International Brigades

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Flag of the Interbrigades
Interbrigadists of the XI. International Brigade sided with the Spanish Republic during the Battle of Belchite (1937)

The International Brigades , shortly Interbrigades , in Spanish las Brigadas Internacionales , were of the Communist International recruited and trained military volunteer units (militia) , in the Spanish Civil War on the side of the Spanish Republic , with its elected government against the of Franco cited coup and its of Associations supported by Hitler and Mussolini (national Spanish coalition) fought. In 1936, the republican parliamentary leader Diego Martínez Barrio reserved five numbers of the Spanish Army for the International Brigades: the numbers of XI. to XV.

First international militiamen

The first international militiamen were mainly participants in the People's Olympiad in Barcelona and emigrants with a political background who lived in Spain . There were around 300 international militiamen who organized themselves into groups, mainly in Barcelona, ​​after the military coup. They formed the first international militia groups with the first international volunteers who came to Spain via France. Anarchist international volunteers fought primarily in CNT militia units, socialist international volunteers primarily in POUM militia units, and communist international volunteers primarily in PSUC militia units. These international militia groups were divided into hundreds ( Centuria in Spanish ). Communist Italians formed the Centuria Giustizia e Libertà and the Centuria Gastone Sozzi , German communists the Centuria Thälmann (Thälmann column) , and Polish communists the Dąbrowski militia group . A number of communist French and Belgians formed the Commune-de-Paris militia group .

Decision to set up an international brigade

On August 3, 1936, the Comintern passed a general resolution to set up an International Brigade in support of Spain. Only on September 18, 1936, after Stalin had made a decision, was a meeting called in Paris in which Eugen Fried announced Stalin's decision to set up an international brigade. As a result, communist parties from various countries organized the recruitment of volunteers. Important members of the formed organizing committee were André Marty and his right-hand man Luigi Longo , who were in Spain, as well as the head of the Paris office, Giuseppe Di Vittorio . Other organizers were Josip Broz Tito , who was also in Paris, and Milovan Đilas . Both organized the flow of volunteers from Yugoslavia to France. Furthermore, the Soviet secret service officer Walter Germanowitsch Kriwitzki organized the recruitment of volunteers in The Hague .

Paris became the main recruiting center. The recruiting office was on rue Lafayette. After the personal details were recorded and an admission procedure was carried out, the volunteers were distributed to various trade union houses (Maison de Peuple). One of these trade union houses was at 8 rue Mathourin-Moreau. After a few days, the volunteers traveled by train from Paris with the so-called Volunteer Express via Perpignan , Barcelona to Albacete . The central base of the international brigades was located in the former barracks of the Guardia Civil on Calle de la Libertad in Albacete .

The Organizing Committee for the Establishment of an International Brigade was transformed into a military council on October 26, 1936. Members of the military council were Vital Gaymann (Vidal), Vittorio Vidali (Carlos Contreras) and Karol Świerczewski (General Walter). The council's interpreter was Constancia de la Mora . The military council resided in a villa on the outskirts of Albacete.

International Brigades

The interbrigades were set up on October 9, 1936. Military commander of the XI. International Brigade was Manfred Stern (General Kleber). On October 12th, the first 650 volunteers reached the port of Alicante on the steamer “Ciudad de Barcelona” . The first battalions to be set up in Alicante were the André Marty battalion , the Dąbrowski battalion and the Edgar André battalion . On November 8, 1936, the three battalions coming from Albacete reached Madrid . The three battalions were sent directly to the suburbs of Madrid. There fought other battalions of the International Brigades, which on November 1, 1936 in the XI. International Brigade were grouped. One of these battalions that fought on the Madrid front was the German Thälmann battalion . On 3 March 1937, the Inter brigades brought to that of Mussolini sent to Spain expeditionary force Corpo Truppe Volontarie in Guadalajara a crushing defeat at.

In 1938 the British and French forced the Spanish Republic to disband the International Brigade. The fighters therefore received pro forma Spanish citizenship and were accepted into the regular Spanish army.

