|Birth Name||Maximilian Adolph Otto Siegfried Schmeling|
|birthday||September 28, 1905|
|place of birth||Little Luckow|
|Date of death||February 2, 2005|
|Place of death||Wenzendorf|
|Profile in the BoxRec database|
Maximilian Adolph Otto Siegfried Schmeling (born September 28, 1905 in Klein Luckow ; † February 2, 2005 in Wenzendorf , Harburg district ) was a German heavyweight boxer and between 1930 and 1932 heavyweight boxing world champion . Despite his victory over Joe Louis in 1936, he failed to make a comeback as a champion in the decisive second fight of 1938. To this day he is considered one of the most popular athletes in Germany.
On September 28, 1905, Max Schmeling was born in Klein Luckow near Strasburg in the Uckermark as the son of Max and Amanda (née Fuchs) Schmeling. He had an older brother (Rudolf, * 1902) and a younger sister (Edith, * 1913).
In 1906 the family moved to Hamburg because the father was employed as a helmsman for the Hamburg-America Line . At first they lived in the St. Georg district. From 1911 at the latest, they lived at Lindleystraße 75 in Rothenburgsort . Max started school in the Stresowstraße elementary school in Rothenburgsort. When Max Schmeling was 13 years old, the family moved to the Eilbek district (to a house at Hasselbrookstrasse 14). He went to the nearby Ritterstrasse boys' school and was confirmed in the Friedenskirche by Pastor Wilhelm Reme. At his own request and after the parents intervened with the school authorities, Max attended the Rothenburgsort elementary school again after a short time. At the age of 14 Schmeling began a commercial apprenticeship in an "advertisement forwarding company", the advertising agency Wilkens (today Draftfcb Germany ).
His interest in boxing was first aroused in 1921 when he saw a boxing film. In order to learn boxing properly, Max Schmeling went to the Rhineland a year later , the center of boxing in Germany at the time. Schmeling was employed as a worker in a Düsseldorf well construction company. His employer transferred him to Cologne-Mülheim in 1923 , where Schmeling joined the amateur boxing club SC Colonia 06 .
On August 2, 1924 Schmeling began his professional boxing career with a fight against Hans Czapp in the Tonhalle in Düsseldorf , which led him to New York at an early stage and several times - the stronghold of professional boxing at the time. There he was represented by the local manager Joe Jacobs. On August 24, 1926 Schmeling became German light heavyweight champion by beating Max Diekmann .
In 1927 Max Schmeling won his first major title; in the fight against the Belgian Fernand Delarge in the Dortmund Westfalenhalle , he became European champion . From his purse he bought a Harley Davidson with a sidecar ; During a trip with his mother and sister in July, Schmeling had an accident in which his sister Edith died at the age of 14.
In 1928 he went to New York with his German manager Arthur Bülow, “to conquer the world”. But Bülow had no connections, and so Schmeling did not get a fight at first. That only changed when he turned to manager "Joe" (actually Yussel) Jacobs. Jacobs was the manager of Ted Moore, a British boxer who defeated the 17-year-old Schmeling in Hamburg in 1922 in an amateur fight. Joe Jacobs, son of Jewish immigrants from Hungary from the East Side of New York knew nothing about boxing, but knew a lot about publicity: "You have to be in the newspaper every day".
Joe gave Schmeling the battle name "The Black Ulan from the Rhine" and ordered him to charity events and sights. Since then, there has always been a photographer with us, no matter what Schmeling did: five fights later, on June 12, 1930, Max Schmeling fought Jack Sharkey for the vacant world heavyweight title. It was the second major sporting event to be broadcast live on the radio. After an illegal low blow to his opponent in the fourth round, Schmeling was unable to continue fighting, but was declared world champion because of Sharkey's disqualification . To this day Schmeling is the only world champion who received his title by disqualifying his opponent.
On July 3, 1931, he defended his title by technical knockout in the 15th round against the American Young Stribling . On June 21, 1932 there was a rematch against Sharkey in New York. After 15 rounds, the American was awarded victory on points and thus the world title.
