Organizational structure of the SS

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Organizational Structure of the SS and the Police in Reich Territory (1941)

The NSDAP ( SS ) Schutzstaffel was founded on April 4, 1925 as a bodyguard for Adolf Hitler .

From August 1934 to May 1945 it formed an independent organization directly subordinate to Hitler within the framework of the National Socialist German Workers' Party , led by Heinrich Himmler , Reichsführer SS from January 6, 1929 . Formally, the Schutzstaffel was initially subordinate to the Sturmabteilung (SA).

As a paramilitary organization, the structure of the SS was based on military associations and followed the Führer principle .

Before the attack on Poland (September 1, 1939), however, 90% of the founding members had retired from active service in the SS for reasons of age; only 10% of the old members were still members of the SS in 1945. Of the 260,000 SS members active in 1939, 170,000 or 60% were drafted into the Wehrmacht and around 36,000 into the SS army at the start of the war . The other SS members, who were not affected by military service, were either obsolete or, according to the opinion of the time, were assigned to "indispensable posts" in the public administration or in the police force.

During the time of National Socialism , the SS was largely responsible for war crimes , crimes against the civilian population in the German Reich and in occupied Europe, crimes against humanity , the Holocaust and Porajmos , the “industrial mass murder ” of European Jews as well as Sinti and Roma. It has been banned since the end of World War II and was classified as a criminal organization in the Nuremberg Trials .


The SS saw itself as an “ elite organization ” for the ruthless implementation of the Nazi racial theory and for the implementation of the NSDAP's expansion plans. The organization was only accessible to selected National Socialists, there was no compulsion of any kind to join. Submission to the orders and regulations was mostly voluntary, since membership of the SS had been associated with privileges and power since the takeover of power in 1933 and was considered an "honor" in National Socialist circles, according to the motto " My honor means loyalty ". Rarely deviant behavior was punished with violence and even murder. Even if there were female guards "in the SS entourage " in the SS death-head associations of the concentration camps , this extremely patriarchal association only accepted men.

The principle of dual subordination was still characteristic of the organizational structure of the SS. This meant that a subordinate rank was subordinate to two (or more) superordinate instances. An example of this principle is the subordination of the members of the commandant's office in the concentration and extermination camps . As a rule, they were subordinate to the concentration camp commanders in terms of discipline, but received their "technical" instructions from the functionally superior department in the inspection of the concentration camps . The principle of double subordination was usually only applied to higher ranks. The SS leaders, who were subordinate to two different SS administrative units, enjoyed relatively great freedoms due to the resulting diffuse relationship of authority, but at the same time were exposed to greater control of their “political reliability” and “efficiency”.

Organizational development

The beginnings (1925–1933)

As early as the spring of 1925, the later SS introduced the first organizational structures based on the structures of the SA at that time. At the 1926 Reich Party Congress, the NSDAP's hall protection set up at the beginning of April 1925 already had so many members that the first 4 standards could be awarded there on November 9th . On the same day, the hall protection was officially renamed Schutzstaffel .

In 1929 the SS already comprised 22 standards. These were organized both centrally and regionally. Those standards that were subordinate to the SS-Oberleitung were administered centrally and the Reichsführer SS had direct access to their personnel. In 1929 this affected a total of 12 standards.

In addition there were the regional SS standards. These goods:

  1. the two standards of the SS district Berlin-Brandenburg,
  2. the four standards of the SS-Gaus Franken,
  3. the three standards of the SS Gau Niederbayern (SS Gau leader for Lower Bavaria was 1926–1930 Heinrich Himmler, who also became Deputy Reichsführer SS from 1927 ),
  4. The four standards of the SS Gau Oberbayern (SS Gau leader for Upper Bavaria was Rudolf Hess from 1929 to October 31, 1931 ),
  5. the five standards of the SS-Gaus Rheinland-Süd and
  6. the four standards of the SS-Gaus Sachsen.

The SS Gau leaders acted autonomously via the SS standards assigned to them and were only formally subordinate to the SS overhead line until the end of 1928. This only changed in January 1929, when Heinrich Himmler was appointed Reichsführer SS. When Himmler took office, all existing standards were placed under his central command.

This immediately introduced a new SS order that lasted until the end of 1930. In addition to the SS Oberstab, there were now three SS Oberführer areas , which were distributed as follows:

  1. Area "East" (SS brigades Berlin-Brandenburg, East Prussia and Silesia with a total of 8 standards)
  2. Area "West" (SS brigades Hessen-Nassau, Rhineland-North, Rhineland-South, South Hanover-Braunschweig and Thuringia with a total of 16 standards)
  3. "South" area (SS brigades Baden, Württemberg, Franconia, Lower Bavaria, Upper Bavaria South and Austria with a total of 7 standards)

In 1931 the Schutzstaffel was not only expanded in all areas, but a different structure was also set up, which lasted until the takeover in 1933 and was also known as the "Reichsleitung SS" :

SS Oberstab:

  1. SS office
  2. SS Central Chancellery
  3. SS personnel department
  4. SS administrative department
  5. SS medical department
  6. SS command staff (1932)
  7. SS liaison service (1933)
  8. SS Security Service (1931)
  9. SS race office

From 1930 the internal administration of the SS was completely restructured. An order was introduced that was based very closely on that of the SA. Furthermore, the badges of rank of the SA were completely taken over and now independent uniforms were introduced. The SS now began to dress in black throughout, thereby also visually distinguishing themselves from the SA. Himmler wanted to show the top SA leadership that he no longer saw himself as a subordinate, but as an equal partner.

In March 1933, 120 selected SS men were armed in Berlin under the leadership of Sepp Dietrich. These took over the guard duty within the Reich Chancellery, while the double posts of the Reichswehr were still standing outside . These 120 men, many of whom were already part of Adolf Hitler's raiding party in 1923 , were initially referred to as SS-Stabswache Berlin , but only a short time later they were known as Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler .

Other SS units were also grouped into SS special commandos and later in political readiness via staff guards , and were also armed. In order to achieve this, this readiness was given the rank of an official auxiliary police .

Restructuring after 1934

In September 1934, the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler and the political readiness by Hitler were combined to form the SS disposal force (in short: disposal force ). This was a barracked special formation of the SS, which was constantly under arms and was trained according to the strict guidelines of the Wehrmacht.

From autumn 1934, the actual Schutzstaffel was renamed the Allgemeine SS (also “Black SS” or “Home SS”) in order to distinguish itself from the armed “daughter associations”, the disposable troops ( SS-VT ) and the SS-Totenkopfverband ( SS -TV ) to take off.