Countries of origin

nation number
France 7,500
German Empire 5,000
Italy 4,000
Poland 3,000
United States 2,800
United Kingdom 2,000
Soviet Union 2,000
Belgium 1,600
Yugoslavia 1,600
Hungary 1,500
Czechoslovakia 1,500
Canada 1,500
Austria 1,400
Switzerland 800
Netherlands 700
Sweden 500
Bulgaria 400
Irish Free State 250
Estonians 200
Greece 160
Mexico 90
Cyprus 60
Albania 43

The nominal strength of the international brigades was 18,000 men, but this was never achieved due to the continuing losses. More than half of the 40,000 interbrigadists were killed. Moderately to poorly equipped and additionally limited by the language problem, the interbrigadists, who saw themselves as elite troops because they failed to recognize their fighting power , made up for only a few inadequacies with enthusiasm .

A quarter of the brigadists came from France ( André Marty battalion , Commune de Paris battalion and Meunier battalion ), of which 3,000 were killed. But there were also 5,000 Germans (of whom 2,000 fell, Thälmann Battalion and Edgar André Battalion in the XI Brigade) and 1,400 Austrians ( battalion February 12 ), 4,000 Italians ( Garibaldi battalion ), 1,500 Canadians ( Mackenzie Papineau Battalion , XV Brigade), 3,000 Americans ( Abraham Lincoln Battalion and George Washington Battalion , XV Brigade), 800 Swiss and 1,500 to 2,000 Czechoslovaks represented in the brigades. Volunteers from numerous other countries also joined the International Brigades (see Henri Vuillemin Battalion , Chapayev Battalion , Louise Michel Battalion , Saklatvala Battalion , Dimitrov Battalion , Nine Nations Battalion , Connolly Column from Ireland ). For example from Romania and Yugoslavia ( Djuro Djakovic battalion ), there was even a group of Chinese combatants, and 300 Jews from the British mandate of Palestine fought (see Naftali Botwin Company ).

New formation of battalions from October 1936

The formation of battalions of the International Brigades took place from October 1936 in Albacete, the central base and training camp of the International Brigades.

Composition in the summer of 1937

number founded Surname Battalions predominantly national composition
BI-XI October 1936 Thalmann I. Thalmann
II. Edgar André
III. Hans Beimler
IV. February 12th
BI-XII November 1936 Garibaldi 1. Garibaldi
2. – 4. Spanish-Italian battalions without naming
BI-XIII December 1936 Dąbrowski see
XIII. International Brigade
polish / russian
bulgarian / austrian
BI-XIV December 1936 Marseillaise 1. Commune de Paris
2. Henri Vuillemin
3. Henri Barbusse
4. Pierre Brachet
5. 6 de febrero
BI-XV July 1937 Lincoln / Washington 1. Abraham Lincoln
1. George Washington
1. Mackenzie-Papineau
2. Español
2. Six Février
2. Dimitrov
2. Galindo

Internal currents and the "Army of the Comintern"

Conflicts within the groups fighting on the republican side must be seen against the background of different strategies in the fight against European fascism. While the Communist Party of Spain and the Soviet Union relied on a partial alliance with bourgeois or social democratic forces ( popular front policy ), a social revolution was in the foreground for anarchist, left-wing socialist and Trotskyist groups .

Historiography sometimes claims that the International Brigades were misused as the Comintern army. Recent research refutes this. The brigades never posed a threat to the republic and were not deployed in Barcelona in May 1937 . In the ranks of the brigades, there was strict discipline (possibly appropriate from a military point of view), but no terror regime. In contrast, the author Antony Beevor reports on an internment camp run by the International Brigades, Camp Lukacs , where no fewer than 4,000 men were interned between August 1st and November 1st. Camp Lukacs was 10 miles from Albacete , the headquarters of the International Brigades. The historian Hugh Thomas calls these camps training camps, in which deserters were also liquidated.

Flight and fate of the "Spain fighters"

Memorial cloth of the international brigades in the Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr in Dresden
Memorial plaque in Mauthausen concentration camp
Memorial plaque in Mauthausen concentration camp

On the brigadists interned in Franco's concentration camps in Spain , from 1938 - with National Socialist support - racial ideologically motivated medical experiments were carried out to investigate the alleged physical and psychological deformations that occurred in supporters of " Marxism ".

After the Catalonia offensive in February 1939, many brigadists fled across the border to France. There they were sent to internment camps that were quickly improvised along the French Mediterranean coast (including in Saint-Cyprien (Pyrénées-Orientales) , Camp d'Agde internment camp and Argelès-sur-Mer internment camp ), where they first had to sleep on the bare ground. The French authorities gave them the choice of either staying in the internment camp or returning to Germany.

