|UFO Event: Roswell Incident|
Geographical location of Roswell in New Mexico
|Place:||Roswell (New Mexico)|
|Date:||Early July 1947|
|Object:||Remnants of a balloon train with radar reflectors|
As a Roswell incident or Roswell (UFO) incident (English Roswell [UFO] incident ) since 1980 the crash of an allegedly extraterrestrial unknown flying object (UFO) in June or July 1947 near the small town of Roswell in the US state of New Mexico called. Often the place name is simply used for it. Skeptics speak of the Roswell myth or the Roswell legend .
The UFO theory comes from press reports on a " flying saucer " dated July 8, 1947, the find of which the United States Army had reported. This said on the same day that debris found near Roswell belonged to a crashed weather balloon with a radar reflector .
Charles Berlitz and William L. Moore made the forgotten incident known around the world with their book title as the 1980 Roswell Incident . They spread the conspiracy theory that the US government found an alien spaceship and corpses of alien creatures (aliens, see also Gray ), secretly examined them and keeps them hidden to this day. This was followed by many other books and films with numerous variations on the subject. The Roswell incident developed into the most famous alleged UFO incident worldwide in the 1990s, went down in pop culture and became the starting point for numerous science fiction stories.
In 1994, several authors and the US Air Force (USAF) revealed that the debris came from combined balloons with sound sensors, whose suitability for detecting Soviet nuclear tests had been tested under the strictest secrecy in 1947 in Alamogordo , New Mexico (Project Mogul). A second USAF report from 1997 checked testimony about aliens and stated that they were baseless, made up, or inspired by parachute puppets.
Events in June / July 1947
Since June 24, 1947, many US media reported sightings of unidentified flying objects. The pilot Kenneth Arnold had triggered these media reports with his information that he had seen a formation of nine flying objects on a private scouting flight near Mount Rainier in Washington state , the rapid movement of which looked like that of jumping saucers over the water. He thus created the word "flying saucer".
The events of 1947 at Roswell are presented differently depending on the source, but the main points are consistent. On June 14, 1947, rancher William (Mac) Brazel found scattered debris on Foster Ranch (about 105 km northwest of Roswell). At the beginning of July, Brazel learned of rumors about unknown objects in flight in Corona . Thereupon he informed the Sheriff of Roswell about his find on July 7, 1947, who transmitted this information to the Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF, local base of the US Army) by telephone. Two Army personnel examined the debris at the ranch, collected it, and sent it to the Army Base in Fort Worth , Texas for further analysis . The RAAF reported the find to the local media.
On July 8, 1947, the local newspaper Roswell Daily Record appeared on the front page with the headline "RAAF Captures Flying Saucer at Roswell Area Ranch": The RAAF announced it had a "flying saucer" on a ranch had been found. It did not provide details on their construction and appearance. On July 2, 1947, a couple were apparently the only citizens of Roswell to observe a large glowing object in the southeastern sky for 40 to 50 seconds, which was moving at high speed to the northwest.
After many US media reported that the US Army had found a flying saucer near Roswell, General Roger Ramey and an Army weather expert stated at a press conference on July 8, 1947 in Fort Worth that the debris was part of a crashed weather balloon for wind measurements at great heights. As is customary with this model, it was equipped with a Raywin radar reflector made of thick cardboard covered with foil. Ramey allowed the journalists to photograph debris. On July 9, 1947, the Roswell Daily Record reported under the title "General Ramey Empties the Roswell Saucer" that the excitement about an alleged flying saucer was unfounded.
In an interview in this issue, Brazel described the found debris as gray rubber strips, aluminum foil, thick paper with some eyelets, sticks and tape with floral designs printed on it; some fragments were labeled with letters. He did not see any metal or machine parts, wire or cord underneath. He, his wife, and daughter picked up much of the debris on July 4th. The sheriff, US soldier Jesse Marcel and a companion collected the rest on July 7th and then tried in vain to assemble it at his home. He estimated the total weight of the rubble to be five pounds. He is certain that they did not belong to a weather balloon, as he had found one on his premises twice in the past. But as long as it wasn't a bomb, he would hardly announce such a find in the future.
