International militiamen

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The first international militiamen in the Spanish Civil War were mainly participants in the People's Olympiad in Barcelona and political emigrants who lived in Spain . There were around 300 international militiamen who organized themselves into groups (Spanish: Grupo ) after the military coup in Barcelona . They formed groups of international militiamen with the first international volunteers who came to Spain via France. These groups were divided into hundreds ( Centuria in Spanish ). At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, these hundreds fought primarily on the Aragon front . According to Sebastián Herreros Agüí, militia groups have also formed in Irun and in the Sierra de Guadarrama west of Madrid . Communist international volunteers fought mainly in PSUC militia units, socialist international volunteers mainly in POUM militia units, and anarchist ones mainly in CNT militia units under the high command of Buenaventura Durruti .

On October 16, 1936, the "Gaceta de la Republica" (the official body of the Spanish government) published the resolution to form a People's Army (Spanish "Ejército Popular") and the resolution to set up international brigades . After the decision to establish the International Brigades, all international militiamen were gradually grouped into the battalions of the International Brigades. In the first step, only the communist-led hundreds submitted to the authority of the people's army. From October 1936, all international battalions were set up in Albacete , the central training camp of the International Brigades. The first battalions were the André Marty Battalion , the Dąbrowski Battalion and the Edgar André Battalion . During the entire Spanish Civil War, 32,000 to 35,000 volunteers from 53 nations fought in the International Brigades. In addition, another 5,000 international volunteers served in POUM militia units and anarchist CNT militia units.

Militia group Centuria Countries of origin place later
Edgar André Germany Irun Edgar André Battalion or Hans Battalion
Hoffmann Group
Group around Comrade Hoffmann
Germany Irun
International UGT militia group Bilbao International militia group in the UGT battalion " Indalecio Prieto ", the aim was to form an international brigade.
group around Arthur Pfeiffer
Germany Northern Spain
group around Max Friedemann
Germany Barcelona
Centuria Thalmann ,

formed by
Hans Beimler ,
unit in the
Maxim Gorki Battalion,
PSUC Division Carlos Marx

Germany and Great Britain,
later also Italians, Poles, Greeks and Yugoslavs
Barcelona Thalmann Battalion see Thälmann Group and Thälmann Column
Dombrowski Poland Barcelona Dąbrowski Battalion see Dąbrowski Battalion
Wroblewski Poland
Irun see Dąbrowski Battalion
Commune de Paris France
Great Britain
Barcelona Commune de Paris battalion There was also a militia unit within the Fifth Regiment called the Commune de Paris
Dimitrov Greece
Barcelona Dimitrov Battalion From September 28th, grouped into the Mixta Brigade
Rákosi Unit in the Columna de Ferro (International) Hungary (only applies to the Rákosi group) Barcelona Rákosi Battalion JSU / UHP militiamen
Tom Mann Tom Mann England
Barcelona Saklatvala Battalion Relocation to the base of the International Brigades in Albacete (end of October 1936), namesake was Tom Mann , members: Tom Wintringham (later commander of a British battalion) and Esmond Romilly (nephew of Winston Churchill)
Giustizia e Libertà Italy
Barcelona Garibaldi Battalion Emerged from the radical socialist political movement Giustizia e Libertà
Gastone-Sozzi Italy
Barcelona Garibaldi Battalion In the summer of 1936, Carlo Rosselli suggested to Randolfo Pacciardi, former secretary of the Italian Republican Party, that an Italian battalion be set up in the International Brigades. Relocated to the Madrid front on September 9, 1936.
First international centuria of the Durruti column Column Durruti Barcelona ? Anarchist CNT militiamen, from July 19 the Colunma Durruti fought in Aragon, they captured Bujaraloz and marched towards Pina de Ebro .
Faure Barcelona ? anarchist CNT militiamen
Sacco and Vanzetti Barcelona ? anarchist CNT militiamen
Erich Mühsam Barcelona ? anarchist CNT militiamen
Barcelona Battalion de la Muerte anarchist CNT militiamen
Gorizia Irun Commander
Remigio Maurovich (Italian)
Jesús Larrañaga French
Basque Country / Bilbao Larrañaga Battalion In early December 1936, the international militiamen fought at Elorrio .
Fernando de Rosa Italy
Sierra de Guadarrama Italian communists
Battalion Mexico
Guttieras Latin America Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Connolly Ireland Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Centuria Extranjero I and Centuria Extranjero II French
Aragon Militia unit Rovira In the international POUM militia units fought u. a. Members of Trotskyist , left-wing socialist and opposition communist groups such as the German SAP and KPO . Well-known personalities such as George Orwell and the later social democratic member of the Bundestag Peter Blachstein fought in the POUM militia units .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Antony Beevor, The Spanish Civil War , 2nd edition, ISBN 978-3-442-15492-0 , page 204.
  2. Hanns Maaßen : Brigada Internacional is our honorary name ... , Röderberg-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt / Main 1976, ISBN 3-87682-515-6 , page 389
  3. Hanns Maaßen: Brigada Internacional is our honorary name ... , Röderberg-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt / Main 1976, ISBN 3-87682-515-6 , page 397
  4. Sebastián Herreros Agüí: The International Brigades in the Spanish war 1936-1939: Flags and Symbols, Wand and Schützenzeitung from October 15, 1936 (English; PDF; 6.4 MB), accessed on September 3, 2012
  5. ^ La Guerra Civil Española, El Batallón Británico , accessed on May 11, 2012, p. 12
  6. ^ Hanns Maaßen : Brigada Internacional is our honorary name ... , Röderberg-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt / Main 1976, ISBN 3-87682-515-6 , page 75
  7. ^ Antony Beevor : The Spanish Civil War , ISBN 978-3-442-15492-0 , 2nd edition, page 261