In 1930 Max Schmeling met the German- Czech film actress Anny Ondra . Ondra founded the Ondra Lamac film company in Germany in 1930 with her friend Karel Lamač . On July 6, 1933, Schmeling and Ondra married in Bad Saarow , where in the same year he had acquired the summer house of the expressionist painter Bruno Krauskopf, who had fled into exile from the Nazis . After her wedding, the silent film diva made only a few films.
On August 26, 1934 Schmeling defeated Walter Neusel (1907–1964) in Hamburg. The fight was attended by 100,000 people, which is still the largest crowd at a boxing event in Europe. Boxing promoter Walter Rothenburg organized this fight . The next spring he had the Hanseatenhalle in Hamburg-Rothenburgsort set up in 42 days for a fight by Schmeling against the American Steve Hamas . It was the largest sports hall, it offered 25,000 people, the Madison Square Garden only 20,000. Schmeling's victory over Hamas enabled Schmeling to gain a foothold in America as a boxer and face Joe Louis .
The Nazis called Schmeling on in 1935, to part with his Czech wife, and his Jewish manager Joe Jacobs in America and to distance himself from his Jewish friends. He rejected the demands. Because of the Nuremberg Laws and the anti-Semitism prevailing in Germany , the American Olympic Committee considered boycotting the Olympic Games in Berlin . As the most internationally known German athlete, Schmeling was part of the campaign organized by the Propaganda Ministry to convince Americans to participate. Schmeling later described this advocacy as "limitless naivete ".
Schmeling's most famous fight, however, was not about a world championship. On June 19, 1936, he fought in New York against the "brown bomber" Joe Louis , who was considered unbeatable at the time, but was not yet world champion (27 fights, 27 wins). Schmeling analyzed his opponent's films and found a weak point: Louis dropped his left hand after the blow, which provided space for a counterattack. When asked about his chances in an interview, he said “ I have seen something. ”(German:“ I saw something. ”) - a sentence that has become a popular phrase in US boxing. In the fight, which was also broadcast directly to Germany on the radio, Schmeling surprised the boxing world by being able to hit Louis hard early on and then knocking him out in the 12th round. From a German point of view, this result was the biggest surprise in boxing up to then, even without a world championship title, and was politically abused by Nazi propaganda as “proof of the superiority of the Aryan race”. On Hitler's instructions, the fight was shown in the cinemas under the title “Max Schmeling's Victory - a German Victory”.
By defeating Joe Louis, Max Schmeling had become the challenger to the reigning world champion Jim Braddock . Since Braddock was considered a rather weak "chance world champion", Schmeling's chances were good to be the first boxer to break the "unwritten law" ("They never come back"), according to which a beaten heavyweight world champion could never win back his title. The title fight was scheduled for July 1937. However, Jimmy Braddock did not show up for the weigh-in, which is why the New York Boxing Commission fined him $ 1,000. The real background to the absence was revealed a little later. Braddock had long since signed a contract for a title fight with Joe Louis. A secret additional clause secured him a commission of ten percent from all income from his opponent for a period of ten years. As expected, Joe Louis defeated Braddock and then defended his title 25 times.
In June 1938 Schmeling got - again in New York - the second chance to become world champion, as Joe Louis sought a rematch against the only man who had beaten him. Schmeling was seen by both the German and the international side as a representative of the now increasingly established Nazi regime . Schmeling himself, at least according to his own statement, always kept his distance from Nazi ideology. During the November pogroms of 1938 he had also given shelter to two Jews in his hotel room and through his connections saved the heavyweight boxer Heinz Lazek from arrest for so-called “ racial disgrace ”, which gave the fight an extremely explosive political dimension. This time Louis no longer made the mistake of the deep-set left hand, struck long straights to Schmeling's head, and drove him back at the beginning of the round. After about a minute, Louis landed a hit on Schmeling's left kidney, shortly afterwards another decisive head hit. Schmeling went down several times, but got up again and again before the fight was finally broken off by the intervention of Schmeling's trainer Max Machon . Louis won confidently in the first round. This was Schmeling's last boxing match in the USA.
