|Region:||North Vietnam ( Bắc Bộ )|
|Region :||Red River Delta|
|Municipality :||Thành phố Hải Phong|
|ISO 3166-2: VN :||VN-HP|
|Area of the province:||1523.9 km²|
|Waters :||cửa Cấm, Thái Bình, Bạch Đằng , Lạch Tray, Đá Bạch, Tam Bạc|
|City residents :||885,000 (Statistical Yearbook 2012, provisional value)|
|Inhabitants province:||1,904,100 (Statistical Yearbook 2012, provisional value)|
|Population density :||1250 inhabitants per km²|
|Ethnic groups :||Kinh , Hoa|
|Full name:||Hải tần phòng thủ|
|Name meaning:||Defense by the sea|
|Area code :||+84 (0) 31|
|Vehicle registration number :||15-16|
|Time zone :||UTC +7: 00|
|City structure:||15 districts|
|Chairman of the People's Council:||Nguyễn Văn Thuận|
|Chairman of the People's Committee:||Trịnh Quang Sử|
Haiphong ( Vietnamese Hải Phòng , Hán Tự 海防 ) is the third largest city in Vietnam . The city is economically significant as the most important port in North Vietnam . Administratively, Haiphong has provincial status. The city, which is equivalent to a province, has around 1.9 million inhabitants, around 885,000 of them live in the actual city area.
The name is derived from Hải tần phòng thủ (海 嬪 防守), which means defense by the sea . Another common name is City of Red Flowers (Thành phố hoa phượng đỏ), because of the flame trees that line many of the downtown streets. These trees are also the namesake of the Red Flamboyant Festival , which has been celebrated every year in May before the opera since 2012.
Location and climate
Haiphong is located about 100 km southeast of Hanoi , the capital of the country, in the delta of the Red River on a northern estuary called cửa Cấm (Forbidden Gate), 20 km from the confluence with the Gulf of Tonkin . The city is traversed by 16 rivers and tributaries. The old town lies on the bank of Tam Bạc. The city has the second largest port in Vietnam, which as an overseas port is of great importance for the entire north. It is therefore also called the port of Hanoi . The coastline is about 95 km long.
The average temperature is 23 to 24 ° C, the annual rainfall is between 1500 and 1800 mm. A typhoon on September 15, 1881 killed up to 300,000 people in the Haiphong area. On September 27, 2005, the strongest cyclone in 30 years, Damrey , reached the provinces of Thanh Hóa and Haiphong. In the largest evacuation operation to date, around 300,000 people from the coastal region were brought to safety. Around 50 people died in the floods. According to forecasts by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Haiphong is also at risk from rising sea levels.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Hải Phong
According to legend, the place was founded as An Biên by the local freedom fighter Lê Chân, who is said to have supported the Trưng sisters against the Chinese in 39 AD . A statue in honor of General Lê Chân stands in front of the municipal exhibition hall at the western end of the Vườn Hoa city park . A first mention as a fishing and market village in swampy terrain dates from the 1st century.
In 938 General Ngô Quyền had stakes with iron spikes driven in against a Chinese expedition fleet in the river Bạch Đằng . At low tide the ships were pierced by the piles and more than half sank. This ended Chinese rule over North Vietnam for more than a thousand years. In 1287/88 General Trần Hưng Đạo repeated this ruse against 400 Mongolian ships. A bronze tube with chữ-Nôm inscription at the Vân Bản pagoda ( 雲 岅 ) is said to date from 1076, which is, however, disputed.
In the 17th century, the small military post was expanded into a port. Haiphong became one of the most important trading centers in northern Vietnam and an important port city for Chinese, Japanese, French and Portuguese seafarers. Decisive impulses for the development of Haiphong into an overseas port came during the French colonial rule. In 1874 the French took over Haiphong, had the swamps drained and began to develop the site systematically. It was expanded into a city by forced labor and the port became a French naval base and largest overseas port in Indochina by 1885. A large part of the imports (weapons, luxury goods) and exports (coal, ores, precious woods) from and to France were handled through him. The city was officially founded in 1888 with around 10,000 inhabitants.