The General SS continued to be an organization governed by association law, the members of which (with the exception of approx. 10,000 full-time SS leaders) consisted predominantly of working people who did their service in the SS voluntarily and free of charge after work. Nonetheless, its unarmed members received regular military training. This training was carried out by members of the SS-Totenkopf-Standarten in the concentration camps Dachau, Sachsenhausen and Buchenwald. The "political and racial training" as part of the SS service of SS members also took place there.

The financial support of the General SS, whose high demands could hardly be borne by the membership fees, was incumbent on the private law associations " Freundeskreis Reichsführer SS " and the " Organization of Supporting Members of the SS ".

The " SS Junker Schools " were also founded in 1934 under the then SS-Standartenführer Paul Hausser , which carried out the officer training of the SS-VT under the guidelines of the Wehrmacht.

Between 1935 and the beginning of 1945, the weekly anti-Semitic SS newspaper " Das Schwarze Korps " was published by Gunter d'Alquen . It was the weekly newspaper with the highest circulation after the " Das Reich " published by Joseph Goebbels .

The SS and the police

From 1933, Himmler began to steadily expand his power. Shortly after the National Socialists came to power, he was appointed head of the Bavarian Political Police (BPP). Their reorganization in Bavaria became the model of the co-organization of the SS, SD and criminal police in the German Reich.

In 1934 the "Political Police of the German Reich" were merged by Hermann Göring to form the Gestapo , and Himmler was appointed their boss a little later.

On June 17, 1936, Himmler was subordinated to the entire police force of the Reich - he now called himself Reichsführer SS and Chief of the German Police in the Reich Ministry of the Interior . Senior police leaders now had to join the SS .

From 1938/42 onwards, the SS was grouped into different main offices and the police forces in the Reich were divided:

The main office of the Ordnungspolizei included the uniformed protection police, the gendarmerie and the community police. The main office of the Ordnungspolizei was subordinated to the SS-Obergruppenführer and Police General Kurt Daluege .

The main office of the security police included the secret state police , the border and criminal police . The main office of the security police was subordinated to SS-Gruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich , who was at the same time chief of the security service of the Reichsführer SS and thus the second most powerful man in the SS. In 1939 Heydrich merged his offices to form the new Reich Security Main Office .

In 1943 Himmler also became Reich and Prussian ministers of the interior as well as plenipotentiary for the Reich administration. He now carried the title Reichsführer SS and Chief of the German Police without the addition "in the Reich Ministry of the Interior".

Restructuring after 1941

In 1941/42 the SS Totenkopf Standards were officially dissolved and their members were finally assigned to the Waffen SS (formally the SS Totenkopf Division). The SS-Totenkopf-Guard-Banne who served in the concentration camps no longer received their pay from the police budget, but received the pay books and the uniforms of the Totenkopf Division. However, one small detail distinguished the members of the former guard tower from members of the Totenkopf Division: They were forbidden to use any kind of sleeve stripes. This also included the current sleeve stripes of the SS division “Totenkopf” and its “traditional sleeves” (inscriptions “Oberbayern”, “Brandenburg” and “Thüringen”).

The "SS seniority lists"

Between August 1934 and November 1944, the so-called "SS-Seniority Lists" or "SS-DAL" for short were published on behalf of the SS Personnel Department or the later SS Personnel Main Office. These were a list of the active SS leaders. Since 1936 police officers were also listed as soon as their rank corresponded to an SS rank.

In the summer of 1944, a single copy of a "seniority list of the Waffen-SS" was issued for the Waffen-SS and in November 1944 the first part of the 1945 seniority list was published ahead of time, whereas on January 30, 1945 only one amendment sheet to this list was published. Brün Meyer has the "seniority list of the Waffen-SS. SS-Obergruppenführer to SS-Hauptsturmführer; As of July 1, 1944 ”, newly published, Osnabrück (Biblio Verlag), 1987, with appendix 1 - 2, illustrations, 274 p. With generals of the Waffen SS in the picture (103).

The main SS offices (1938–1941)

In 1938 the Reichsführer SS had three main offices :

In 1943 the SS was administered from twelve main SS offices.

The management staff

For applicants for an officer career , the submission of the great Aryan certificate , i.e. a tracing of the pure-blood ancestry back to the year 1750, was mandatory. The SS was hierarchically structured according to a military structure:

Reichsführer SS

At the head of the SS was the Reichsführer SS (RFSS). The title was officially introduced in 1926 based on the Reichs-SA-Fuehrer and designated the formally supreme commander of the SS. In the period between 1925 and 1926, the title of supreme SS commander was Oberleiter .

SS Colonel Group Leader

"The Reichsführer SS has ordered that the new rank of the SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer - to avoid confusion with the rank of the SS-Obergruppenführer - is written as follows: SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer."

Surname Service position SS
Kurt Daluege Chief of the Ordnungspolizei and Deputy Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia 1,119 July 25, 1930 31,981
Josef Dietrich Commander 6th SS Panzer Army , Commander Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler 1,177 May 5, 1928 89.015
Paul Hausser Commander II. SS Panzer Corps and Army Group G 239.795 November 15, 1934 4,158,779
Franz Xaver Schwarz Treasurer of the NSDAP 38,500 September 16, 1931 6th


