Jacob Obrecht

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School of Hans Memling : Jacob Obrecht, 1496 - Fort Worth , Texas , Kimbell Art Museum

Jacob Obrecht (* 1457 or 1458 in Ghent ; † shortly before August 1, 1505 in Ferrara ) was a Franco-Flemish composer , singer and cleric of the Renaissance .

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Jacob Obrecht was the only child of Ghent city trumpeter Willem (Guillermus) Hobrecht (1430/35 - November 22, 1488), who had held this office since 1452; between 1454 and 1470 he also served the Burgundian court on special occasions . Jacob Obrecht's mother Lysbette (* around 1440) died in July 1460 when he was around 20 years old. The composer's approximate date of birth is derived from his particularly high-quality portrait, which was discovered in 1987 and painted by Hans Memling († 1494) and his school with the year 1496, and in which Obrecht's age is given as 38 years. He seems to have had a very close relationship with his father, which is evident on the occasion of the death of his father from the unusual personal testimony of the funeral motet "Mille quingentis", the text of which mentions the father.

Nothing has been handed down about the youth or the musical or spiritual training of Obrecht. Today's music historians assume that he was trained as a choirboy in his hometown. Later, around 1472/73, he studied theology in an unknown location and completed this course before 1479. The music theorist Heinrich Glarean , who was a student of the great humanist Erasmus von Rotterdam , states in his work Dodekachordon (published in Basel 1547) that his teacher Erasmus was apprenticed to Obrecht musically ("puero Erasmo in Musicis Praeceptor"), and a friend of Erasmus, Beatus Rhenanus , writes that Erasmus was a choirboy in “Traiectum” ( Utrecht ) or in Maastricht in his youth . Both of them must have stayed in one of these two cities before or around 1480; there is no evidence of this for either Erasmus von Rotterdam or Jacob Obrecht.

From 1480 at the latest Obrecht had the academic degree of a master’s degree , was ordained a priest around this time and worked from this year until 1484 as choirmaster, priest and singer at the Gertrudiskirche and for the Marian Brotherhood in Bergen op Zoom . Apparently, his reputation as a composer had already spread during this time. In his work, the composer Johannes Tinctoris names Complexus effectuum musices Obrecht among the masters who have gained fame through their work. Duke Ercole I d'Este of Ferrara (reign 1471–1505) received an Obrecht Mass from his agent and singer Cornelio di Lorenzo in August 1484 , which he liked very much. On July 28, 1484 Obrecht was the chapter of the cathedral of Cambrai been appointed choirmaster; he took up this particularly prestigious position on the following September 6th. Here it was his job to teach the choirboys in liturgy , choral singing and Latin, to teach them good behavior and to take care of the meals, clothing and leisure activities of the boys. But the following year he was warned for neglecting the choirboys and accused of financial irregularities; the cathedral chapter of Cambrai finally ordered his dismissal on October 21, 1485.

On October 13, 1485, the composer was appointed to the position of “zangmeester” and succentor at the Church of St. Donatian in Bruges , and he took over this position the following November. Apart from a leave of absence, he held this position until the beginning of 1491. Here he worked in close proximity to Antoine Busnoys , who was cantor at the church of Saint-Sauveur in the same city from 1485 until his death in 1492 . Obrecht's scope of work in the new office was exceptional and atypical for a music career in the late 15th century; here he was obliged to compose masses for all recurring occasions. If he fulfills all his duties, he must have written at least 15 masses between 1485 and 1491. According to a remark by Glarean in the font Dodekachordon , however, he had a fluent spelling that helped him. A number of fairs can also be assigned to Obrecht's period of activity in Bruges in a very plausible manner, both from the historical data and from a style-critical point of view.

