The Indochina Conference was a conference on the Indochina War and the Korean War that took place in Geneva from April 26, 1954 to July 20, 1954 . In addition to the warring factions in the Indochina War, France and the Việt Minh , the United Kingdom , the Soviet Union , the United States and the People's Republic of China took part.
France was in Indochina exposed to high military pressure, which was attributed to the instructions of the Việt Minh by Chinese military, which the unusual strategies and tactics of Mao Zedong began, to that of the Art of War by Sun Tzu in the 5th Century. Chr. Took over.
The conference in Geneva was preceded by talks between the Foreign Ministers of the Four Powers at the Berlin Foreign Ministers' Conference from January 25 to February 18. A good month before the already scheduled conference in Geneva, the Việt Minh began the battle for Điện Biên Phủ , which they won during the conference.
Talks on Korea ended on June 15 and remained fruitless because the United States requested United Nations oversight , which the People's Republic of China refused. The United States withdrew to an observational role early on.
Talks on Indochina only started on May 8th. While negotiations were stalled, Pierre Mendès France was elected Prime Minister of France on June 16 . During the election campaign he had promised to end the conflict or resign by July 20. At an initial meeting with him, Zhou Enlai spoke for the first time of two governments in Vietnam and thereby also recognized the opposing one. After the Chinese negotiator had made sure of the Soviet Union, he got Hồ Chí Minh to give in.
The Geneva Convention was read out on July 21, 1954. As agreed, the Việt Minh retreated to the north of what is now Vietnam behind the 17th parallel and left the south to the Emperor Bảo Đại, who was under Western influence . According to the agreement, France evacuated all of Indochina, Laos and Cambodia received their state independence , in Vietnam there was an armistice . Free elections were agreed for July 1956 throughout Vietnam, which should be monitored by Canada as a representative of NATO , Poland as a representative of the Eastern Bloc and India as a non-aligned state . For this, the 3 states formed the International Control Commission .
When the agreed elections came up in 1956, they were refused by Ngô Đình Diệm because no free elections were guaranteed in the north and the south he ruled had not signed the Geneva Agreement.
The conflicts between North Vietnam and South Vietnam finally culminated in the Second Indochina War or Vietnam War , which again encompassed the entire area of the former colony.
- James Cable : The Geneva Conference of 1954 on Indochina , Basingstoke et al. a. (Macmillan) 1986. ISBN 0-333-38746-5
- Marc Frey : History of the Vietnam War. The Tragedy in Asia and the End of the American Dream , 9th edition. Munich (Beck) 2010. ISBN 978-3-406-61035-6
- ↑ a b Geneva Conference (1954) in the database Dodis the Diplomatic Documents of Switzerland
- ^ A bang for Geneva. Der Spiegel , March 24, 1954, accessed April 2, 2013 .
- ^ A b c d Zhai Qiang: China and the Geneva Conference of 1954 . In: The China Quarterly . No. 129 . Cambridge University Press , March 1992 ( Online [PDF; 2,3 MB ; accessed on April 2, 2013]). PDF; 2.28 MB ( Memento of the original from June 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.