Thereafter, media interest in the incident ebbed and it went unnoticed for 30 years.
UFO and alien theories
Book The Roswell Incident
The ufologists Stanton T. Friedman and William Moore interviewed the US soldiers Jesse Marcel 1978 and 1979 several times for a planned book about the event from 1947 in Roswell. At first Marcel didn't remember it, then he described the rubble in detail: Some struts were made of very hard, but flexible, non-flammable material that was similar to balsa wood. Some were printed with illegible characters. Large amounts of a very strong, brown type of cardboard were included. The thin, but tear-resistant film consisted of a metal he was unfamiliar with, and which showed no visible signs of creasing. His companion Cavitt found a black metal box. On July 8, 1947, General Ramey had shown the press only unimportant or non-original parts and ordered him to remain silent about them. The magazine The National Enquirer said Marcel, the real debris were "not of this earth" have been.
These and other testimony were included in the 1980 book The Roswell Incident , which alleged the US Army hushed up a UFO find. It made the event widely known as the "Roswell Incident" and also mentioned dead aliens for the first time: The 1951 deceased witness Barny Barnett, whom Friedman learned secondhand, told friends before his death that he had a UFO on the San Agustin plain - Crash site seen with several small dead bodies. The military police then sent him away and ordered him to remain silent about his observation.
Since then, numerous other books have appeared with testimony from other witnesses and additional details about the event. Despite all the differences, they jointly assume that at least one alien spaceship with aliens crashed at Roswell. The US government has been hiding this from the public since 1947 with disinformation, ignoring or mocking eyewitnesses and threats of violence against them.
The Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) commissioned a group in 1988 to find and investigate the crash site. Friedman interviewed the undertaker Glenn Dennis from Roswell in 1989. He testified that an army representative had asked him by telephone on July 9 or 10, 1947 about supplies of airtight, sealable children's coffins. An army hospital nurse told him that she had helped autopsy strange, small, child-like corpses. Then she was ordered to leave the hospital.
In 1989 the US television series Unsolved Mysteries broadcast an episode to reconstruct the incidents at Roswell. The hobby geologist Gerald Anderson came forward and claimed that he had seen three dead aliens under the crashed UFO and one living alien that had approached the dead. Then military police drove him away. Former soldier Frank Kaufmann stated in 1989 that in 1947 as a member of a military search party he had seen an intact UFO some distance from Brazel's ranch, half buried in the sand and with several dead aliens. The ufologists Donald Schmitt and Kevin Randle published the result of the CUFOS order as a book in 1991 ( UFO Crash at Roswell ). They claimed the government had collected all the debris, cleaned up the crash site, owned several alien bodies and was keeping it a secret.
Friedman and Don Berliner published the book Crash at Corona in 1992 , which expanded the UFO theory on the basis of the new testimony: While a crashed UFO at Brazels Ranch exploded and was destroyed in the air, a second crashed UFO at Corona remained almost intact. The Roswell Event took on a life of its own, with new witnesses popping up and adding details that contradicted what others had said. Philip J. Klass and other authors pointed out the contradictions.
On August 28, 1995, the US broadcaster Fox News aired the film Alien Autopsy: Fact or Fiction? (known as the Santilli movie ). Black and white pictures show men in doctor's coats examining a lifeless, non-human body and operating on its innards. Producer Ray Santilli said he bought the film from a former US military cameraman who shot it in 1947 for internal documentary purposes. In 2006 the Briton John Humphreys, a specialist in cinematic special effects, stated that at Santilli's request he had modeled a latex alien doll for the film and thus recreated the creature he believed he had seen in the dissolving original footage. The film was only shot in 1995 and he played in it. Since then, the film has been considered a proven fake and is also rejected by ufologists.
In 1997, Philip J. Corso claimed in his work, The Day After Roswell , that he was the former head of the Foreign Technology Division of the US Army, managing debris from an alien wreck off Roswell. Technology from this crash was purposely fed to US companies in order to promote the further development of earthly technology. Corso's claims are unproven and widely rejected. The British daily The Guardian voted his book among the top 10 literary lies in 2001.