Surname position SS number Entry into the SS NSDAP number
Friedrich Alpers Staff RF SS 6,427 March 15, 1932 132.812
Max Amann SS honorary and rank leader 53,143 March 15, 1932 3
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Higher SS and Police Leader (HSSPF) in the occupied part of the Soviet Union. 9,831 February 15, 1931 489.101
Herbert Backe Reich Minister for Nutrition ; Race and Settlement Main Office 22,766 October 1, 1933 87,882
Thank God Berger Head of the SS main office 275.991 January 30, 1936 426.875
Theodor Berkelmann HSSPF Wartheland 6,019 March 1931 128,245
Werner Best Reinhard Heydrich's deputy in the RSHA and governor in occupied Denmark 23,377 1931 341,338
Wilhelm Bittrich Commander of the II SS Panzer Corps 39,177 December 1, 1931 829,700
Ernst Bohle Head of the NSDAP foreign organization - NSDAP / AO 276.915 September 13, 1933 276.915
Martin Bormann Head of the party chancellery of the NSDAP 555 September 1929 60.508
Philipp Bouhler Head of the Fuehrer's office 54,932 April 20, 1933 12
Franz Breithaupt Chief Justice at the SS Court , General of the Waffen SS 39,719 December 1, 1932 602,663
Walter book Supreme party judge of the NSDAP 81,353 July 1, 1933 13,726
Josef Bürckel Staff RF SS 289.230 January 30, 1942 33,979
Leonardo Conti Staff RF SS 3,982 1930 72,225
Walther Darré Head of the SS Race Office, Reich Minister and Reich Peasant Leader 6,882 July 1930 248.256
Karl Demelhuber Commander East Coast Staff 252.392 March 15, 1935 4,439
Otto Dietrich Reich Press Chief of the NSDAP; SS honorary and rank leader 101,349 1932 126,727
Friedrich Karl von Eberstein HSSPF South 1,386 April 1, 1929 15,067
Joachim Eggeling NSDAP Gauleiter of Halle-Merseburg 186,515 June 9, 1936 11,579
Theodor Eicke Waffen-SS: Commander of the SS Totenkopf Division 2,921 July 29, 1930 114.901
August Eigruber NSDAP Gauleiter Oberdonau 83,432 May 22, 1938 292,778
Karl Fiehler Lord Mayor of Munich 91,724 July 31, 1933 37
Albert Forster SS honorary and rank leader; NSDAP Gauleiter of Danzig 158 October 1, 1932 1.924
August Frank Staff OKH 56,169 April 8, 1932 1,471,185
Karl Frank SS and police leaders 310.466 1938 6,600,002
Herbert Gille Waffen-SS: Commanding General IV. SS Panzer Corps 39,854 December 1931 537,337
Curt von Gottberg Waffen-SS: Commanding General XII. SS Army Corps 45,923 September 1932 948.753
Ernst Grawitz Reichsarzt SS and police 27,483 November 1931 1,102,844
Ulrich Greifelt Head of the Main Staff Office of the Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Ethnicity 72.909 June 1933 1,667,407
Arthur Greiser Reichsstatthalter and NSDAP Gauleiter Wartheland 10,795 September 29, 1931 166,635
Karl Gutenberger HSSPF West 25,249 June 1940 372.303
Karl Hanke Staff RF SS 203.013 1941 102.606
August Heissmeyer Head of the SS training department 4,370 January 1930 21,573
Wolf-Heinrich von Helldorff Police chief of Potsdam, later of Berlin 325,408
Konrad Henlein NSDAP Gauleiter of the Sudetenland 310,307 October 9, 1938 6,600,001
Maximilian von Herff Head of the SS Personnel Main Office 405.894 April 1, 1942 8,858,661
Rudolf Hess Deputy of the Führer 1.932 16
Reinhard Heydrich Head of the RSHA 10.120 July 14, 1931 544.916
Friedrich Hildebrandt Staff RF SS 128,802 December 5, 1933 3,653
Richard Hildebrandt Head of the Race and Settlement Main Office of the SS 7,088 February 1931 89.221
Hermann Höfle HSSPF Slovakia 463.093 July 1943 3,924,970
Otto Hofmann HSSPF southwest 7,646 April 1, 1931 145.729
Friedrich Jeckeln SS and police leader for the southern part of the occupied Soviet Union 4,367 January 12, 1930 163,348
Hugo jury Staff RF SS 292,777 March 12, 1938 410,338
Hans Jüttner Head of the SS Leadership Main Office 264.497 May 1935 541.163
Ernst Kaltenbrunner Head of the RSHA (successor to Heydrich) 13,039 August 31, 1931 300.179
Hans Kammler Head of Office Group C (Construction) of the SS Economic Administrative Main Office 113,619 May 20, 1933 1,011,855
Jürgen von Kamptz Commander d. OP Italy 292.714 August 1944 1,258,905
Karl Kaufmann Staff RF SS 119,495 January 30, 1942 95
Georg Keppler i. V. Commanding General III. SS Panzer Corps 273,799 October 10, 1935 338.211
Wilhelm Keppler SS honorary and rank leader 50,816 March 21, 1935 62,424
Dietrich Klagges Staff RF SS 154.006 January 30, 1942 7,646
Matthias Kleinheisterkamp Commanding General of the XI. SS Army Corps 132,399 November 1, 1933 4,158,838
Kurt Knoblauch SS Leadership Main Office, Head of Office Group B 266,653 April 1935 2,750,158
Wilhelm Koppe HSSPF Wartheland 25,955 September 1, 1932 305,584
Paul Koerner Staff RF SS 23,076 February 1931 714.328
Friedrich Kruger SS and Police Leader for Poland, Waffen-SS: Commanding General V. SS Mountain Corps 171.199 February 1931 6.123
Walter Kruger Commanding General VI. SS Army Volunteer Corps 266.184 1935 3,995,130
Hans Lammers SS honorary and rank leader 118,404 September 29, 1933 1,010,355
Hartmann Lauterbacher Staff RF SS 382,406 November 9, 1940 86,837
Werner Lorenz Head of the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle 6,636 January 31, 1931 397.994
Benno Martin HSSPF Main 187.117 April 10, 1934 2,714,474
Heinrich von Maur Staff Oa. southwest 276.907 September 13, 1936 5,890,310
Emil Mazuw HSSPF Baltic Sea 2,556 June 7, 1930 85.231
Wilhelm Murr Staff RF SS 147,545 September 9, 1934 12,873
Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath Reich Foreign Minister; Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia 287,680 September 18, 1937 3,805,229
Carl Oberg HSSPF Paris 36,075 June 1932 575.205
Günther Pancke Higher SS and Police Leader in Denmark 10.110 June 1, 1931 282,737
Karl Pfeffer-Wildenbruch SS leadership main office 292.713 March 12, 1939 1,364,387
Artur Phleps Commander of the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division "Prinz Eugen" 401.214 June 30, 1941
Oswald Pohl Head of the SS Economic and Administrative Main Office 147.614 February 1934 30,842
Hans Prützmann Waffen-SS: Plenipotentiary German General in Croatia and General Inspector for Special Defense 3,002 1930 142,290
Rudolf Querner HSSPF middle 308.240 May 22, 1938 2,385,386
Friedrich Rainer Staff RF SS 292,774 November 9, 1940 301,860
Hanns Albin Rauter HSSPF Northeast 262,958 April 1935
Wilhelm Rediess HSSPF North Sea 2,839 July 22, 1929 25,574
Wilhelm Reinhard Staff RF SS 274.107 September 1935 63,074
Joachim von Ribbentrop Reich Foreign Minister 63,083 May 1933 1,199,927
Erwin Rösener HSSPF Alpenland, Wehrkreis XVIII, Salzburg 3,575 November 4th 1930 46,771
Ernst Sachs Personal Staff Reichsführer SS 278.781 November 9, 1936 4,167,008
Fritz Sauckel SS honorary and rank leader 254,890 1934 1,395
Paul Sharp Temporary head of the Race and Settlement Main Office 14,220 October 1, 1931 665.697
Julius Schaub long-time personal chief adjutant of Hitler 7th February 1925 81
Gustav Adolf Scheel Staff RF SS 107.189 September 1934 391.271
Fritz Schlessmann Staff RF SS 2,480 1930 25,248
Ernst Schmauser HSSPF Lower Silesia 3,359 October 14, 1930 215.704
Walter Schmitt Personal Staff Reichsführer SS 28,737 February 8, 1932 592.784
Oskar Schwerk Staff RF SS 276.825 July 16, 1944 5,420,196
Arthur Seyss-Inquart Reich governor of Austria 292,771 March 12, 1938 6,270,392
Felix Steiner Commander of the III. SS Panzer Corps 253.351 1935 4,264,295
Wilhelm Stuckart State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of the Interior 280.042 1936 378.144
Siegfried Taubert Personal Staff Reichsführer SS 23,128 1931 525.246
Fritz Wächtler NSDAP Gauleiter of the Bavarian East Mark 209.058 November 1934 35,313
Karl Wahl NSDAP Gauleiter of Swabia 228.017 1934 9,803
Josias to Waldeck and Pyrmont Higher SS and Police Leader 2.139 March 2, 1930 160.025
Paul Wegener NSDAP Gauleiter Weser-Ems 353.161 April 20, 1940 286.225
Fritz Weitzel HSSPF "West" and "North" 408 1927 18,833
Otto Winkelmann HSSPF Hungary 308.238 September 1938 1,373,131
Karl Wolff Head of the Personal Staff Reichsführer SS 14,235 October 7, 1931 695.131
Udo von Woyrsch HSSPF Elbe 3,689 November 13, 1930 162,349
Alfred Wünnenberg Chief of the German Police 405,898 January 1, 1940 2,222,600