During this time, from November 1487 to May 1488, the composer stayed in Ferrara at the invitation of Duke Ercole I, conveyed by two of his singers; His mass “O beate pater Donatiane” was probably created during this time. Ercole tried to keep Obrecht in Ferrara, but to no avail. Obrecht then exceeded the granted vacation time by three months because he did not return directly to Bruges due to the war, was still in Bergen op Zoom and did not return to Bruges until August 1488. In May 1490, the chapter of St. Donatian decided without justification to dismiss Obrecht, but did not implement this decision until the composer was finally dismissed on January 21, 1491 at his own request. In June 1492 Jacob Obrecht found a new job as choirmaster at the Marienkirche Notre-Dame and at the Marienbruderschaft in Antwerp , where he worked as successor to Jacques Barbireau until 1497. Here he had similar tasks as in Bruges, but apparently without the obligation to compose regular masses. From 1492 to 1493 he was sent to France for unknown reasons, where he possibly met with Loyset Compère and possibly like him wrote a composition on the text “Quis numerare queat”. In 1494/95 he also tried to recommend himself to the Pope by composing the motet “Inter praeclarissimas virtutes” for him. In June or July 1497 Obrecht went again, perhaps due to illness, to Bergen op Zoom to the Marian Brotherhood, this time as a singer with significantly reduced duties. But only 1½ years later, on December 31st, 1498, he returned to the Church of St. Donatian in Bruges as the successor. There he fell seriously ill in the summer of 1500 and was released in September 1500 at his own request. The chapter on St. Donatian tried to keep him in Bruges through benefices and other evidences of favor; Obrecht, however, left this city for good in June 1501, having recovered in the meantime.

The composer went to Antwerp for the second time, where he worked from June 24, 1501 to at least June 24, 1503 as vicar and singer at St. Mary's Church and as a choirmaster for the St. Mary's Brotherhood there. In the spring of 1503 he tried to attract the attention of the Roman-German King Maximilian I (reign 1493–1519), presumably by composing the mass “Sub tuum presidium” for him, and received for it on April 22, 1503 in Namur a gift from the court of the future emperor, "because of an ambition Regina celi So he made us". Obrecht then appears to have traveled to Italy via Augsburg and Innsbruck in the summer of 1503 ; The Missa “Maria zart” belongs in this context, possibly composed for the meeting of Philip the Fair of Burgundy with Maximilian I in September 1503 in Augsburg; it might be his last mass.

In Italy he may have turned to Rome in 1503/04 , perhaps to the court chapel of Pope Julius II (term of office 1503–1513), or he was considering entering this chapel. Because the payrolls of the papal chapel for this period were lost, there is no evidence to support the decision of this question. In September 1504 he turned to Ferrara, although the plague had broken out there in July 1503 , which even led to the departure of the court from the city; there he was, after Josquin Desprez had given up the position and also left the city, his successor as court conductor. But on January 25, 1505, Obrecht's patron, Duke Ercole I, died, whereupon his son and successor Alfonso I d'Este (reign 1505–1534) reduced the size of the court chapel and also dismissed Obrecht. The composer tried to get a job in Mantua at the court of Isabella d'Este and Margrave Francesco II Gonzaga , but was unsuccessful. Shortly afterwards he returned to Ferrara and worked here as a priest, perhaps in the German or Dutch community. At the end of June or July 1505 Obrecht died of this disease in the plague hospital in Ferrara. It is not known where he was buried. The humanist Gasparo Sardi from Ferrara designed two tombs for Obrecht, but they were never realized. From Obrecht's arduous career, his lack of organizational talent has repeatedly become apparent, and his relatively early and glorious end in a plague epidemic can probably be called tragic.


Obrecht was unanimously counted among the great masters by the music theorists of his time. His superior mastery of musical techniques, his productivity, his sense of balance and clarity and his “subtilitas” were unanimously praised. Heinrich Glarean reports that the composer is said to have written a complete mass once in a single night. Among the more important composers of his time, he was the only one whose mother tongue was Flemish ; accordingly, only Flemish songs played a more important role for him. Like Pierre de la Rue , he spent almost his entire professional life in his closer homeland, Flanders and Brabant , but not in court service, but only in church positions in the large townspeople. His works are on a par with Josquin's works in terms of stylistic diversity and aesthetic rank. Above all, he was a composer for a trade fair: with his 30 confirmed works and six other works that were quite convincingly attributed to him, he was one of the most prolific masters of his era alongside Heinrich Isaac and Pierre de la Rue.