Since 1990, UFO supporters have petitioned the US government to release all suspected files on UFOs and extraterrestrial life ("The UFO Declaration"). In January 1994, Steven Schiff , a New Mexico district representative in the US House of Representatives , hired the General Accounting Office (GAO) to investigate popular allegations that the US Army was covering up the Roswell incident. He learned that Roswell was absent from the Project Blue Book , which the USAF used to internally check the factual basis of thousands of UFO reports from 1947 to 1969. As a result, he requested a public hearing on the US Department of Defense's handling of documents related to weather balloons, unidentified aircraft, and crashes to clarify the facts about the 1947 incident. As a result, a USAF research team tracked down all official files that had to do with the 1947 incident and lifted all confidentiality obligations. The resulting investigation report was submitted to GAO on July 27, 1994 and published.
The report found that the fragments found by Brazel, the photographs General Ramey allowed, and the flying disk mentioned in an FBI telegram dated July 8, 1947, all related to a hexagonal shaped radar target attached to a cable was attached to a balloon about 20 feet (7 meters) in diameter and was intended to act as a radar reflector at high altitudes. The observations of some eyewitnesses recorded in affidavits also agreed with this. However, contrary to what was claimed at the time, this type of balloon was not an ordinary weather balloon, but belonged to a Mogul project that was subject to the highest level of secrecy Top Secret A-1 (such as the Manhattan project ). In June and July 1947 balloon trains flying constantly in the troposphere and stratosphere were tested to see whether their radar reflectors could acoustically pick up sound waves from Soviet nuclear tests. They were supposed to measure the shock waves from missiles that had broken through the sound barrier in order to determine the possible detonation of a Soviet atomic bomb .
According to testimonies from some of the engineers involved in the Mogul project, especially project manager Charles B. Moore, the debris discovered by Brazel on June 14, 1947 belonged to test flight No. 4 of a balloon train that took off on June 4 and was near the Foster ranch as had been reported missing. Moore reconstructed its trajectory in a southwest / northeast direction to the place Arabela (about 27 km from the Foster ranch). He admitted that the US military had covered up the crash of that balloon train in 1947 in order to keep the project top secret. That is why General Ramey presented the find on July 8, 1947 as the remains of a normal Raywin weather balloon and gave distracting reports to the press. For other explanations of the rubble, especially for the UFO theories, there is no evidence in the files that have been received.
Independently of one another, Robert Todd and Karl Pflock also identified the rubble found at Roswell with the Mogul project. Pflock published this thesis in 1994 before the USAF report was finalized. According to this, the rubble described by Brazel in 1947 corresponded to a train of neoprene balloons with attached radar reflectors with a side length of about one meter each. Because the project Mogul team in New Mexico had only started its top-secret work in late May 1947, no one had previously found similar debris. None of those involved in the find knew of this type of balloon and knew of its existence. The reflectors were constructed as kites; the illegible characters turned out to be floral patterns that a children's toy company had printed on the tape used for the kites. They had rubbed off when the adhesive peeled off the balsa struts due to the weather.
GAO's final July 28, 1995 report criticized the fact that, contrary to regulations at the time, the Army had not kept a report of the crash at Roswell and could not determine who had destroyed any reports about it. Only two documents from 1947 were found:
- The FBI telegram showed that the army had reported the discovery of a weather balloon with a metallic radar reflector to the FBI.
- An Air Force report noted the discovery of a flying disc that the military later assigned to a radar-tracking balloon.
The first USAF report from 1994/95 did not address testimony of alleged aliens. The second USAF report from 1997 responded to the criticism: later witnesses believed that anthropomorphic test dummies, later known as crash test dummy , were dead aliens and linked them to the Roswell event. The first main part stated: The USAF in New Mexico regularly threw such dolls from balloons from great heights from 1953 to 1959 in order to test free-fall behavior and parachutes for future human jumps. Military search teams collected the dolls in cooperation with local authorities and citizens. Some were only found years later. Many were severely damaged in the impact and lost limbs, including fingers. They were flown to military laboratories in coffin-like wooden boxes, some with black and silver covers, in order to evaluate their measurement data. Such dolls landed near the three crash sites in Roswell UFO literature. Their appearance is consistent with essential testimonies. Some witnesses had mistaken the alleged alien bodies for dummies and compared them with them.