The favorable location for opening up China was also decisive for these efforts by the French. The assumption that the Red River is navigable up to the upper reaches and therefore suitable for trade with China influenced the colonial power's interest in the port. From 1901 to 1910 the Yunnan Railway to Kunming was built. In 1939 the city had around 80,000 inhabitants, of which 2,300 were Europeans. During the colonial period, the city developed into the largest industrial center in North Vietnam thanks to the infrastructure created by the French and the factories they settled there.
After the end of the Second World War, which took place in Asia through the capitulation and withdrawal of Japan, French troops annexed Vietnam again. On November 23, 1946, Haiphong was shelled by the French from the sea because the Việt Minh had refused to withdraw from the city. This event, also known as the Hai Phong incident, which is said to have killed more than 6,000 civilians and completely destroyed the port district, is considered to have triggered the Indochina War . After the partition of Vietnam on the 17th parallel north (Geneva Indochina Conference 1954) Haiphong was the only important port in North Vietnam. In 1955, after the lost battle of Điện Biên Phủ in 1954, the French left the country in Haiphong, from where they had taken Tonkin from 1872.
During the Vietnam War , the city was heavily bombed by the USA from 1966 onwards. In 1972 the port was mined on the orders of US President Richard Nixon . This was intended to cut off military supplies from the Soviet Union and force North Vietnam to the negotiating table. In the Paris Treaty of 1973, the United States was obliged to demine the port of Haiphong again.
After the end of the Vietnam War (1975) and the reunification (1976) to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), Haiphong was rebuilt as an important industrial center. The port facilities were built and expanded with the help of the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, and the fairway was deepened. The ban on private trade (1978) and the associated exodus of Vietnamese, predominantly of Chinese descent, also led to significant slumps in economic development in Haiphong. It was only with the liberalization policy Đổi mới (1986) that Haiphong experienced new impulses for its economy.
As a city under direct government control, Hải Phòng is directly subordinate to the central government and is equivalent to the provincial administrative unit . This extended urban area is divided into seven urban districts ( quận ) and eight rural districts ( huyện ). The agglomeration has as of January 2007 1.911.977 inhabitants.
- Hồng Bàng with the 11 quarters ( phường ) Hoàng Văn Thụ, Minh Khai, Quán Toan, Trại Chuối, Hùng Vương, Phan Bội Châu, Quang Trung, Sở Dầu, Phạm Hồng Thái, Thượng Lí and Hạ Lí,
- Ngô Quyền with the 13 quarters ( phường ) Đông Khê, Máy Tơ, Lương Khánh Thiện, Cầu Đất, Lạch Tray, Đằng Giang, Lương Khánh Thiện, Gia Viên, Cầu Tre, Vạn Mỹ, Lạc Viêốn, nh Viêốn, Đổn such as
- Lê Chân with the 15 quarters ( phường ) An Biên, An Dương, Cát Dài, Đông Hải, Dư Hàng, Dư Hàng Kênh, Hàng Kênh, Hồ Nam, Lam Sơn, Niệm Nghĩa, Nghĩa Xá, Trênại Nau, Vĩnh Niệm and Kênh Dương.
- Da Nang ( Vietnam )
- Incheon ( South Korea ), since 1997
- Kitakyushu ( Japan ), since 2014
- Saint Petersburg ( Russia ), since 2008, semi-officially
- Seattle , ( United States of America), since 1996
- Tianjin ( People's Republic of China ), since 1999
- Vladivostok ( Russia )
Infrastructure and institutions
The river port Cảng Hải Phòng on Sông Cấm with the UN / LOCODE VNHPH is historically and economically defining for Haiphong. Its draft is currently only 6.4 m, which is why the administration is vigorously expanding it into a modern port group. These include, as civil sea ports, the Cảng Đình Vũ and the Cảng L alsch Huyện , which has been built as a modern container port since 2013 in cooperation with the Hai Phong International Container Terminal Company (HICT) with the public-private partnership from Vinalines and the Japanese investor Molnykit . It is to be opened in 2017 to connect the Đình Vũ economic zone and as the main port for North Vietnam. Export goods from North Vietnam can then be shipped to Europe and America via the ports of Singapore and Victoria Harbor near Hong Kong without a transit . This expansion is of central importance for the success of the Kunming-Haiphong Transport Corridor infrastructure project . The naval port is also being expanded significantly. In Haiphong there is a transmitting station of the international NAVTEX marine safety system, which transmits as Navarea 11 Station W on 4209.5 kHz. Ferries leave from the Bến Binh pier near the city center.