After the German occupation of France in June 1940, many were extradited to Germany via the Drancy transit camp under Section 19 of the armistice agreement . In the German Reich they were sent to concentration camps - especially Dachau ( interbrigadist block ), Mauthausen and Auschwitz - which many of the Red Spaniards did not survive. One of the survivors was Kurt Goldstein . Many brigadists also managed to escape from French internment. Some of them joined the Belgian or French resistance . Well-known members of the Resistance were Artur London , Pierre Georges , Henri Rol-Tanguy , Marcel Lamant , Marcel Langer and Joseph Epstein .

Even before the outbreak of the Second World War , in May 1939, 500 brigadists emigrated to the USSR via Le Havre in France . Shortly after arriving in Leningrad , many of them were arrested by the NKVD and interned in gulags . After his arrival in Russia in October 1937 Kazimiek Cechowskie and in January 1938 Gustav Reicher (pseudonym Rwal) were shot by the NKVD . One of the internees was Manfred Stern ( Emilio Kléber ). He died in Sosnovka labor camp in 1954. Wilhelm Zaisser was also arrested and interned on his return to Moscow. Friends from the IV Office of the Red Army (espionage) managed to get his release with great difficulty. The fate of many Russians is largely unknown. Bersin , Staschewskij, Antonow-Ovsejenko and Kolzow were arrested and liquidated during the Spanish Civil War.

After the Second World War, Stalin persecuted Spanish fighters in the Eastern European countries. B. the Hungarian Foreign Minister László Rajk . He was convicted and executed in a show trial in 1949. After his execution, other Spanish fighters were arrested and sentenced to death. In contrast, the former Political Commissar of the International Brigades Ernő Gerő rose to the position of senior security officer in his home country, Hungary, after the Second World War . Under the dictatorial ruling Mátyás Rákosi , he became Minister of the Interior in 1952 and continued to persecute opponents of the regime. The most important support was the " security police " ÁVH , who arrested or killed thousands of Hungarians.

In Czechoslovakia , Osvald Závodský , a former Spanish fighter and head of the SNB secret police, was arrested on January 27, 1951 , sentenced to death and executed on March 19, 1954 after Stalin's death. In addition, mainly former Spanish fighters were arrested on November 23, 1951 in another purge.

On November 11, 1952, the former Spain fighter Wacław Komar was arrested in Poland . As head of the military secret service (Section II of the General Staff LWP), he was arrested along with other employees of his department or the security apparatus. Most of those arrested were fighters from the International Brigades. There is evidence that almost all of those arrested were liquidated. The Spanish brigadists Bron, Flato and Leder were also liquidated. Furthermore, the members of the former XIII. International Brigade (Dąbrowski) suspected of sabotage and espionage.

After Stalin's death in November 1954, a number of former Spanish fighters were released from prison in Hungary.

In February 1956, Khrushchev mentioned in his speech at the XX. Congress of the CPSU that the liquidation of Spanish leadership was a regrettable mistake and a momentous act.

Legal status

Dudelange , No pasaran , Lucien Wercollier

In 2003, Luxembourg's parliament unanimously adopted a law proposed by LSAP MPs Mars Di Bartolomeo and Alex Bodry , which retrospectively rehabilitates the 102 participants from Luxembourg. Following the recommendation of the non-intervention office in London, Luxembourg had banned residents of Luxembourg from participating in the civil war by a law of April 10, 1937. This did not stop residents from Dudelange and Esch-sur-Alzette in particular . After Franco's victory, around thirty Luxembourgers were imprisoned by the Germans and some of them were deported to concentration camps. Italian nationals were extradited to Italy and faced a similar fate. The last two survivors, Henri Joachim from Dudelange and Albert Santer from Hautcharage , together with their Italian colleague Carlo Alvisi, had drawn attention to their legal situation at a conference in 1996. A circle of friends was formed around the historians Serge Hoffmann, Henri Wehenkel and Paul Cerf, with the aim of abolishing the 1937 law. In 2000, Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker awarded the survivors the National Order of Merit.

The rehabilitation of the Swiss fighters in Spain came into effect on September 1st, 2009.

other activities

The International Brigades set up several children's homes for orphans of fallen Spanish Republicans. The Thälmann Battalion of the XI. The brigade converted the summer residence of the Marquesa de Cubas-Herice that had been confiscated from it into a children's home. The “Campo Lukacz” children's home, named after the Hungarian writer Máté Zalka , who died on the Huesca front , was built in the Murcia medical center . Zalka commanded the XII under the pseudonym General Lukacz. Brigade. The “Solidaridad” home was set up in Benisa . And when Francoist airmen destroyed the orphanage in the Villa Beimler in Benicàssim, it was rebuilt in the mountains as the “Amistad” home.