Proponents of UFO theories saw their assumption of a large-scale deception by the US military being confirmed by the report. Independent critics also considered it unlikely that witnesses would have confused subsequent test dummy crashes, which occurred over a decade, with a single incident in 1947. In a 1997 poll, nearly two-thirds of 1024 adult US citizens surveyed said they believed in a 1947 Roswell UFO crash. When asked in March 2013 whether they believed a UFO had crashed in Roswell and the government was hiding it, of 1,247 US citizens, 21 percent answered yes, 47 percent said no, and 32 percent said they were not safe.
Reception in popular culture
The Roswell Incident became a permanent and integral part of many UFO chronicles and fictional stories. UFO tourism became a significant source of income for many Roswell residents. There are several alleged crash sites there that can be visited for an entrance fee, as well as alien museums, festivals and congresses, including the International UFO Museum and Research Center founded in 1991 . Its first president was Glenn Dennis.
Alleged UFO crashes at Roswell have been the subject of many television shows and series and some movies. These contributed significantly to the spread of the Roswell incident as an integral part of the UFO belief. The genres of documentary film , mystery , fantasy and science fiction often merged. Some films built the Roswell Incident into their fictional plot, others allude to it. Aliens have often been portrayed with clichéd features that tie in with testimony to the Roswell event. These provided the film industry in the USA since 1947 with a fixed set of dramaturgical and optical motifs with recognition value, which entered the then emerging science fiction genre. Toby Smith is one of these Roswell rules
"[...] short, humanoid, gray aliens with big heads and almond-shaped, dark eyes, an alien invasion, radar screens, military interventions, men in white laboratory suits [...] and a moral: As long as the government denies an event, people have hope . Hope that something happened and will be revealed. And hope that this cover-up will never really be exposed, because people need something to fantasize about, even if it's only for the price of a movie ticket. "
- Roswell (Jeremy Kagan, USA 1994)
- Roswell (Bill Brown, USA 1994, short film)
- Roswell 1847 (Ian Paterson, UK 2007)
- Roswell FM (Stephen Griffin, USA 2013, comedy)
- Television films and series
- Unsolved Mysteries (series related to Roswell: USA 1989)
- Roswell: The UFO Coverup (Randle / Schmitt, USA 1994; German: Roswell - UFO crash over New Mexico)
- Visitors from another world (TV film, USA 1994)
- Alien Autopsy: Fact or Fiction? (Fox, USA 1995); Alien Autopsy (Fox, USA 2006)
- The Roswell Incident (Tim Shawcross, USA 1995)
- The Roswell Crash: Startling New Evidence (History Channel, USA 1997)
- Roswell Top Secret (Dan Goldman, 1998)
- Six Days in Roswell (Timothy B. Johnson, USA 1998)
- Roswell: The Aliens Attack (Brad Turner, Canada 1999)
- Roswell (TV series) (Jason Katims, 61 episodes, USA / D 1999–2002)
- Taken (Steven Spielberg, 10 episodes, USA 2002)
- Roswell Conspiracies: Aliens, Myths and Legends (series, Dan Fawcett and others, USA 1999)
- Encounters with the Unexplained , Episode # 3: What really happened at Roswell? (Jerry Orbach, USA 2000)
- Roswell good - all good : 19th episode of the animated series Futurama (USA 2001).
- History Undercover - Roswell: Final Declassification. (History Channel, USA 2005)
- Conspiracy Files: Mystery at Roswell. (USA 2006)
- Secrets of UFOs: Roswell UFO Crash (William Corso, USA 2006)
- The Thing from Another World (1951)
- The Day the Earth Stood Still (USA 1951)
- Invasion of Mars (1953)
- Danger from space ( Jack Arnold , USA 1953)
- Star Trek: Deep Space Nine , episode Little Green Men (1995)
- Dark Skies: Deadly Menace : Episode 1, USA 1996
- The Arrival (USA 1996)
- Independence Day (1996) by Roland Emmerich
- Millennium - Fear Your Neighbor as Yourself : Season 2, Episode 21: Somehow, Satan got behind me (USA 1998)
- The X-Files - The FBI's Creepy Cases : 202nd and final episode 2002: The Truth (Return to Roswell).