On July 2, 1939 Schmeling won the European heavyweight championship against Adolf Heuser . This boxing match was Schmeling's last for the time being. In the same year he bought the Ponickel manor near Rummelsburg in Pomerania. Schmeling invested the proceeds of his struggles in the small estate, and it became a real home for him and his wife.
In the independent, eternal computer world rankings BoxRec , he is listed as No. 23 of the best boxers of all time in the heavyweight division.
In 1940 Schmeling was drafted into the Wehrmacht and used as a paratrooper . He was on May 20, 1941 in the first attack on the Mediterranean island of Crete, which was defended by Great Britain ( airborne battle for Crete ), and was injured on landing. He was treated in the military hospital in Athens and then written "nicht-kv" (not fit for military service). In an interview with an American newspaper Schmeling said there had been no British or Greek violations of martial law in Crete. He wanted the war to end soon. That brought him into contradiction with the Wehrmacht leadership.
Because of his injury, Schmeling was released from the Wehrmacht on Easter 1943 and was used as a guard in prisoner-of-war camps until the end of the war . In 1945 he is said to have tried to persuade Anglo-American soldiers to support a joint fight against the Soviet Union in a camp.
In 1945 Max Schmeling fled Pomerania with his wife and lived in Hamburg from 1946. He was imprisoned for three months because of false information, but was considered unencumbered after the denazification process. On January 22, 1947, the US military government in Germany gave him boxing permission for the American zone of occupation . Financial hardship forced him to get back into the ring on September 28, 1947 after eight years. On October 31, 1948, Max Schmeling played his last fight in Berlin against Richard Vogt from Hamburg , which he lost on points. Schmeling's combat statistics are 56 wins in 70 professional fights (40 of them by knockout), 10 defeats and 4 draws. As a referee, he initially remained connected to boxing.
After the career
With his great rival Joe Louis , he had a casual friendship until his death in 1981. He supported the financially distressed Louis when he had to pay back taxes because the tax investigators objected to his "political" donations during his time in the army. Finally Schmeling contributed to his funeral expenses in a gesture of human bond.
After his boxing career, Schmeling and his wife Anny Ondra settled in Wenzendorf near Hamburg and ran the general agency for Coca-Cola products in Hamburg-Bramfeld and in Gomaringen , Tübingen district . In 1965 Schmeling resigned from the church in protest against the " Ostdenkschrift " of the Evangelical Church, which warned to question the German claim to the areas beyond the Oder-Neisse border. Max Schmeling got involved in the team of the Augsburg benefit football team Datschiburger Kickers , which is committed to fundraising for charitable purposes.
In addition, he also made some generous donations to his place of residence Hollenstedt (to which the municipality of Wenzendorf - in which he lived - belongs) - e.g. For example, he paid for a 70 m long and 7 m high water slide for the Hollenstedt open-air swimming pool and financially supported the local sports clubs (e.g. through a larger sum to build another sports hall). In 1971 Max Schmeling was awarded the Great Federal Cross of Merit, and in 1977 his autobiography “Memories” was published. He suffered a severe blow of fate when his wife died on February 28, 1987.
In 1991 the charitable Max Schmeling Foundation was set up. In the same year, Schmeling was the first and so far only German to be inducted into the " International Boxing Hall of Fame ", the boxing sport's hall of fame. In his honor, a multi-purpose hall in Berlin, which was originally designed as a boxing hall for the 2000 Olympics, was named Max-Schmeling-Halle (opening with Schmeling on December 14, 1996). On the occasion of his 99th birthday in 2004, the Austrian Post issued a stamp with Schmeling's portrait valued at 0.55 euros. His approximately eight hectare property was to be transferred to his home community Wenzendorf (member community of the joint community of Hollenstedt) after his death. The couple enjoyed the country life and ran a chicken farm and mink breeding in addition to the national beverage bottling .