Overview of the ranks

Badge of rank-SA, 1935 Badge of rank, 1938
Badge of rank-SA, 1935
Badge of rank, 1938

The SS had a hierarchy based on the military model, which was manifested by appropriate ranks. The rank designations and rank insignia were largely taken over by the SA . Similar to the military ranking, three ranking groups were distinguished. The SS men corresponded to the Wehrmacht men, the SS-Unterführer corresponded to the NCOs and the SS leaders corresponded to the officers.

Service ranks of the SS compared to the SA and the army

The following table shows the ranks of the SA and SS in ascending order as of April 7, 1942. The corresponding ranks of the Wehrmacht are also listed.

Sturmabteilung SA protection Squad remark-
Wehrmacht (Army) remark-
General SS Armed SS
SA candidate Volunteer applicant for the Waffen SS Conscript or volunteer applicant as a regular
or professional soldier
( SA-man before 1942)
SS man SS riflemen Soldier , e.g. B. Riflemen , gunners, grenadiers etc.
SS upper rifle Senior soldier z. B. Oberschützen , Oberkanonier, Obergrenadier etc.
( SA-Sturmmann before 1942)
SS storm man           Private
SA Rottenführer SS Rottenführer          
----- ----- Corporal H / Lw
SA squad leader SS-Unterscharführer SS-Unterscharführer
SS-Junker FA (leader candidate)
SA Oberscharführer SS squad leader SS-Scharführer
SS-Oberjunker FA
SA troop leader SS-Oberscharführer SS-Oberscharführer
SS-Standartenjunker FA
SA upper troop leader SS-Hauptscharführer
----- ----- SS-Stabsscharführer (only service position ) "Pike" Hauptfeldwebel (company sergeant) "Pike"
SA main troop leader SS Sturmscharführer from 1938
SA storm leader SS-Untersturmführer
(until 1935 SS-Sturmführer)
from 1935 lieutenant
SA-Obersturmführer SS-Obersturmführer from 1933 First lieutenant
( before 1939/40 SA-Sturmhauptführer)
(until 1935 SS-Sturmhauptführer)
from 1935
SA-Sturmbannführer SS-Sturmbannführer major
SA Obersturmbannführer SS-Obersturmbannführer from 1933 Lieutenant colonel
SA standard leader SS standard leader Colonel
SA Oberführer SS-Oberführer Oberf
SA brigade leader SS Brigade Leader SS Brigadefuhrer and
Major General of the Waffen SS
from 1933 Major general
SA group leader SS group leader SS group leader and
lieutenant general of the Waffen SS
Lieutenant General
SA-Obergruppenführer SS-Obergruppenführer SS-Obergruppenführer and
General of the Waffen SS
General of the branch of service
----- SS Colonel Group Leader SS Colonel Group Leader and Colonel
General of the Waffen SS
from 1942 Colonel General
Chief of Staff of the SA Reichsführer SS Field Marshal General
----- ----- Reichsmarschall from 1940
  • 1931: Creation of the ranks of Sturmhauptführer for SA and SS as an equivalent to Captain of the Wehrmacht. 1935 renaming to SS-Hauptsturmführer or 1939/40 to SA-Hauptsturmführer.
  • 1933: New ranks of SS-Obersturmführer , SS-Obersturmbannführer and SS-Brigadführer .
  • 1934: For special services to the interests of the SS and public life , Himmler introduced the special ranks of SS honorary and senior leaders .
  • 1935: Renaming SS-Sturmführer to SS-Untersturmführer . The SA kept the designation SA-Sturmführer as the lowest officer rank that was comparable to the lieutenant.
  • 1938: Creation of the ranks of the SA Haupttruppführer and SS Sturmscharführer .
  • 1940: The designations of relay applicants and relay candidates that had previously been customary for volunteer applicants in the General SS were largely given up. For the Waffen-SS, the ranks SS-Schützen and SS-Oberschützen became binding as the lowest ranks of the crew. The designation SS man , however, was retained and could refer to a member of the SS in general, but could also be considered a team rank of the General SS.
  • April 7, 1942: Personal decree of Adolf Hitler to create the new rank of General Leader SS Colonel Group Leader .

The structure of the SS

Closer administrative units of the SS

The General Schutzstaffel consisted of 23 administrative units in November 1944, which were called upper sections . These upper sections were divided into 45 sections , to which the standards of the General SS were subordinate. The SS standards were subdivided into 127 so-called foot standards and 22 equestrian standards ( Reiter-SS ). The SS standards were divided into storm bans , storms , troops , flocks and groups . In November 1944, the upper sections were also subject to 17 communication towers , 15 engineer towers and 18 motor towers (Motor-SS).

The armed special units of the SS, the SS disposable troops and the SS guard units were also grouped into various standards across all administrative bodies.