- American Dad : After that, Alien Roger allegedly crashed in Roswell in 1947 and was taken to Area 51 .
- Dreamcatcher ( Stephen King , USA 2003; horror)
- Alien Hunter - Mystery in the Antarctic (USA 2003; Science Fiction)
- (T) Raumschiff Surprise - Period 1 ( Michael Herbig , D 2004, Persiflage)
- The Wild Blue Yonder ( Werner Herzog , D 2005, Science Fiction)
- Alien Autopsy - Das All to make friends (Jonny Campbell, Great Britain 2006, comedy about the alleged alien autopsy in Roswell)
- Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull ( Steven Spielberg , USA 2008, adventure film)
- Paul - An Alien on the Run (Simon Pegg, Nick Frost, GB / US / FR / ES 2011, comedy)
- Stargate - Command SG-1 , Episode Prometheus (06x11)
- Seven Days - Das Tor zur Zeit (USA 1998-2001; science fiction series, the plot of which is based on the fact that a time machine was developed from the technology of the crashed spaceship)
- Kevin D. Randle: The Roswell Encyclopedia. William Morrow Paperbacks, 2000, ISBN 0-380-79853-0
- Noe Torres: Ultimate Guide to the Roswell UFO Crash. Roswell Books, 2010, ISBN 978-0-9817597-4-6
- UFO and alien theories
- Charles Berlitz, William L. Moore: The Roswell Incident. The UFOs and the CIA. (1980) Droemer Knaur, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-426-72207-0 .
- Kevin D. Randle, Donald R. Schmitt: The Roswell UFO Crash. (1991) Kopp, Rottenburg 1996, ISBN 3-930219-13-1
- Stanton T. Friedman, Don Berliner: The UFO crash at Corona. The recovery of a UFO by the US military. (1992) Kopp, Rottenburg 1997, ISBN 3-930219-03-4
- Kevin D. Randle, Donald R. Schmitt: The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell. (1994) Kopp, Rottenburg 1998, ISBN 3-930219-17-4
- Philip J. Corso, William J. Birnes: The Day After Roswell. The proof. The UFOs really came. (1997) Goldmann, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-442-12798-X
- Michael Hesemann : Beyond Roswell. UFO. The curtain of silence is raised… . Silberschnur, Güllesheim 1996, ISBN 3-923652-15-1
- Karl K. Korff: The Roswell UFO Crash. What they don't want you to know. Buffalo, New York NY 1997, ISBN 1-57392-127-0
- William H. Doleman and others: The Roswell Dig Diaries. (Sci Fi Channel) Pocket Books, New York 2004, ISBN 0-7434-8612-9
- Stanton Friedman: Top Secret / Majic: Operation Majestic-12 and the United States Government's UFO Cover-Up. Marlowe & Company, 2005
- Thomas J. Carey: Witness To Roswell: Unmasking the 60-Year Cover-Up. ReadHowYouWant, 18th Edition 2008, ISBN 1-4270-9865-4
- Jesse Marcel Jr., Linda Marcel, Stanton T. Friedman: The Roswell Legacy: The Untold Story of the First Military Officer at the 1947 Crash Site. The Career Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-60163-026-1
- Thomas J. Carey, Donald R. Schmitt: The Roswell Incident: An Eyewitness Account. Rosen Pub Group, 2011, ISBN 1-4488-4841-5
- Other cover-up theories
- Phil Patton: Dreamland: Travels Inside the Secret World of Roswell and Area 51. Villard, New York 1998, ISBN 978-0-307-82860-6
- Grady Bryant: Roswell One: The Final Contact. 1999, ISBN 1-4564-6004-8
- Nick Redfern: Body Snatchers in the Desert: The Horrible Truth at the Heart of the Roswell Story. Pocket Books 2005
- Joseph P. Farrell: Roswell and the Reich. Adventures Unlimited Press, 2010, ISBN 978-1-935487-05-0
- Criticism and refutation
- Kent Jeffrey: Roswell: Anatomy of a Myth. In: Journal of Scientific Exploration , January 12, 1998 ( full text online )
- Philip J. Klass: The Real Roswell Crashed Saucer Coverup. Buffalo, New York 1997, ISBN 1-57392-164-5
- Charles B. Moore, Benson Saler, Charles A. Ziegler: UFO Crash at Roswell. The Genesis of a Modern Myth. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 1997, ISBN 1-58834-063-5
- Uli Thieme: 50 years of Roswell. 1947-1997. A UFO myth crashes. A documentation by CENAP, Central Research Network for Extraordinary Celestial Phenomena. 3rd edition, self-published, Schwäbisch Hall 1997.
