt when all inner-city assembly rooms were destroyed shortly after the war. The Saxon State Library was also housed in a barracks in Albertstadt from 1945 to 2002 (merging with the university library in the new building on the university grounds), which allowed other art collections to move into the Japanese Palace .
The remaining institutions are to reside permanently in Albertstadt and move into specially converted and renewed buildings. After 1990, the use of public facilities and institutions, especially in the state of Saxony, was promoted in order to ensure that the abandoned military properties could be used again.
The Dresden branch of the State Office of Saxony uses the old "Kaiser Grenadier Barracks" after the staff of the 1st Guards Armored Army of the Soviet Army. The State Office of Saxony is responsible for the legal supervision of the municipalities in the Dresden administrative district . The State Office for Finance is also located in the same building. Thus, the two authorities share the "Kaiser Grenadier Barracks" with each other. The ownership company State Palaces, Castles and Gardens of Saxony has been located in the old guard building of the "Kaiser-Grenadier-Kaserne" since the end of 2006. This building is located at the southern end of the complex and is now known as the “gatehouse” because it used to be the main entrance to the barracks area.
GeoSN (successor to the State Surveying Office of Saxony) and the Saxon State Office for the settlement of open property issues are located at the Arsenal .
State Broadcasting House
The regional program for television (e.g. “ SachsenSpiegel ”) and radio for Saxony (especially MDR 1 Radio Sachsen ) is produced in the Sachsen Landesfunkhaus of Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk . The State Broadcasting House is located in the old “ König-Johann- Barracks”, which originally housed the engineer battalion. There, around 190 employees develop programs that are broadcast daily in Saxony and at irregular intervals nationwide. The renovation of the building began in 1997 and cost around 70 million euros.
On the occasion of the upcoming 500th anniversary of Luther's posting of the theses on Reformation Day 2017, the MDR planted a Luther linden tree in the garden of the State Broadcasting House at the end of October 2016 to mark the start of the "tree sponsorship for Luther trees 2017".
In the west of Albertstadt above the artillery barracks, the Dresden penal institution was built as a new building from 1998 to 2000 . It was deliberately not created in an old barracks or the old military prison. In order to be able to meet modern standards, the prison was built in six blocks, offers 750 prison places and is one of the larger institutions in Germany. The largest building contains the workshops, as the prisoners are obliged to work under the Prison Act. In the eastern part there are still some administration buildings and the entrance, which, when viewed from the city, is behind the correctional facility. The area on which the entire facility is located was not previously built on, but served as a parade ground and later as a storage location for sand and gravel from the pits in Heller.
Specialized Court Center
To the south of Stauffenbergallee, the remaining barracks were converted into a specialized court center. Therein these are Dresden Administrative Court , the Labor Court Dresden and the Social Court Dresden under come.
The Free State of Saxony invested around 15.2 million euros in the expansion of the court center in the two listed barracks buildings. Offices, archives and meeting rooms are located on more than 5000 square meters. For example, a large courtroom complemented the old military buildings. 182 judicial staff are designated for the court center.
The city archive has been located in the area of the Heeresbäckerei since 2000 . One of the provision stores was converted into an archive for documents, certificates and cards, as well as rooms for administration. More than 50,000 existing elements are stored in the storage building on 6000 m². The city archive has a reading room that is accessible for a fee. The old warehouse building was extended by a modern glass portal.
After the state library moved to the new building on Zellescher Weg in 2002 , the rooms unexpectedly became the warehouse of the Old Masters Picture Gallery , whose picture warehouse in the cellar of the Zwinger was destroyed during the Elbe flood in August 2002 . During the renovation of the main state archive's warehouse on Albertstrasse, the property served as an alternative property from 2007 to 2011.
The military archive of the Saxon Army was incorporated into the main state archive in Dresden in the government district of the Inner Neustadt and originally had specially built structures near the infantry barracks.
The headquarters of the Dresden Chamber of Crafts , which represents more than 20,000 members in the Dresden Chamber District, was built on the industrial site . In the middle of the industrial buildings, a building in contemporary style was built and is representative of a modern reconstruction of the district, also in the context of listed industrial architecture.
There are five libraries in Albertstadt . There are also two day-care centers and a primary school in Albertstadt. There is no high school or grammar school in the district, but the Saxon bakery school Dresden-Helmsdorf does .
A branch of the Dresden District Court is located in an administration building at the Arsenal .
Day of the open Albertstadt
Since 2004, the authorities located along Stauffenbergallee have been opening their doors to the population on a Saturday in September every two years for an open day on Albertstadt. In 2008 around 30,000 visitors were counted.
Similar barracks complexes in large cities:
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