On February 2, 2005, Max Schmeling died at the age of 99 from a severe cold in his home town of Hollenstedt. The official memorial service took place on March 1st, 2005 in Hamburg's "Michel" (St. Michaelis Church). Among the mourners were the boxers Henry Maske and Wladimir Klitschko , Uwe Seeler , Michael Stich , Franz Beckenbauer , Friede Springer , Ole von Beust and Otto Schily . He found his final resting place in the Hollenstedt cemetery next to his wife Anny Ondra. On the occasion of his death, on March 1st, the day of the funeral service for the boxing legend, Österreichische Post AG issued a special stamp with the Schmeling portrait of George Grosz worth 1 euro.
|August 2, 1924||Düsseldorf, Tonhalle||Johann Czapp (Düsseldorf)||Victory, 6th round tko|
|February 20, 1925||Cologne||Jack Dempsey (USA)||no decision, 2 rounds.||Exhibition fight|
|August 24, 1926||Berlin, Lunapark||Max Dieckmann (Berlin)||Victory, 1st round knockout||DM light heavyweight|
|June 19, 1927||Dortmund, Westfalenhalle||Fernand Delarge (BEL)||Victory, 14th round tko||EM light heavyweight|
|November 8, 1927||Leipzig, Achilleion||Hein Domgörgen (Cologne)||Victory, 7th round knockout||EM and DM light heavyweight|
|January 6, 1928||Berlin, Sports Palace||Michele Bonaglia (ITA)||Victory, 1st round knockout||EM light heavyweight|
|April 4, 1928||Berlin, Sports Palace||Franz Diener (Berlin)||Victory, 15 rounds after pt.||DM heavyweight|
|November 24, 1928||New York City, Madison Square Garden||Joe Monte (USA)||Victory, 8th round knockout|
|January 4, 1929||New York City, Madison Square Garden||Joe Sekyra (USA)||Victory, 10 rounds after pt.|
|January 22, 1929||Newark , Armory Hall||Pietro Corri (USA)||Victory, 1st round knockout|
|February 1, 1929||New York City, Madison Square Garden||Johnny Risko (USA)||Victory, 9th round tko|
|June 27, 1929||New York City, Yankee Stadium||Paolino Uzcudun (ESP)||Victory, 15 rounds after pt.||World Cup elimination match|
|June 12, 1930||New York City, Yankee Stadium||Jack Sharkey (USA)||Victory, 4th lap. Dsq.||World Championship heavyweight|
|July 3, 1931||Cleveland , Municipal Stadium||Young Stribling (USA)||Victory, 15th round tko||World Championship heavyweight|
|June 21, 1932||Long Island , Madison Square Garden Bowl||Jack Sharkey (USA)||Defeat, 15 rounds after pt.||World Championship heavyweight|
|September 26, 1932||Long Island, Madison Square Garden Bowl||Mickey Walker (USA)||Victory, 8th round tko||World Cup elimination match|
|June 8, 1933||New York City, Yankee Stadium||Max Baer (USA)||Defeat, 10th round tko||World Cup elimination match|
|February 13, 1934||Philadelphia , Convention Hall||Steve Hamas (USA)||Defeat, 12 rounds after pt.|
|June 13, 1934||Barcelona, Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc||Paulino Uzcudun (ESP)||unent., 12 rounds|
|August 26, 1934||Hamburg , dirt track train||Walter Neusel (Bochum)||Victory, 9th round tko|
|March 10, 1935||Hamburg, Hanseatenhalle||Steve Hamas (USA)||Victory, 9th round tko|
|July 7, 1935||Berlin, Poststadion||Paolino Uzcudun (ESP)||Victory, 12 rounds after pt.|
|June 19, 1936||New York City, Yankee Stadium||Joe Louis (USA)||Victory, 12th round knockout||World Cup elimination match|
|December 13, 1937||New York City, Madison Square Garden||Harry Thomas (USA)||Victory, 8th round knockout|
|January 30, 1938||Hamburg, Hanseatenhalle||Ben Foord (RSA)||Victory, 12 rounds after pt.|