The SS upper sections

The SS upper sections (Oa) comprised several SS sections and were usually subordinate to a group or upper group leader. An unofficial alternative designation was also the upper group , which the SS did not have at its disposal in 1933 because of its membership at the time and which had existed between 1933 and 1934 with the rank of upper group leader in the SA.

A division of the army corresponded to the upper section . After a reorganization in the course of the Second World War, the 23 upper sections of the SS were spatially adapted to the regular German military districts of the Wehrmacht, so that both finally matched.

Table with the upper sections of the SS (status: November 9, 1944)
No. Upper section Seat No. Upper section Seat
1 "Northeast" Koenigsberg 13 "Main" Nuremberg
2 "Baltic Sea" Szczecin 14th "Danube" Vienna
3 "Spree" Berlin 15th "Northwest" The hague
4th "Elbe" Dresden 16 "Alpine country" Salzburg
5 "Southwest" Stuttgart 17th "Vistula" Danzig
6th "West" Dusseldorf 18th "Warta" Poses
7th "South" Munich 19th "North" Oslo
8th "Southeast" Wroclaw 20th "East" Krakow
9 "Fulda-Werra" Arolsen 21st "Bohemia-Moravia" Prague
10 "North Sea" Hamburg 22nd "Ostland" Riga
11 "Center" Braunschweig 23 "Ukraine" Kiev
12 "Rhein-Westmark" Wiesbaden

The SS sections

The SS section (Ab) comprised several SS standards and was usually subordinate to an SS brigade leader or an SS Oberführer. It was also unofficially referred to as a subgroup . A brigade of the army corresponded to it .

Table with the comparison of the sections and main sections
(status November 9, 1944)
Section No. Upper section Seat Section No. Upper section Seat
I. "South" Munich XXV "West" Dortmund
II "Elbe" Dresden XXVI "Vistula" Sopot
III "Spree" Berlin XXVII "Fulda-Werra" Weimar
IV "Center" Hanover XXVIII "Main" Bayreuth
V "West" Duisburg XXIX "Southwest" Constancy
VI "Southeast" Wroclaw XXX "Rhein-Westmark" Frankfurt (Main)
VII "Northeast" Koenigsberg XXXI "Danube" Vienna
VIII "Danube" Linz XXXII "South" augsburg
IX "Main" Wurzburg XXXIII "Baltic Sea" Schwerin
X "Southwest" Stuttgart XXXIV "Rhein-Westmark" Saarbrücken
XI "Rhein-Westmark" Koblenz XXXV "Alpine country" Graz
XII "Spree" Frankfurt (Oder) XXXVI "Alpine country" Salzburg
XIII "Baltic Sea" Szczecin XXXVII "Bohemia-Moravia" Reichenberg
XIV "North Sea" Oldenburg XXXVIII "Bohemia-Moravia" Carlsbad
XV "North Sea" Hamburg-Altona XXXIX "Bohemia-Moravia" Brno
XVI "Center" Dessau XXXX "Vistula" Bromberg
XVII "West" Muenster XXXXI "Vistula" Thorn
XVIII "Elbe" Halle (Saale) XXXXII "Warta" Gniezno
XIX "Southwest" Karlsruhe XXXXIII "Warta" Litzmannstadt
XX "North Sea" Kiel XXXXIV "Northeast" Gumbinnen
XXI "Southeast" Hirschberg XXXXV "Southwest" Strasbourg
XXII "Northeast" Allenstein
XXIII "Spree" Berlin
XXIV "Southeast" Opole

The SS standards

Motor vehicle standard of the SS

The management level SS section was the SS regiment downstream. The standard was usually headed by an SS-Standartenführer , it comprised 3–4 storm bans and had a normal personnel strength of 1000 to 3000 men. In the army, the standard corresponded to the regiment . The Sturmbanne I-III was formed from the active membership, the Sturmbann IV was a reserve association.

All SS divisions - such as the General SS and the Reiter-SS subordinate to it, but also the death's head associations and the available troops - were divided into standards. From 1935 onwards, this designation was replaced by the military equivalent of the army in the SS disposal force - much to the displeasure of Reichsführer SS Himmler.

At the end of the war (1945), the General SS's foot standards formally comprised 127 standards, most of which, however, only existed on paper and had not even reached the nominal strength prescribed by Reichsführer Himmler.