Memorial to the German fighters in Spain by Fritz Cremer ( Volkspark Friedrichshain , Berlin)
Postage stamp commemorating the Interbrigades (GDR, 1986)
  • Erich Arendt (1903–1984): poet and translator for the International Brigades, from 1937 soldier in their 27th division
  • Max Bair (1917–2000): Tyrolean smallholder, became relatively well known in Spain as the protagonist of a report by Egon Erwin Kisch
  • Olga Bancic (1912–1944): Romanian-Jewish communist and Resistance member, smuggled weapons for the International Brigades
  • Artur Becker (1905–1938): German communist and resistance fighter, involved in the fighting from August 1937
  • Hans Beimler (1895–1936): German politician, KPD member, political commissioner, made famous through the songs of Ernst Busch
  • Norman Bethune (1890–1939): Canadian doctor, inventor of the mobile blood transfusion
  • Len Beurton (1914–1997): English communist, later husband of Ruth Werner
  • Willi Bredel (1901–1964): German writer, KPD member, war commissioner of the Thälmann battalion
  • Otto Brunner (1896–1973): Swiss communist and commander of the Chapayev battalion
  • Ernst Busch (1900–1980): German singer, cabaret artist, actor and director
  • Ernst Buschmann (1914–1996): German communist, chief of staff of the Hans Beimler battalion, from 1938 commander of the Edgar André battalion
  • Franz Dahlem (1892–1981): German communist
  • Julius Deutsch (1884–1968): Austrian Social Democrat, General of the International Brigades
  • Heinrich Dürmayer (1905–2000): Austrian communist, elder of the Auschwitz I concentration camp (main camp) , head of the Vienna State Police
  • Ilja Ehrenburg (1891–1967): Soviet war correspondent and propagandist
  • Carl Einstein (1885–1940): German-Jewish writer and art theorist, fought in the Durruti column
  • Gustav Flohr (1895–1965): German politician (SPD, USPD, KPD)
  • Rudolf Friemel (1907–1944): Austrian communist and resistance fighter
  • Alexander Foote (1905–1957): British radio operator
  • Irene Goldin (1910–2004): Nurse and member of the International Brigades and the Resistance
  • Kurt Goldstein (1914–2007): journalist with the radio of the GDR, member of the KPD, survivor of Auschwitz
  • Nordahl Grieg (1902-1943): Norwegian writer
  • Gustav Gundelach (1888–1962): German politician (KPD), head of the Red Cross of the Interbrigades
  • Anna Hammermann (1907–1994): Resistance fighter and doctor in the medical service of the Interbrigades
  • Hans Hutter (1913–2006): Swiss worker and author, volunteer in the international brigades
  • Walter Janka (1914–1994): German dramaturge and publisher
  • Hans Kahle (1899–1947): German communist, division commander
  • Alfred Kantorowicz (1899–1979): German writer and literary scholar
  • Egon Erwin Kisch (1885–1948): German-Czech journalist and writer
  • Willi Kreikemeyer (1894–1950): German communist, chief adjutant for all cadre departments of the interbrigades
  • František Kriegel (1908–1979): Czechoslovak reform communist politician of the Prague Spring
  • Alfred Krumme : German communist, " code name Fritz Schiller ", from October 24, 1936 cadre in the international brigades