|April 16, 1938||Hamburg, Hanseatenhalle||Steve Dudas (USA)||Victory, 6th round knockout|
|June 22, 1938||New York City, Yankee Stadium||Joe Louis (USA)||Defeat, 1st round tko||World Championship heavyweight|
|July 2, 1939||Stuttgart, Adolf-Hitler-Kampfbahn||Adolf Heuser (Bonn)||Victory, 1st round knockout||EM heavyweight|
- Sports Press Golden Ribbon , 1929
- Max Schmeling March , 1930
- Large Federal Cross of Merit , 1971
- International Boxing Hall of Fame , 1992
- Large Federal Cross of Merit with Star, 1996
- Bambi (1990, 1999)
- Honorary Citizen of Los Angeles
- Honorary Citizen of Las Vegas
- Honorary citizen of Klein Luckow on the occasion of his 99th birthday
- Honorary citizen of Benneckenstein / Harz, since 1936
- Honorary member of the Austrian Boxing Association
- Winner of the German Fire Brigade Medal of Honor of the German Fire Brigade Association , the highest award of German fire brigades for civilians
- In Hamburg-Eilbeker Hasselbrookstrasse 14, where Max Schmeling spent his youth, a red plaque from the Eilbeck Round Table was hung up as a souvenir.
- In Hamburg , a district school with two school locations in the Jenfeld and Marienthal districts is named after Max Schmeling.
- 2005: Issue of a special stamp from Deutsche Post AG on the occasion of his 100th birthday ( posthumously )
- 2005: Golden Sports Pyramid ( posthumous ). Foundation of the “Max Schmeling Medal” by the Hamburg Senate, which has been awarded since 2005 to companies that particularly support volunteers in their work
- 2006: Admission to the Hall of Fame of German Sports ( posthumous )
- 2006: Sept. 2006 unveiling "Monument with bust" in front of the house where he was born
- In 2011, the park in front of the Hamburg Archaeological Museum in Hamburg-Harburg was renamed Max-Schmeling Park. In addition to a memorial plaque to Max Schmeling, there is also the sculpture Pugilist by Eberhard Encke .
- 2020: In Düsseldorf-Benrath , a street is inaugurated as Max-Schmeling-Straße, which is close to his first place of residence in the Rhineland.
From 1932 Max Schmeling was the model for the sculptor Josef Thorak , his neighbor in Bad Saarow-Pieskow . This resulted in the 3.75 m high bronze sculpture "Pugilist", which was erected in the spring of 1936 on the Reichssportfeld (today Olympic Park Berlin) in the so-called Anger.
In 2006 a bronze bust was made by the sculptor Falko Steimer from Torgelow for his birthplace and memorial in Klein Luckow.
- My life - my struggles. Grethlein, Leipzig, Zurich 1930.
- 8-9-off . Ullstein, Berlin 1957.
- I punched my way through life. Franckh, Stuttgart 1967.
- Memories. Ullstein, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-550-07473-5 .
- Memories. Audio book. Screen Media 2008.
- 1930: love in the ring
- 1935: Knock Out
- 1953: Don't be afraid of big animals
- 1957: The engagement in Zurich
Literature & media
- Paul Barz : title defense. Radio play. WDR Cologne 2005.
- Dorothea Friedrich: Max Schmeling and Anny Ondra. Ullstein, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89834-030-9 .
- Volker Kluge : Max Schmeling. Structure, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-351-02570-X .
- Martin Krauss : Schmeling. The career of a German of the century. The workshop, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89533-472-3 .
- David Margolick : Beyond Glory. Joe Louis Vs. Max Schmeling, and a World on the Brink. Knopf, New York 2005, ISBN 978-0-375-41192-2 .