Table with the foot standards of the Allgemeine SS (status: December 1, 1944)
SS standard Upper section Seat SS standard Upper section Seat
1 " Julius Schreck " "South" Munich 66 "Friedland" "Northeast" Bartenstein
2 "Hesse" "Rhein-Westmark" Frankfurt (Main) 67 "Wartburg" "Fulda-Werra" Erfurt
3 "Thuringia" "Main" Nuremberg 68 "Upper Palatinate" "Main" regensburg
4 "Schleswig-Holstein" "North Sea" Altona 69 "Sauerland" "West" Hagen (Westphalia)
5 "Moselle" "Rhein-Westmark" Luxembourg 70 "Southeast" Glogau
6 "Eduard Felsen" "Spree" Berlin 71 "Vistula" "Vistula" Elblag
7 "Friedrich Schlegel" "Elbe" Plauen 72 "lip" "West" Detmold
8 "Lower Silesia" "Southeast" Hirschberg 73 "Middle Franconia" "Main" Ansbach
9 "Pomerania" "Baltic Sea" Szczecin 74 "Baltic Sea" "Baltic Sea" Greifswald
10 "Palatinate" "Rhein-Westmark" Kaiserslautern 75 "Widukind" "Spree" Berlin
11 "Planetta" "Danube" Vienna 76 "Alpine country" Salzburg
12 "Lower Saxony" "Center" Hanover 77 "Baltic Sea" Schneidemühl
13 "Württemberg" "Southwest" Stuttgart 78 "Rhein-Westmark" Wiesbaden
14 "Gotaburg" "Fulda-Werra" Gotha 79 "Southwest" Ulm
15 "Brandenburg" "Spree" Neuruppin 80 "large berries" "Spree" Berlin
16 "Lower Elbe" "Southeast" Wroclaw 81 "Main" Wurzburg
17th "North Sea" Celle 82 "West" Bielefeld
18 "East Prussia" "Northeast" Koenigsberg 83 "Upper Hesse" "Rhein-Westmark" to water
19 "North Westphalia" "West" Munster (Westphalia) 84 "Saale" "Elbe" Chemnitz
20 " Fritz Weitzel " "West" Dusseldorf 85 "Rhein-Westmark" Saarbrücken
21st "Center" Magdeburg 86 "Hanauer Land" "Southwest" Offenburg
22 "From the Schulenburg" "Baltic Sea" Schwerin 87 "Tyrol" no information innsbruck
23 "Upper Silesia" "Southeast" Bytom 88 "Stedingen" "North Sea" Bremen
24 "East Frisia" "North Sea" Oldenburg 89 "Wood weaver" "Danube" Vienna
25 "Ruhr" "West" eat 90 "Franz Kutschera" "Alpine country" Klagenfurt
26 " Paul Berck " "Elbe" Halle (Saale) 91 "Elbe" Wittenberg
27 "Ostmark" "Spree" Frankfurt (Oder) 92 "Old Bavaria" "South" Ingolstadt
28 "North Sea" Hamburg 93 "Rhein-Westmark" Koblenz
29 "Swabia" "South" Lindau 94 "Upper Styria" "Alpine country" Leoben
30 "Adolf Höh" "West" Bochum 95 "Bohemia-Moravia" Trautenau
31 "Lower Bavaria" "Main" Landshut 96 "Bohemia-Moravia" Brus
32 "Bathing" "Rhein-Westmark" Heidelberg 97 "Bohemia-Moravia" Eger
33 "Rhine-Hesse" "Rhein-Westmark" Darmstadt 98 "Bohemia-Moravia" Moravian Schönberg
34 "Upper Bavaria" "South" Weilheim 99 "Danube" Znojmo
35 "Fulda-Werra" kassel 100 "Bohemia-Moravia" Reichenberg
36 "Vistula" Danzig 101 "Bohemia-Moravia" Saaz
37 "Whether the Enns" "Danube" Linz 102 "Bohemia-Moravia" Hunter village
38 "Alpine country" Graz 103 "Bohemia-Moravia" Aussig
39 "East Pomerania" "Baltic Sea" Koslin 104 "Bohemia-Moravia" Troppau
40 "North Sea" Kiel 105 "Northeast" Memel
41 "Upper Franconia" "Main" Bayreuth 106 "South" augsburg
42 " Fritz von Scholz " "Spree" Berlin 107 "Bohemia-Moravia" Brno
43 "Southeast" Frankenstein 108 "Bohemia-Moravia" Prague
44 "Uckermark" "Spree" Eberswalde 109 "Warta" Poses
45 "Neisse" "Southeast" Opole 110 "Warta" Hohensalza
46 "Elbe" Dresden 111 "Warta" Kolmar
47 "Fulda-Werra" Gera 112 "Warta" Litzmannstadt
48 "Elbe" Leipzig 113 "Warta" Kalisch
49 "Center" Braunschweig 114 "Warta" Lesslau
50 "North Sea" Flensburg 115 "Northeast" Zichenau
51 "Center" Goettingen 116 "Vistula" Bromberg
52 "Danube" Krems 117 "Vistula" Konitz
53 "Dithmarschen" "North Sea" pagan 118 "Vistula" Prussian Stargard
54 "Seidel-Dittmarsch" "Spree" Landsberg (Warta) 119 "Vistula" Graudenz
55 "Weser" "North Sea" Luneburg 120 "Vistula" Kulm
56 "Francs" "Main" Bamberg 121 "Vistula" Strasburg
57 "Thuringian Forest" "Fulda-Werra" Meiningen 122 "Southwest" Strasbourg
58 "West" Cologne 123 "Southwest" Kolmar
59 "Loeper" "Center" Dessau 124 "Southeast" Scharley
60 "Northeast" Insterburg 125 "Rhein-Westmark" Metz
61 "Masuria" "Northeast" Allenstein 126 "Alpine country" Marburg / Drau
62 "Southwest" Karlsruhe 127 "North" Oslo
63 "Württemberg-South" "Southwest" Tübingen
64 "Marienburg" "Vistula" Berent
65 "Black Forest" "Southwest" Freiburg (Br.)

The SS-Reiterstandarten (Reiter-SS)

The SS also comprised mounted units, commonly referred to as "Reiter-SS". It was subordinate to the inspector of the SS riding schools Christian Weber and summarized in the inspection of the SS cavalry .

The standards of the SS troops and the SS guards

For the standards of the available troops and the SS skull and crossbones associations , the same organizational classification applied as for the foot and rider standards of the General SS.

The standards of the SS available troops (SS-Standarten / VT)

The SS standards of the disposal troops (SS-St./VT) emerged in autumn 1934, when the political readiness "Munich" (Ellwangen) and "Württemberg" (Jagst) the new SS standard "Germany" and from the political readiness " Hamburg ”,“ Arolsen ”and“ Wolterdingen ”the SS standard“ Germania ”were formed. In Berlin and the surrounding area, the “Staff Guard Berlin” and the “SS Sonderkommandos” Crossen and Jüterbog , who were soon (1937) given the name “ Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler ”, watched and paraded .

After the annexation of Austria , the merger of the German-Austrian SS and parts of the standards "Germany" and " LSSAH " resulted in the new standard "Der Führer".

From March 1935, the term “standard” began to be replaced by that of the regiment within the available troops; From October 1938 onwards there was no longer any official talk of the "Standards of the SS-VT", but of the SS regiments .

Table with the regiments of the SS disposal force
Standard name official abbreviation Seat Wehrmacht supplement office Remarks
Leibstandarte SS "Adolf Hitler" LSSAH / LAH Berlin-Lichterfelde Amendment I All applicants whose place of residence is in military districts I, II, III, IV and VIII. Furthermore, all applicants from the Reich who reach the minimum height of 178 cm
I. SS standard "Germany" / VT 1. Sta Germany / VT Munich Supplementary section III All applicants whose place of residence is in military districts V, VII and XII
II. SS standard "Germania" / VT 2. Sta Germania / VT Hamburg-Veddel Supplementary section II All applicants whose place of residence is in military districts VI, IX, X and XI
III. SS standard "Der Führer" / VT 3. Sta "Der Führer" / VT Vienna Supplementary section IV All applicants whose place of residence in the East mark is
The standards of the SS guards (SS-Totenkopfstandarten)

The SS standards of the Totenkopfverband (SS-T-St./WV) included the guards of the concentration camps.

As early as January 1933, selected SS men under the command of SS-Sturmbannführer Hilmar Wäckerle were assigned to inspect the concentration camps by the Schutzstaffel. Under their later commandant Theodor Eicke , these SS men were withdrawn from the Schutzstaffel as such. According to various statements by Eicke at various SS leadership conferences, this was an SS in the SS .

The SS guard units were popularly given the title Totenkopf-SS in 1936 when they were allowed to wear a skull symbol on the right collar tab. They were considered brutal, shrouded in mystery and absolutely loyal to their camp commanders.