  • Hermann Langbein (1912–1995): Austrian resistance fighter
  • Hans Landauer (1921–2014): Austrian fighter in Spain, chairman of the "Association of Austrian Volunteers in the Spanish Republic 1936–1939 and the Friends of Democratic Spain"
  • Piet Laros : Commander of the Dutch 7 Provincial Company
  • Claude Lavezzi (1920–2004): Corsican communist, after 1945 employee in the French Ministry of Health, then restaurant operator
  • Kurt Lichtenstein (1911–1961): Communist and resistance fighter, shot dead on October 12, 1961 by members of the GDR border troops
  • Kurt Lohberger (1914–2008): Officer in the Edgar André battalion and in the Thälmann battalion , later general of the NVA and chairman of the GST
  • Luigi Longo (Gallo) (1900–1980): Italian communist
  • Emilio Lussu (1890–1975): Sardinian anti-fascist, 1945 Minister in the Italian transitional government
  • Hans Marchwitza (1890–1965): German writer and communist
  • Erich Mielke (1907–2000): German KPD functionary (from 1957 Minister for State Security in the GDR )
  • Tina Modotti (1896–1942): Italian photographer and Comintern agent
  • Gustaf Munch-Petersen (1912–1938): Danish writer and painter
  • Walter Munke (1906–1942): German writer, political commissioner in the Thälmann battalion of the 11th Brigade
  • Pietro Nenni (1891–1980): leading politician of the Italian Socialist Party
  • Erwin Panndorf (1904–1942): German worker and resistance fighter against the Nazi regime, member of the KPD
  • Sepp Plieseis (1913–1966): Austrian fighter in Spain and resistance fighter against National Socialism
  • Heinz Priess (1915–2001): German editor, battalion commissioner elected from 1936 to 1939
  • Viktor Priess (1908–1999): German Comintern functionary
  • Rudolf Prikryl (1896–1965): Austrian communist, later briefly appointed mayor of Vienna by the Soviets
  • Josef Raab (1899–1971): German worker and resistance fighter against the Nazi regime, member of the KPD
  • Heinrich Rau (1899–1961): German worker and resistance fighter against the Nazi regime, KPD member, functionary in the GDR
  • Gustav Regulator (1898–1963): Saarland writer and philosopher, commissioner in the XII. brigade
  • Ludwig Renn (1889–1979): German writer, Chief of Staff of the XI. brigade
  • Bruno Schramm (1894–1959), German communist
  • Heinrich Schürmann : (* May 6, 1896; † March 16, 1981) Commander of the " Etkar André " battalion
  • Harry Spiegel (1910–2000), Austrian KPÖ member
  • Richard Staimer (1907–1982): Commander of the Thälmann battalion
  • Toni Stemmler (1892–1976): KPD member, resistance fighter
  • Karol Świerczewski (1897–1947): Polish communist, Soviet general, deputy. Defense Minister of Poland 1946–47
  • Herbert Tschäpe (1913–1944): KPD member, resistance fighter
  • Bodo Uhse (1904–1963): German writer
  • Simone Weil : French philosopher (1909–1943), also member of the CNT (Confederación National del Trabajo)
  • Erich Weinert (1890–1953): German poet and writer, member of the KPD
  • Wilhelm Zaisser (1893–1958): German communist politician, since 1927 military-political functionary of the Comintern , “ General Gomez ” of the International Brigades, 1950–1953 first Minister for State Security of the GDR