In spite of their undisputed originality, compared to Josquin his compositions show a clear relationship to Johannes Ockeghem and the late Guillaume Dufay ; they are therefore rather conservative in their basic attitude. Italian influences take a back seat to elements of Flemish and German folk songs and to a pronounced contrapuntal spelling. Obrecht thus stands in contrast to his compatriots Josquin Desprez, Gaspar van Weerbeke and Loyset Compère , who are somewhat more Italian-oriented . His compositions testify to a rational order and a sense of musical architecture. In the masses he also combines several cantus firmi (“Missa diversum tenorum”), while imitation , clear text declamation (except in short, homorhythmic phases) and the use of expressive design means for text interpretation are rare. Recent research found that the structures of his masses and motets are based on numerical relations. This results in both a strict symmetry of the individual sections and the formal balance of an entire composition. In addition, from the earliest works he developed elements of a very individual language, in which fantasy on the one hand and highest rationality on the other have entered into a quasi-paradoxical synthesis. Some of these elements obviously go back to his first great role model, Antoine Busnoy. His melodies emphasize song-like turns and triad movements on the one hand, and concise motifs with inexhaustible imaginative variations, motif repetitions, ostinati , sequences and additive techniques on the other ; with the latter, a motif “grows” by adding a tone with each repetition. Obrecht's counterpoint often brings decimal parallels in the outer voices, also third and sixth parallels , from 1490 also fauxbourdon-like passages and cadenzas as well as canons that are virtually hidden in the dense fabric of voices.

Jacob Obrecht's motets have a much more colorful stylistic spectrum than his masses. With them, according to the genre, the examination of the text is in the foreground much more and historically much earlier. The motet “Salve crux arbor vite” is the most conservative, but also overwhelming in terms of sound design. Most motets combine the contrast of sonorous, full-voiced cantus firmus developments with low-voiced free sections with a clear distinction between syllabic- chordal, and canonical text declamation with a few voices, on the one hand, which appears quite modern, and a full-voiced, melismatic- ornamental movement on the other; Prime examples of this are the Christmas speech motet “Factor orbis” with its layered or strung together chorale texts and chorale melodies, or the parish motet “Laudamus nunc Dominum”. Compared to the impressive group of works of four-part motets, which belong entirely to his time in Bruges, his three-part motets clearly take a back seat.

Obrecht's secular works, mainly his Flemish songs, show a rather modern-looking, extremely simple movement. This is full-voiced and chordal with pointed and often dance-like rhythms, also with simple line melodies that wander through the voices, with alternating duets with and without imitation, combined with a simple and effective "tonal" harmony. This already applies to the song "Lancen adieu", one of his probably oldest compositions, which is also passed down in the so-called " Glogau song book ". Section repetitions, refrains and simple large forms are particularly common in this group of works. Jacob Obrecht was also the first composer of the Josquin period for whom a complete edition of his works was created, a pioneering achievement from the years 1908–1921. In 1928/29, the music researcher Heinrich Besseler found Obrecht to be a brief characterization of an “ingenious outsider”.


Complete editions: There are three complete editions of Jacob Obrecht's works. The first, published 1908–1921, reprint 1968, is outdated and incomplete; the second, published 1953–1964, was canceled in 1964 and is incomplete; only the third complete edition is mentioned here, which is complete with the exception of a few new assignments: New Obrecht Edition / Jacob Obrecht. New Edition of the Collected Works , edited by Chr. Maas and others, 18 volumes, Utrecht 1983–1999.