In 1934 a concentration camp guard, namely the "Oberbayern" guard tower, supported the Leibstandarte during the Röhm putsch .

In 1934, Eicke was given the entire concentration camp, which he was supposed to organize based on the model of the Dachau concentration camp . Eicke and his men were now also responsible for the military training of the unarmed SS. This was the beginning of the real history of the SS guards: as early as 1935/36 it was said that the available troops (with their earthy gray uniforms) were to receive the regular field gray uniforms of the German army, Eicke introduced earthy brown uniforms for the men of the Totenkopf SS .

On March 29, 1936, Eicke's men were officially given the name SS-Totenkopfstandarten / Wachverbände . But generally these units were called SS-Totenkopf-Wachverbände or SS-Totenkopfverbände . The latter term in particular caught on in the linguistic usage at the time. Theodor Eicke then formed independent SS-Sturmbanne from the guards of the concentration camps, which he, however, removed from the control of the SS leadership; as long as Himmler knew Eicke was on his side, he could do whatever he wanted in the camps. The skull and crossbones were generally considered to be the "private army of Himmler" as they were only responsible to him.

In April 1937 Eicke combined the five storm bans into three separate "SS-Totenkopf standards", since he now had control of 3,500 men. The permanent staff of Dachau have now been combined to form the 1st SS skull standard "Upper Bavaria" , the regular staff from Sachsenhausen to the 2nd SS skull standard "Brandenburg" and the regular staff from Buchenwald to the 3rd SS skull standard "Thuringia" . An SS subordinate school for the lower ranks has now been set up in the Dachau concentration camp, while the "Inspection of the SS Guard Associations" has been located in Oranienburg, Brandenburg.

The relatives in active camp service now wore the earth-brown uniform with the skull and the rank badges on the collar tabs and the sleeve stripes with the respective standard name. The members of the death's head associations who were not on active camp duty but were assigned to patrol duty or to attend courses continued to wear the black uniform of the General SS.

While service in the SS-VT was recognized as completing general military service in the ranks of the Wehrmacht, members of the skull and crossbones associations were exempt from this rule - the Wehrmacht leadership refused to recognize service in the T associations. As a result, however, the death's head associations remained in fact a legal vacuum in which Theodor Eicke could rule and switch as he wanted.

The death's head associations took part in the occupation of Austria and the later Reichsgau Sudetenland ( Ascher Zipfel ) in 1938 and were also actively involved at the beginning of the Second World War. Parts of them formed the so-called " Home Guard Danzig " and gained modest "combat experience".

On October 1, 1939, Eicke was able to officially begin in Dachau to set up his "own" SS Totenkopf division . For the military training of his front division, even the Dachau concentration camp was temporarily evacuated and used by Theodor Eicke as a "training camp". On November 1, the training was considered complete and the Totenkopf Division established.

Table with the standards of the SS guards
SS skull standard Main camp / founding seat SS skull standard Main camp / founding seat
I "Upper Bavaria" Dachau concentration camp X Weimar-Buchenwald
II "Brandenburg" Sachsenhausen concentration camp XI Radome
III "Thuringia" Weimar Buchenwald concentration camp XII Poses
IV "Ostmark" Mauthausen concentration camp XIII Vienna
V "Dietrich Eckart" Oranienburg concentration camp XIV Weimar-Buchenwald
VI Prague XV Plock
VII Brno XVI Dachau
VIII Krakow "Kirkenes" Kirkenes
IX Danzig Reserve standard "Upper Bavaria" Dachau

On February 25, 1941, the designation "SS-Totenkopfstandarten" was officially dropped and renamed SS-Standarten . The designation "Totenkopf-Standarte" was only granted to the regiments of the 3rd SS Panzer Division Totenkopf as a "traditional designation".

The SS storm bans

The name comes from the SA and was adopted in the other Nazi organizations. The Sturmbann was comparable to the battalion in the army, could consist of three to five storms and had a staff of 250 to 600 men.

The SS storms

An SS storm comprised three troops led by an SS storm leader until October 1934. It comprised between 70 and 120 men and consisted of an active part and a reserve unit. The company corresponded to him in the army . With the increase in the number of personnel in the SS and the increasing takeover of the army structures, the introduction of additional ranks became necessary. So from October 1934 the rank of SS-Sturmführer was renamed SS-Untersturmführer .

As an example, the message, engineer and motor towers of the General SS are given below. The SS storm of a foot standard had its counterpart in other SS structures such as the Reiter-SS and the Totenkopf standards.

But the Leibstandarte SS “Adolf Hitler” and the SS disposal troops also originally had storms, but from 1935 the military equivalent in these SS divisions became generally binding.

The SS news storms

The news units of the General SS, the so-called SS news storms, were originally assigned to the general SS foot standards and their members were in fact assigned to the disposal force or the death's head associations by 1938 at the latest. The news storms were de jure subordinate to a senior section chief of the SS.

Table with the news units of the Allgemeine SS (status: November 9, 1944)
SS news storm Upper section Seat SS news storm Upper section Seat
1 "South" Munich 11 "Main" Nuremberg
2 "Southwest" Stuttgart 12 "Baltic Sea" Szczecin
3 "Fulda-Werra" Arolsen 13 "Rhein-Westmark" Wiesbaden
4th "West" Dusseldorf 14th "Danube" Vienna
5 "Center" Braunschweig 16 "Vistula" Danzig
6th "North Sea" Hamburg 17th "Warta" Poses
7th "Northeast" Koenigsberg 19th "Bohemia-Moravia" Prague
8th "Spree" Berlin
9 "Elbe" Dresden
10 "Southeast" Wroclaw
The Pioneer Storms of the General SS

The pioneer units of the General SS, the so-called Pionierstürme , were initially assigned to a foot standard of the SS. Its members have been assigned to the available troops or the skull and crossbones associations since 1938. De jure they were subordinate to a senior section chief of the SS.

Table with the pioneer units of the General SS (status: November 9, 1944)
SS pioneer tower Upper section Seat SS pioneer tower Upper section Seat
1 "South" Munich 9 "Elbe" Dresden
2 "Southwest" Stuttgart 10 "Southeast" Wroclaw
3 "Fulda-Werra" Arolsen 12 "Center" Magdeburg
4th "West" Cologne 13 "Rhein-Westmark" Frankfurt (Main) / Ludwigshafen / Weilburg
5 "North Sea" Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg 14th "Danube" Vienna
6th "Baltic Sea" Szczecin 15th "Alpine country" Salzburg
7th "Northeast" Koenigsberg 16 "Vistula" Danzig
8th "Spree" Berlin
The SS motor towers

The motorized SS units, the so-called SS-Kraftfahrstürme or SS-Motor-Stürme , were de facto part of the Motor-SA from 1930 to late summer 1934 . These were generally called Motor-SS and were originally assigned to the general SS foot standards. De jure, however, these units have been autonomous since their creation. Since 1938 they were in fact assigned to the disposal troops or the SS skull and crossbones associations. De jure they were subordinate to a senior section chief of the SS.