- Uli Thieme: New UFO disinformation. In: CENAP REPORT No. 238, Volume 1, Mannheim 1997, .
- Uli Thieme: 10 questions and answers about the so-called Roswell incident of 1947. In: Der UFO-Student No. 2, Volume 2/2000.
- Karl T. Pflock: Roswell: Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe. Prometheus Books, 2001, ISBN 1-57392-894-1
- USAF reports
- Richard L. Weaver, James McAndrew: The Roswell Report - Fact versus Fiction in the New Mexico Desert. United States Government Printing Office , Washington DC 1995, ISBN 0-16-048023-X ( first version July 1994 online ; PDF )
- James McAndrew: The Roswell Report - Case Closed. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC 1997, ISBN 0-16-049018-9 ( full text online , PDF)
- Daniel Schröder Olympos - The war of the god children.
- John LeMay: Roswell.
- Boyd Morrison: The Roswell Conspiracy.
- Craig Anderson: The Roswell Chronicles And Other Tales.
- Thomas Nowlin Harrison: Turnabout Roswell. 2007
- Henry Melton: Roswell or Bust. 2008
- Allan Burd: The Roswell Protocols. Bed Bug Publishing, 2009
- RJ Reaver: Elliot: The Return to Roswell. CreateSpace , 2010
- Eugene Stevens: To Save Our Time (Roswell Fiction Trilogy). 2010
- Robert E. Vardeman , Jean Rabe, Nick Redfern, Stephen D. Sullivan: Uncanny Encounters: Roswell. Walkabout Publishing, 2010
- Mark Todd: Strange Attractors: A Story about Roswell. Kindle 2012, ISBN 1-4793-8559-X
- Michael Leptuch: 0400 Roswell Time. Kindle 2012
- Thomas Settimi: Convergence at Roswell. Sky Scientific Press, 2nd edition 2012, ISBN 978-1-4196-6151-8
- Roswell - A Green on Earth : Comic series by Futurama producer Bill Morrison .
- UFO and alien theories
- Roswell International UFO Museum
- Cufos.org: Roswell
- Affidavit from the former press officer Walter G. Haut
- Criticism and refutation
- Critical summary of the case on ufo-information.de
- Summary of the documentation " 50 years of Roswell - a myth crashes " by the critical German Roswell researcher Uli Thieme
- The Roswell Myth. Facts and fictions. Author: Dennis Kirstein
- Lynn Picknett: The Mammoth Book of UFOs. Robinson, Kindle Edition 2012, p. 38 ; Broder Carstensen, Ulrich Busse, Regina Schmude: Anglicisms dictionary. De Gruyter, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-11-017169-4 , p. 507.
- Becky Matthews: The Roswell Incident: Fiftieth Anniversary Sell-Abration. In: Francis Edward Abernethy: 2001: A Texas Folklore Odyssey (Publications of the Texas Folklore Society). University of North Texas Press, 2001, ISBN 1-57441-140-3 , p. 91
- Roswell Daily Record : RAAF Captures Flying Saucer On Ranch in the Roswell Region. On: The Roswell Files: Press Reports about the Roswell Incident. July 8, 1947
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