  • Masses that have been handed down under Obrecht's name (unless otherwise stated: four votes)
    • Missa “Adieu mes amours”, chanson or chanson melody by Josquin, Ferrara 1488?
    • Missa “Ave regina celorum”, tenor of the motet by Walter Frye , Bruges 1485–1490?
    • Missa "Beata viscera", Communio in commemoratione Beatae Mariae Virginis
    • Missa "Caput", closing melisma of the antiphon "Venit ad Petrum" in the Sarum Rite, modeled after the anonymous English "Caput" mass
    • Missa “Cela sans plus”, soprano and tenor of the chanson by Colinet de Lannoy , attribution only in the counterfactor of Osanna I as chanson “Cela sans plus” by Ottaviano dei Petrucci
    • Missa de Sancto Donatiano, choral melodies from the liturgy for St. Donatian and a spiritual song, with quotations from Johannes Ockeghem's Missa "Ecce ancilla Domini", Bruges 1487 for a mass sponsored
    • Missa de Sancto Martino, antiphon melodies from the liturgy for St. Martin, Bruges 1486 for a donated mass
    • Missa “De tous biens playne” with three voices, tenor and in parts the soprano from the chanson of the same name by Hayne van Ghizeghem
    • Missa “Fors seulement” with three voices, tenor or soprano of the Rondeau by Johannes Ockeghem, with borrowings from the other two voices
    • Missa "Fortuna desperata", tenor and soprano from the chanson of the same name ascribed to Antoine Busnoy, Ferrara 1488. Josquin's mass on the same model is obviously written with knowledge of the Obrecht mass
    • Missa Grecorum, unknown melody as tenor cantus firmus, plus the sequence "Victimae paschali laudes" in "Osanna "
    • Missa Hercules dux Ferrarie, lost, mentioned by Heinrich Glarean in the Dodekachordon , Ferrara 1488 or 1504/05?
    • Missa “Je ne demande”, tenor of the chanson of the same name by Antoine Busnoys with borrowings from the three other voices
    • Missa "L'homme armé", tenor of the mass of the same name by Antoine Busnoys
    • Missa "Libenter gloriabor", Antiphon in Conversione and in Commemoratione of St. Paul
    • Missa "Malheur me bat", soprano from the chanson of the same name, attributed to Malcort, Johannes Martini and Johannes Ockeghem, borrowed from the other two voices, Ferrara 1488
    • Missa "Maria zart", a southern German song of Mary from the 15th century, for the imperial court to meet Philip the Fair, Augsburg 1503, probably Obrecht's last mass
    • Missa "O lumen ecclesie" ["O quam suavis est"], after one of the two aforementioned antiphons
    • Missa "Petrus Apostolus", based on the Magnificat on St. Peter and Paul, only complete in 1 handwriting, but certainly real and one of Obrecht's earliest works
    • Missa peacock tail, tenor of the Barbingant instrumental movement
    • Missa plurimorum carminum (I), tenor (once the soprano) from at least 21 chansons and a Flemish song by various composers, 1487/90
    • Missa plurimorum carminum (II), soprano from four chansons and a Flemish song by various composers, perhaps Ferrara 1488
    • Missa "Regina celi", probably identical to the Missa "Sub tuum presidium"
    • Missa "Rose playsante", tenor of a chanson by Jean Dusart or Firminus Caron or Philippe Basiron with borrowings from the other two voices, 1491/1493 from Northern Italy
    • Missa "Salve diva parens", unidentified hymn de Beatae Mariae Virginis ?; Authenticity in 2003 doubted
    • Missa “Scaramella”, fragment, Italian song of the 15th century, only alto and bass preserved, cantus firmus disposition reconstructed by Rob C. Wegman 1994, Ferrara 1488?
    • Missa “Sicut spina rosam”, excerpt from the Marian responsory “Ad nutum Domini”, bass of Agnus Dei = bass of Kyrie from Missa “Mi-mi” by Johannes Ockeghem and smaller quotations from this mass, 1497 on Ockeghem's death, Antwerp 1492/1497
    • Missa "Si dedero", tenor of the motet of the same name by Alexander Agricola with borrowings from the other two voices, 1502 from Northern Italy
    • Missa Sub tuum praesidium , Marian antiphon isorhythmic in soprano, plus six other Marian chorale melodies from the Credo to the Agnus Dei, probably for the Easter celebration of Maximilian I in the pilgrimage church of Halle (Hal) in Hainaut 1503
    • Missa “Veci la danse barbari”, tenor of an anonymous chanson, incomplete and only survived in posthumous German sources
  • Masses attributed to Obrecht by researchers have been anonymously handed down
    • Missa “Beata progenies” with four voices, Marienantiphon in the Sarum Rite, attributed to Jürgen Heidrich 2000, not in the complete edition
    • Missa De Sancto Johanne Baptista for four voices, antiphons from the Office "In Nativitate Santi Joannis Baptistae", attribution by Rob C. Wegman 1989