Table with the motor vehicle units of the Allgemeine SS (status: November 9, 1944)
SS-Kraftfahrsturm ' Upper section Seat SS motor tower Upper section Seat
1 "South" Munich / Augsburg 11 "Center" Magdeburg / Hanover
2 "Fulda-Werra" Erfurt / Frankfurt 12 "Main" Bamberg / Schweinfurt / Nuremberg
3 "Spree" Berlin / Senftenberg 13 "Baltic Sea" Schwerin / Stettin
4th "North Sea" Hamburg / Kiel / Bremen 14th "Rhein-Westmark" Frankfurt (Main) / Wiesbaden-
Biebrich / Pirmasens
5 "West" Düsseldorf / Buer (Westphalia) / Dortmund 15th "Alpine country" Graz / Innsbruck
6th "Elbe" Dresden / Chemnitz 16 "Vistula" Danzig / Elbing
7th "Northeast" Koenigsberg 17th "Warta" Poznan / Litzmannstadt
8th "Danube" Linz / Vienna 19th "Bohemia-Moravia" Asch / Reichenberg / Brno
9 "Southeast" Wroclaw
10 "Southwest" Stuttgart / Karlsruhe / Freiburg (Br.)

The SS troops

An SS troop was formed from three troops and was generally led by a troop leader until October 1934. It comprised between 20 and 60 SS men and in the army it corresponded to the train . In October 1934 the rank of "troop leader" was changed to "Oberscharführer".

Officially binding for all SS divisions, the SS disposable troops began to adopt the army designation in 1935; it was followed a little later by the Leibstandarte and the skull and crossbones associations. The SS troop corresponded to the train in the Wehrmacht .

The SS troops

An SS squad consisted of two SS squads, could have a staff strength of 8 to 16 men and was usually led by an SS squad leader . In October 1934 the rank of SS-Scharführer was changed to SS-Unterscharführer . The designation SS-Schar was used in all SS divisions. In the Wehrmacht, the SS crowd corresponded to the group with similar personnel and was comparable to the SA crowd .

The SS Rotten

An SS-Rotte was the smallest unit of the Schutzstaffel. It consisted of four to eight men and was usually subordinate to an SS Rottenführer . The name was used by all SS divisions. The SS-Rotte corresponded to the troop in the Wehrmacht . The SA also used the designation SA-Rotte .

See also


  • Gunter d'Alquen : The SS. History, task and organization of the protection squadrons of the NSDAP (writings of the School of Politics 2,33). Berlin 1939.
  • Robert Bohn : The Sporrenberg Report. A document from inside the SS apparatus. In: Historical communications. Vol. 6, No. 2, 1993, pp. 250-277.
  • Bernd Boll : Actions according to the custom of the war. Wehrmacht and 1st SS Infantry Brigade 1941. In: Journal of History. Vol. 48, No. 9, 2000, pp. 775-788.
  • Charles von Denkwoski: On the merging of the SS and the police - the Reich Security Main Office. In: Criminology. Vol. 57, No. 8-9, 2003, pp. 525-533.
  • Carlo Gentile : Political Soldiers. The 16th SS Panzer Grenadier Division "Reichsführer SS" in Italy in 1944. In: Sources and research from Italian archives and libraries. Volume 81, 2001, pp. 529-561.
  • Werner Haupt : Structure and organization of the SS (as of November 9, 1944). Stuttgart 1981.
  • Aleksander Lasik: Sztafety Ochronne w systemie niemieckich obozów koncentracyjnych. Rozwój organizacyjny, ewolucja zadań i Struktur oraz socjologiczny obraz obozowych załóg SS. (Schutzstaffel in the system of the German concentration camps. The organizational development, formation of tasks and structures as well as the sociological picture of the SS camp crews.) Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz. 2007, ISBN 977, Auschwitz-Birkenau -83-60210-32-1 .
  • Klaus D. Patzwall : The SS radio protection battalion of the Waffen SS. In: Militaria. Vol. 18, No. 4, 1996, ISSN  0724-3529 , p. 106.
  • Klaus D. Patzwall: The SS clothing. 2. White service coat for SS leaders. In: Militaria. Vol. 9, No. 2, 1985, pp. 24-26.
  • Edward Prus: Powstanie i działania zbrojne 14 Galicyjskiej Dywizji SS. In: Wojskowy przegląd historyczny. Bd. 33, No. 4, 1988, ISSN  0043-7182 , pp. 104–135, here p. 104, ( The formation and combat activities of the 14th SS division “Galicia”. ).
  • Hans Joachim Schneider: The SS-Totenkopfsturmbann Stutthof. In: Dachauer Hefte. Vol. 10, No. 10, 1994, pp. 115-141.
  • Norbert Podewin (Ed.): "Brown Book". War and Nazi criminals in the Federal Republic and in West Berlin. State, economy, administration, army, justice, science . Edition Ost, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-360-01033-7 (reprint of the 3rd edition from 1968).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Heinz Höhne : The order under the skull. The history of the SS. Weltbild, 1992, ISBN 3-89350-549-0 , p. 127.
  2. Heinz Höhne: The order under the skull. The history of the SS. Weltbild, 1992, p. 29.
  3. Ordinance sheet of the Waffen-SS , Volume 3, No. 12 of June 15, 1942, p. 46 Quoted from Klietmann in: Feldgrau , 13th vol., No. 1, Berlin 1967.
  4. Hans-Jürgen Döscher : The Foreign Office in the Third Reich. Diplomacy in the shadow of the “final solution”. Siedler Verlag, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-88680-256-6 , p. 148 ff.
  5. Volunteers of the Allgemeine SS were given a mandatory three-month probationary period and during this time were officially regarded as relay applicants .
  6. ↑ For the first three years, volunteers of the Allgemeine SS were considered to be relay candidates , but appeared in public as SS men .
  7. This rank corresponded de facto to that of a senior colonel who was entitled to wear the silver-gray lapels and the aluminum cap piping of a general, while he still had the shoulder boards of a colonel. (Source: Andrew Mollow: Uniforms of the Waffen-SS , p. 154)
  8. This standard was drawn up on December 1, 1944.