The colonial-style Ga Hải Phong Central Station is located at 75 Lương Khánh Thiện. The small Thường Li station is located in the western suburbs. The Haiphong – Hanoi railway line was opened in 1901. A railway line called the Yunnan Railway connects the city with Kunming , the capital of the Chinese province of Yunnan . The line to the Chinese border is being modernized as the Yen Vien-Lao Cai Railway Upgrading Project as part of the Kunming-Haiphong Transport Corridor project. At the same time, the expansion of national road No. 70 to Kunming to a 250 km long toll highway under the name Noi Bai-Lao Cai Expressway was opened in 2014 .
The most important road connection with Hanoi is National Road 5. The construction of a three-lane expressway from the Dinh Vu Bridge in Haiphong to the Thanh Tri Bridge in Hanoi began in May 2008. The city has several intercity bus stations. From the Tam Bạc bus station on Bến Tam Bạc opposite the Chợ Sắt market, buses to Hanoi go about ten minutes, the Cầu Rào bus station is in the Chân Cầu Rào, buses to Đồ Sơn start at the Bến xe Lạch Tray, from Niệm Nghĩa in the Trần Nguyên Hãn, destinations in the south are headed for and the eastern routes start in Lạc Long, 22 Cù Chính Lan. Buses on the Hanoi Lines also stop here.
The Cát Bi Airport ( IATA : HPH, ICAO : VVCI) is 7 km southeast of the city. There are flights from there to Ho Chi Minh City and Da Nang several times a week . Two projects are competing for the further expansion of flight capacity, on the one hand the expansion of Cát Bi by a new 3000 m long runway with the aim of quadrupling the handling capacity to 2 million passengers annually. The proximity to the city center, which would hinder future urban development, speaks against this plan. The other project, initiated by Deputy Prime Minister Hoàng Trung Hải, is examining a completely new building in the sparsely populated southwestern district of Tiên Lãng with a capacity of 60 to 80 million passengers, which could also relieve the Nội Bài Airport .
The most important hospital is the Vietnamese-Czech Friendship Hospital (Bệnh viện Hữu Nghị Việt Tiệp) in Đường Nhà Thương. The Medical University is located at Đường Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm in the Ngô Quyền district. The public university of Haiphong (Vietnamese Đại học Hải Phòng , abbreviation HPU) is located in the southwestern district of Kiến An in the 171 Phan Đăng Lưu. It was founded in 1968 as a part-time university. In 2000 it was merged with other universities in the city to form Hai Phong Education University and in 2004 it was renamed Hai Phong University . The internationally renowned Nautical University of Vietnam (English: Viet Nam Maritime University , vietn. Đại học Hàng hải Việt Nam , abbreviation VIMARU ) of the Ministry of Transport was founded in 1956 as Haiphong Maritime University . With the Haiphong Private University ( Đại học Dân lập Hải Phòng ) there is also a private university.
Craft and economy
In the city and in the surrounding villages there are a large number of craft businesses that work metal and marble, wicker and wicker, as well as lacquer and inlay work. The wool carpets from Haiphong are famous.
Since the beginning of colonization , Haiphong's economy has been shaped by traditional fishing, port and heavy industrial operations. These include large docks and shipyards such as NASICO and Vinashin ( Vietnam Shipbuilding Industry Group ), the steel industry, the extraction and export handling of oil, minerals and ores, brickworks and cement production (the first factory was built by the French as early as 1888) .
According to Đổi mới, production companies from South Korea, Taiwan and Japan have been established south of the city in the 1990s, which manufacture high-tech products as well as textiles and shoes for re-export as part of joint ventures . Haiphong has thus developed from an economic metropolis that is one-sidedly focused on port and heavy industry into a location of export-oriented light industry. Young women from the rural area in particular have found new jobs here.