see also: Category: Interbrigadist

Song of the International Brigades

We, born in the distant fatherland,
took nothing but hatred in our hearts.
But we haven't lost our home.
Our home is today before Madrid.
But we haven't lost our home,
our home is today before Madrid.
Spain's brothers are on the barricade.
Our brothers are peasants and workers.
Forward, international brigade!
Raise the flag of solidarity!
Forward, international brigade!
Raise the flag of solidarity!

Spain's freedom is now called our honor.
Our heart is international.
Chase the foreign legionaries,
chase the bandit general into the sea.
Chase the foreign legionaries,
chase the bandit general into the sea.
Already dreamed of going to the parade in Madrid, but
we were already there, he was too late.
Forward, international brigade!
Raise the flag of solidarity!

vermin is burned out with guns, bombs and grenades .
Free the land of bandits and pirates,
brothers of Spain, because you own the land!
Free the land of bandits and pirates,
brothers of Spain, because you own the land! No mercy on the
fascist rabble,
No mercy on the dog who betrays us!
Forward, international brigade!
Raise the flag of solidarity!

(Melody based on Rafael Espinosa and Carlos Palacio, text by Erich Weinert )


  • Hans Beimler, Kamerad (four-part television film, German television broadcast 1969, director: Rudi Kurz )
  • Artur Becker (three-part television film by German TV radio 1970/71, director: Rudi Kurz)
  • The Spanish Earth ( Joris Ivens , Ernest Hemingway , USA 1937)
  • Five cartridge cases . ( Frank Beyer , GDR 1960)
  • Swiss in the Spanish Civil War . (Richard Dindo, Switzerland 1974)
  • Land and Freedom ( Ken Loach , Great Britain, Spain, Germany 1995)
  • The Spanish fighter: Hans Landauer - against fascism and oblivion ( Wolfgang Rest , Austria 2006)
  • Brigadistas (Daniel Burkholz, Heike Geisweid, D 2007)
  • 300 Jews against Franco. ( WDR television documentary from September 1st, 2008)
  • NO PASARAN - A story of people who fought against fascism. (Director: Daniel Burkholz, Creative Producer: Sybille Fezer, Editor: Jan-Malte Enning, 73 min., D 2014)
  • Patrick Rotman : The Fighting and Dying of the International Brigades. French Documentary, 2016, 101 min. (Original France, 2015)
  • Los Canadienses. Canadians in the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. Prod. National Film Board of Canada , NFB / ONF Canada 1975. Camera: Albert Kish, 57 min. Documentary, interviews with veterans. Watch the film at the NFB / ONF
  • To my son in Spain: Finnish Canadians in the Spanish Civil War.  Documentary, Canada 2008. Prod. Thunderstone Pictures. Dir. Dave Clement, book: Saku Pinta, voice: Michelle Derosier. 42 min.
  • Invisible Heroes: African-Americans in the Spanish Civil War - Héroes invisibles. Afroamericanos en la guerra de España.  Spain 2015, 77 min. Dir. And screenplay, together: Alfonso Domingo, Jordi Torrent


Web links

Commons : International Brigades  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e Antony Beevor : The Spanish Civil War , 2nd edition, ISBN 978-3-442-15492-0 , (a) page 203, (b) 203, (c) 208, (d) 209, ( e) 364.
  2. ^ A b c Hugh Thomas : The Spanish Civil War . Ullstein, 1967, (a) page 304, (b) 304ff., (C) 374.
  3. Spain: Volunteers of Freedom . ( Memento of November 8, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), ed 11/2011; Retrieved May 16, 2012.
  4. Section 22 de octubre de 1936 ( Memento of March 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Sociedad Benéfica de Historiadores Aficionados y Creadores; Retrieved August 27, 2012.
  5. Brigadas Internacionales, Milicias Populares Centuria Commune de Paris . ( Memento of December 5, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (Spanish) Retrieved on May 13, 2012.
  6. ... that peace and happiness in Europe depend on the victory of the Spanish Republic. Swiss in the Spanish Civil War . Limmat Verlag, 1986, ISBN 3-85791-107-7 .
  7. Bob Doyle, Spanish Civil War veteran, dies aged 92. In: The Irish Times , January 24, 2009.
  8. The number of Romanian volunteers was just over 400 people, cf. Laura Polexe: Autobiographical Reports of Romanian Volunteers from the Spanish Civil War - An Analysis . In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Issue I / 2010.
  9. Avgust Lešnik: Yugoslavs in the Spanish Civil War , in: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Volume I / 2006.
  10. Los chinos que lucharon contra Franco. ( Memento of February 10, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) In: El Publico. January 25, 2009.
  11. One of them was Kurt Goldstein , documented in the WDR television production 300 Jews against Franco .
  12. Use in Spain. DÖW - Documentation Archive of the Austrian Resistance, accessed on July 20, 2013.
  13. ^ Frank Schauff: The Spanish Civil War. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 3-525-03704-X , pp. 165–166.
  14. Javier Bandrés, Rafael Llavona: La psicología en los campos de concentración de Franco. In: Psicothema , ISSN  0214-9915 , Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996, pp. 1-11.
  15. Gerd Koenen: Utopia of Purification. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-596-14638-0 , p. 258.
  16. Gomez - not a Spaniard . In: Der Spiegel . No. 8 , 1950 ( online ).
  17. Teresa Torańska: The one up there; Made Polish Stalinists speak . Kiepenheuer Witsch, Cologne 1987, ISBN 3-462-01819-1 , p. 447.
  18. ^ Sándor Kopácsi: The Hungarian tragedy . ISBN 3-548-38021-2 , p. 79.
  19. (SeK), After 63 years: Spain fighters are finally rehabilitated. In: Tageblatt. Newspaper fir Lëtzebuerg . July 17, 2003, p. 17.
  20. Federal Law on the Rehabilitation of Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War of March 20, 2009. , (PDF; 482 kB), accessed on July 20, 2013.
  21. Niños españoles: The International Brigades looked after Spanish refugee and orphaned children 80 years ago .