- David Pfeifer: Max Schmeling - professional boxer, propaganda figure. Entrepreneur. The story of a German idol. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-593-37546-X .
- Hans Joachim Teichler : Max Schmeling - the athlete of the century in the Third Reich. In: SportZeit. Sport in history, culture and society. 1, 1, 2001, pp. 7-33.
- Tobias Drews: Max Schmeling. Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-87203-236-4 .
- Johannes Sigleur: Men in the ring. Franckh, Stuttgart 1944, p. 76ff.
- Arno Hellmis : Max Schmeling. The story of a fighter. Ullstein, Berlin 1937.
- Carl Otto Hamann: A life on your own. Berger, Cologne 1949.
- Hans Leip : Max and Anny: romantic report of the rise of two stars. Broschek, Hamburg 1935.
- Helmut Sohre: Max Schmeling: Two fists conquer the world. Olympia, Nuremberg 1948.
- Mathias Forster: Max Schmeling: Winner in the Ring - Winner in Life. Delphin, Munich, Zurich 1986, ISBN 3-7735-5283-1 .
- Max Schmeling tells from his life. Contact. Audio book. Unterlauf & Zschiedrich Hörbuchverlag Berlin 2003, ISBN 978-3-934384-28-6 .
- Oskar Beck: Schmeling's extended arm. When the German boxing idol defeated Joe Louis 75 years ago, his Jewish manager was acting in the background. In: Berliner Morgenpost , June 18, 2011.
- David Pfeifer: Schmeling, Max Siegfried Adolph Otto. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , p. 125 f. ( Digitized version ).
- Oskar Beck: “Off! Out! Out! ”Max Schmeling knocked out Joe Louis in front of 70,000 spectators in Yankee Stadium, June 19, 1936 . In: Berliner Zeitung
- Schmeling is allowed to go again . In: Der Spiegel . No. 3 , 1947 ( online ).
- Max Schmeling becomes world champion in boxing . In: Frankfurter Zeitung . 74th year, no. 434 . Frankfurter Societät , Frankfurt am Main June 13, 1930 ( faz.net [PDF; 4.7 MB ]).
- Joe & Max . TV film, USA, Germany, 2002, 109 min., Director: Steve James , u. a. with Til Schweiger as Max Schmeling
- ARD legends: Max Schmeling. Documentation, ARD 2003, 45 min., Director: Michael Wulfes
- The fight of the century. Max Schmeling versus Joe Louis. Documentation, USA, 2004, 87 min., Director: Barak Goodman, summary ( memento from June 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) by Phoenix
- Max Schmeling . Movie, Federal Republic of Germany, 2010, 123 min., Director: Uwe Boll , with Henry Maske as Max Schmeling, Susanne Wuest as Anny Ondra , Vladimir Weigl as Joe Jacobs , and many others.
- The fight of the century - Max Schmeling versus Joe Louis. A boxing musical by Paul Graham Brown (music) and James Edward Lyons (book).
Over the years Schmeling has been portrayed by numerous actors in film and television. He was portrayed, among other things, in 1953 in The Brown Bomber (The Joe Louis Story) by William Thourlby . While he was played by Stephen Macht in the 1978 television film Ring of Passion , other actors have taken over the role of the former international boxing star in recent years. He was portrayed by Mark Simmons in the television film Rocky Marciano (1999), and Til Schweiger took on the role in Joe & Max (2002) . This was followed by the use of Henry Maske in the film Max Schmeling (2010).
- Max Schmeling in the BoxRec database
- Literature by and about Max Schmeling in the catalog of the German National Library
- Newspaper article about Max Schmeling in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Max Schmeling in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Portrait, dates and biography of Max Schmeling in the Hall of Fame of German Sports
- Biography. ( Memento from January 4, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) International Boxing Hall of Fame (English)
- "June 19, 1936: Schmeling versus Louis" , Deutsche Welle
- Grave site in the Hollenstedt cemetery
- Tennis Borussia Berlin e. V. (Ed.): "Oh, Brother, Can You Kill That Nazi?" The Battle of the Maxes - Baer versus Schmeling on June 8, 1933, and what TeBe had to do with it.