The service sector is less developed in Haiphong. Haiphong offers favorable conditions for direct investments (FDI) and in the decade up to the world financial crisis in 2008 considerable economic growth rates with an average of 12% annually. According to the ITPC (Investment & Trade Promotion Center), the province was ranked 6th among the Vietnamese investment regions in 2004.
In January 2006, the Vietnamese press reported that Haiphong was to be expanded into a modern naval port at a cost of 500 million US dollars. The armament of the Vietnamese Navy can be seen against the background of new oil discoveries (2004) approx. 70 kilometers east of Haiphong in the Gulf of Tonkin and the longstanding conflict with the People's Republic of China over the Spratly and Paracel archipelagos in the South China Sea . Rich deposits of crude oil and natural gas are also suspected there. The Yên Tử oil field east of Haiphong is explosively close to the territorial waters of China. Vietnam is currently the third largest oil producer among the ASEAN countries (after Indonesia and Malaysia ). Vietnam's secured oil reserves are put at 600 million barrels .
In 2010 the shipbuilding and shipping company Vinashin came to the brink of collapse due to rapid growth and over-indebtedness. The company's debt totaled $ 4.7 billion through September 2010. That corresponds to six times the annual turnover of the group or around 5.4 percent of the gross domestic product of Vietnam. The renovation is only progressing slowly.
On September 2, 2017, the conglomerate VinGroup JSC ( Vietnamese Tập đoàn Vingroup ) presented its plans to build a vehicle factory in Hai Phong. Production is to start with an electric scooter . The market launch of the first self-developed car model with the brand name VinFast is planned for the second half of 2019. For this purpose, one wants to use technology in license production from BMW , among others , and works with Bosch and Pininfarina (design). The plant will be built on an area of 335 hectares on Hai Phong Island (đảo) Cát Hải , which includes the district of the same name. Prime Minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc also praised the effects on the structural support of the rural region at the above-mentioned event. The cost of the first phase of construction should amount to $ 1.5 billion, the total investment volume should amount to $ 3.5 billion. The Credit Suisse AG is said to have pledged 800 million US dollars to finance the project
The tourism plays in Haiphong due to the rather small number of sights a subordinate role. However, foreign tourist groups Haiphong often use as a starting point for a boat trip through the bizarre rock formations of Halong Bay ( UNESCO - World Heritage Site ). Hydrofoil high-speed boats of Russian design operate between Haiphong and the Cát Bà Island (journey time: 60 minutes).
According to the Korea Economic Daily of September 26, 2008, AMCO, a subsidiary of the Hyundai Group, is building a vacation spot in Haiphong. Hotels, hospitals, schools, an old people's home and an office center are being built on an area of 6.37 km². The project with an investment volume of 1.7 trillion. Won (approx. 1.5 billion USD) is expected to be completed in 2015 [obsolete] .
On the attractive beaches located 20 kilometers south of Haiphong near Đồ Sơn , the French had built villas for relaxation before 1954. In 1994, Vietnam's first legal casino started operations there. Only foreigners (mostly Chinese) and Vietnamese with a valid passport are allowed, but not all Vietnamese have one. On the ninth day of the eighth month in the Chinese calendar , water buffalo fights also take place as part of the famous village festival Lễ hội Chọi trâu Đồ Sơn .
- Community house Đình Hàng Kênh (also Nhân Thọ, 17th century), famous for its carved wooden reliefs, Nguyễn Công Trứ, Hàng Kênh district in the Lê Chân district
- Dư Hàng pagoda (built between 980 and 1009, restorations in the 17th century), 121 Chua Hàng, Le Chan district
- Đền Nghè Temple (18th century), corner of Le Chan and Me Linh
- Colonial architecture: Ga Hải Phòng train station at 75 Lương Khánh Thiện, neo-baroque opera and city theater (1904) at 56 Đinh Tiên Hoàng, the post office at 5 Nguyễn Tri Phương.
