# Macron

̄
Diacritical marks
designation character
Acute, simple ◌́
Acute, double ◌̋
Breve, including ◌̮
Cedilla, including ◌̧
Gravis, simple ◌̀
Gravis, double ◌̏
hook ◌̉
Hatschek ◌̌
horn ◌̛
Comma below ◌̦
Coronis ◌̓
Kroužek, including ◌̥
Macron, underneath ◌̱
Ogonek ◌̨
Point below ◌̣
Dash ◌̶
diacritical
slash
◌̷
Alcohol asper ◌̔
Spiritus lenis ◌̕
Tilde, underneath ◌̰
Trema, including ◌̤
circumflex ◌̂
Āā Ēē Īī N̄n̄
Ōō Ūū Ǖǖ Ȳȳ

The Makron [ maːkrɔn ], also Macron , bar , macron , overline or slash called a is diacritical mark to indicate a special pronunciation or emphasis on a vowel . There is a horizontal line above the letter. The technical term is the neuter substantiated Greek adjective μακρ ‚ ν makron 'long', therefore in the plural Makra . Strokes over the consonant m or n for consonant doubling, on the other hand, are nasal strokes .

## use

### Human languages

The macron comes in Latvian ( garumzīme ), Lithuanian ( brūkšnelis ), Hawaiian ( Kahakō ), Māori ( Tohutō ), Marshallese and in the Latin transcription of Japanese , Chinese ( Pinyin ), Arabic , Persian and South Asian languages ( Hindi , Sanskrit , Nepali  …), but can have different meanings in different languages.

• In most cases - for example in Latin and ancient Greek dictionaries, in Latvian and Lithuanian, or in the Latin spelling of Japanese  - it indicates a long vowel (e.g. extrā ). In this usage, the counterpart is the breve .
• The ancient Greek letters Eta and Omega are usually transcribed with a macron (ē and ō) in order to avoid confusion with epsilon or omicron (see Greek alphabet ). In this case, the macron is used on the one hand to identify the length of the vowel and on the other hand to distinguish between two letters of the original script.
• For the phonetic transcription of the Chinese language (Hanyu Pinyin ) the macron is used to clarify the first tone (high and constant).

### Formula symbol

The overline is often used as a formula symbol and as read across . He describes

## Display and input on the computer

With the German standard keyboard layout T2 , the character is entered as Alt Gr+ t. This combination acts as a dead key , i.e. H. must be entered before the basic letter.

On the German X11 keyboard ( de legacy ) the corresponding letter can be generated by Alt Gr+ Shift+ +, followed by the underlying letter.

In HTML it can be set with the named string &macr;.

Further display and input options result from the following table:

symbol designation code Input on the computer Latex
HTML Unicode Windows Mac Linux Typesetting Formula set output
¯ Macron & # 175; U + 00AF Alt + 0175 Alt + 00AF Ctrl + Shift + U + 00AF \ = \bar{} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {}}}$
Ā Capital A with macron & # 256; U + 0100 Alt + 0256 Alt + 0100 Ctrl + Shift + U + 0100 \ = A \ bar {A} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {A}}}$
- Small A with macron & # 257; U + 0101 Alt + 0257 Alt + 0101 Ctrl + Shift + U + 0101 \ = a \ bar {a} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {a}}}$
Ē Capital E with macron & # 274; U + 0112 Alt + 0274 Alt + 0112 Ctrl + Shift + U + 0112 \ = E \ bar {E} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {E}}}$
ē Small e with macron & # 275; U + 0113 Alt + 0275 Alt + 0113 Ctrl + Shift + U + 0113 \ = e \ bar {e} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {e}}}$
Ī Capital I with macron & # 298; U + 012A Alt + 0298 Alt + 012A Ctrl + Shift + U + 012A \ = I \ bar {I} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {I}}}$
ī Small i with macron & # 299; U + 012B Alt + 0299 Alt + 012B Ctrl + Shift + U + 012B \ = i \ bar {i} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {i}}}$
O Capital O with macron & # 332; U + 014C Alt + 0332 Alt + 014C Ctrl + Shift + U + 014C \ = O \ bar {O} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {O}}}$
O Small o with macron & # 333; U + 014D Alt + 0333 Alt + 014D Ctrl + Shift + U + 014D \ = o \ bar {o} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {o}}}$
Ū Capital U with macron & # 362; U + 016A Alt + 0362 Alt + 016A Ctrl + Shift + U + 016A \ = U \ bar {U} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {U}}}$
ū Small u with macron & # 363; U + 016B Alt + 0363 Alt + 016B Ctrl + Shift + U + 016B \ = u \ bar {u} ${\ displaystyle {\ bar {u}}}$

### Character sets

The macron does not appear in the ASCII character set . In the character sets of the ISO-8859 family, selected characters appear with a macron.

Unicode contains other pre-composed characters with macron and can represent any characters with macron by adding a combining macron (U + 0304).

### TeX and LaTeX

TeX and LaTeX can represent any characters with a macron. There are two different commands for this

• in text mode for the typesetting creates \=aa ā (to suppress the period at i and j, e.g. used \=\iinstead of \=ifor ī)
• in math mode for the formula set generates \bar{a}the formula${\ displaystyle {\ bar {a}}}$

## literature

Wiktionary: Makron  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

## Individual evidence

1. DIN ISO 5426: 1998-04