- A punch in the abdomen makes Max Schmeling a champion
- Obituary: Max Schmeling . BBC , February 4, 2005 (English)
- D. Margolick: Max Schmeling, Heavyweight Champion Caught in the Middle of Nazi Politics, Dies at 99 . New York Times , February 5, 2005, Schmeling biographer's obituary
- Radio report from the fight against Steve Dudas on April 28, 1938 in Hamburg ( RAM ; 0 kB), German Broadcasting Archive
- Ralf Klee: The battle of the century on sound foil . one day , November 14, 2007 (including excerpts from the radio broadcast)
- ↑ Background The life stations of Max Schmeling: Max Schmeling's life and work at a glance. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine . February 4, 2005, accessed February 12, 2014 .
- ↑ Hamburg address book 1911. Herrmanns Erben, Hamburg 1911, p. IV / 442 ( agora.sub.uni-hamburg.de. Accessed June 28, 2019).
- ↑ a b Walk to school with the teacher. In: Abendblatt.de. Hamburger Abendblatt , August 17, 1977, accessed on June 28, 2019.
- ^ History of SC Colonia 06 ( Memento from February 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), club website, accessed on September 29, 2012
- ↑ Max Schmeling: It was the time of the heavy motorcycles, and everyone dreamed of the heavy Harley-Davidsons . (Max Schmeling, 1927). In: memories . 1977 ( online [accessed November 30, 2015]). It was the era of heavy motorcycles, and everyone dreamed of heavy Harley-Davidsons ( Memento from August 11, 2014 on the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Ted Moore on BoxRec Wiki
- ^ Arnd Krüger : The Olympic Games 1936 and the world opinion. Its importance in foreign policy, with particular reference to the USA. Sports science work, Vol. 7 Berlin: Bartels & Wernitz 1972
- ↑ Holger Schück: "The heart of a boxer" - On the death of the German boxing legend Max Schmeling, DeutschlandRadio Berlin; Sunday, February 6, 2005 - 30'00 airtime
- ↑ eastsideboxing
- ↑ Interview with one of the two rescued: "Max is very deep in our hearts." In Welt am Sonntag of December 5, 2004. (On November 9, 1938, the father of Henri J. and Werner Lewin (15 and 16 years old) David Lewin asked Max Schmeling, who is his friend, for help for his sons. Schmeling called She went to his suite in the Hotel Excelsior for three days and then took her back to her father in his car in the middle of the night past uniformed men. Four days later the family was able to emigrate to Shanghai. The article also contains a report from the 1989 thanksgiving ceremony in Las Vegas - Text: Jessica Almond; accessed Feb. 2, 2015.)
- ^ Krauss, Martin: Schmeling obituary: Boxer, Legende, Menschenfreund , Spiegel Online on February 4, 2005, accessed on March 21, 2013.
- ↑ Ranking list of heavyweight boxers , accessed on May 13, 2018
- ↑ The Boxidol and the Multipurpose Hall - Official opening of the Max-Schmeling-Halle in Berlin. Retrieved August 11, 2016 .
- ↑ AP: Funeral service for Max Schmeling: Farewell to an idol . March 1, 2005 ( welt.de [accessed June 10, 2019]).
- ^ Boxing legend Max Schmeling is quietly buried. In: welt.de. February 4, 2005, accessed May 23, 2017.
- ↑ Review: Beyond Glory by Joyce Carol Oates , New York Times , October 2, 2005
- ^ The fight of the century on unitedmusicals.de, accessed on November 25, 2015
- ↑ all film information according to the Max Schmeling character profile in the IMDb
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Schmeling, Maximilian Adolph Otto Siegfried (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German heavyweight boxer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 28, 1905|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Little Luckow|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 2, 2005|
|Place of death||Wenzendorf , joint municipality of Hollenstedt|