- Villas and palaces, especially in the Français quarter around the Điện Biên Phủ
- Catholic Cathedral “Queen of the Rosary” ( Nữ Vương rất Thánh Mân Côi , 19th century), Pho Hoang Van Thu
- Historical Museum (1919, 1959), 11 Đinh Tiên Hoàng
- Municipal Exhibition and Art House, Lần ông / Nguyễn Đức Cảnh
- Vegetable and fish market Chợ Tam Bạc (wide range of seafood)
- City Market Chợ Sắt (1992), Quang Trung
- Flower market in the city park of Vườn Hoa
- Market and craft district between Quang Trung and Phan Bội Châu
- Fairgrounds Hai Phong Center for International Trade and Exhibition
- Trade center with the TD (Thùy Dương) -Plaza, a 19-story twin high-rise, Lê Hồng Phong, Hải An Dist
- People's Theater Lake (Hồ Nhà hát nhân dân), originally located on a horse racing track built by the French
- Amusement park for children and Họng Voi grotto
- University belt
- Lạch Tray Stadium with 20,000 seats, modernized for the 2004 ASEAN soccer championship .
outside the city:
- Traditional trading villages with various specialties
- Marine Museum (1975), Department of the Oceanographic Institute, 16,000 m² exhibition space, on the 353 Hải Phòng – Đồ Sơn expressway
- Đồ Sơn , seaside resort and casino
- Observatory Phu Lien (1902), 8 km southwest of downtown in the district Kiến An
- Mount Voi in the shape of an elephant, 20 km southwest of the city
- Tràng Kênh , also known as Dry Hạ Long Bay , near the town of Minh Đức
- Bạch Đằng Delta, east of Haiphong
- Cát Bà island, declared a national park in1986, part of a UNESCO biosphere reserve since 1994.
The soccer club Xi măng Hải Phòng currently plays in the highest league in the country, the V.League 1 , and was trained by the Austrian Alfred Riedl between 2008 and 2009 . Former Brazilian international Denílson de Oliveira Araújo signed a contract for the 13 games of the second half of the season in 2009. The club plays its home games in the Lạch Tray Stadium. Haiphong hosted the 2004 ASEAN football championship and the 2003 women's final of the 22nd Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games).
Daughters and sons of the city
- Mac Đăng Dung (1483-1541), King of Đại Việt and founder of the Mac - dynasty
- Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm (1491–1585), educator, poet, sage and saint of Cao Đài
- Mai Trung Thứ (1906–1980), Vietnamese-French painter
- Georges Condominas (1921–2011), French ethnologist
- Michel Henry (1922–2002), French philosopher and writer
- Văn Cao (1923–1995), composer
- Éric Charden (1942–2012), French chansonnier
- Wong Kwok-hing (Vietnamese Vương Quốc Hưng ; * 1949), trade unionist and member of the Hong Kong Legislative Council
- Phạm Nhật Vượng (* 1968), entrepreneur
- Ngọc Sơn (* 1968), singer
- Thu Phương (* 1972), Vietnamese-American singer
- Bùi Thị Nhung (* 1983), high jumper
- Phan Thị Hà Thanh (* 1991), gymnast
- City administration of Hải Phong (English, Vietnamese)
- Portal Economy & Society HP
- Department of Foreign Affairs, Hải Phòng
- Hải Phong Administration of Tourism
- Website of the University of Hoi Phong
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- Marc Frey : History of the Vietnam War. (Beck'sche series), ISBN 3-406-45978-1
- afd.fr: Yen Vien-Lao Cai Railway Line Upgrading Project
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- Vingroup công bố sản xuất ô tô, xe máy tiêu chuẩn Châu Âu - VinFast. vingroup.net, September 2, 2017, accessed September 10, 2017 (Vietnamese).
- Frank Volk: Newcomer Vinfast uses production technology from BMW. automobil-produktion.de, January 22, 2018, accessed on March 6, 2018 .
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- Construction report of the Binh Bridge ( English , PDF; 2.4 MB) August 2006. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
- Traditional Trade Villages (list of trading villages) ( Memento from April 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) haiphong.gov.vn (English).