    • Missa "Gracuuly [Gracieulx] et biaulx" with four voices, tenor of the chanson of the same name by Jacques Barbireau, attribution by Martin Staehelin 1973, 1975
    • Missa “Je ne seray plus” with three voices, soprano = chanson of the chanson of the same name by Phillipet des Pres with quotations from the two remaining voices, attribution by Tom R. Ward 1977
    • Missa “N'aray-je jamais” with four voices, tenor of the chanson by Robert Morton with quotations from its soprano, attributions by Martin Staehelin and Martin Just 1975
    • Missa [sine nomine] to four voices with one or more cantus firmi, unidentified, attribution by Rob C. Wegman 1994
  • Fair sentence of dubious authenticity
    • Benedictus to two voices, in Gonzalo de Baena (around 1476 - after 1540): Arte nouamente inventada pera aprender a tanger , Lisbon 1540, duo from an unidentified mass, perhaps by Obrecht
  • Motets
    • “Alma redemptoris mater” with three voices, Marian antiphon, only passed on posthumously
    • “Ave Maris stella” to three voices, Marian hymn
    • “Ave Regina celorum” for four voices, 2nd part “Funde preces”, tenor = tenor of the motet by Walter Frye, with quotations from the Marienantiphon, Bruges 1485–1490
    • "Beata es, Maria" for four voices, 2nd part "Beata es, Maria" / "Ave Maria, gratia plena", Lauda, ​​sequence and litane universe with their melodies, Ferrara 1488 ?; close relationships with Loyset Compères "Ave Maria gratia plena"
    • “Benedicamus in laude Jhesu” for four voices, “Benedicamus” - trope with melody
    • "Cuius sacrata viscera" to three voices, 2nd stanza of the Marian hymn "Assunt festa jubilea"
    • "Cuius sacrata viscera" for four voices, 2nd stanza of the Marian hymn "Assunt festa jubilea"
    • "Ego sum Dominus" for four voices, Protestant counterfactor of "Alma redemptoris mater"
    • “Factor orbis” with five voices, 2nd part “Spiritus Domini”, Advent and Christmas texts with their melodies
    • "Hec Deum celi" for five voices, 2nd stanza of the hymn In purificatione Mariae "Quod chorus vatum"
    • "Inter praeclarissimas virtutes" for four voices, Cantus firmus "Estote fortes in bello", 2nd part "Eya, propter tuam paternitatem", Cantus firmus Magnificat-Antiphon of the Commune Apostolorum et Evangelistarum , text probably from the composer, homage and 'application letter' to a spiritual or secular potentate
    • "Largire nunc mitissime" to four voices, Protestant counterfactor of "Lacen adieu"
    • “Laudemus nunc dominum” for five voices, cantus firmus “Non est hic aliud” / “Vidit Jacob scalam” / “Erexit Jacob lapidem”, 2nd part “Cantemus Domino”, Cantus firmus: Antiphon from the Commune Dedicationis Ecclesiae
    • “Laudes Christo redemptori” to four voices, 2nd part “Hec est dies”, Easter sequence stanzas without their melodies
    • “Mater Patris nati nata” with five voices, cantus firmus “Sancta Dei genitrix”, 2nd part “Ab eterno generatus”, 3rd part “Virgo mater Dei”, Marian hymn, at the end the 2nd stanza of the hymn “Memento rerum conditor “, Cantus firmus not identified
    • “Mille quingentis” for four voices, cantus firmus “Requiem eternam”, 2nd part “Cecilie ad festum”, poetry in hexameters , probably by Obrecht himself, cantus firmus: introitus of the Missa pro defunctis, on the death of Obrecht's father in 1488
    • "O Beate basili" for four voices, cantis firmus "O beate pater Basili", 2nd part "O beate pater Basili", 3rd part "O virum digne colendum" / "Invisit sanctus", texts and melodies from the Basilius liturgy ; Bruges 1485/1491?
    • "Omnis spiritus laudet" to two to four voices, prayer and acclamation formulas
    • "O preciosissime sanguis" for five voices, cantus firmus "Guberna tuos famulos" / "Te ergo quesumus", 2nd part except the cantus firmus textless, also 3rd part, texts and melodies for the festival Preciosissimi Sanguinis DNJC , for the holy Blood Procession Bruges 1485/1491?
    • “Parce domine” for three voices, text and melody (in the bass) not identified, Obrecht's most widespread motet
    • "Parvulus nobis nascitur", Protestant counterfactor of "Rompeltier"
    • "Precantibus diva virgo", Protestant counterfactor of "Wat willen wij"
    • “Quis numerare queat” for four voices, 2nd part “Audiit ipse tamen”, 3rd part “Funde preces Galle”, anonymous thanksgiving poem for the end of a war (also set to music by Loyset Compère), for the Peace of Étaples 1492?
    • “Regina celi letare” for two voices, Marienantiphon, only text incipit , probably not a motet, but a study of proportions
    • “Salve crux arbor vite” to five voices, cantus firmus “O crux lignum triumphale” / “Per lignum crucis”, 2nd part “O crux lignum triumphale”, 3rd part “Mundi vera salus”, sequences and antiphon “In Exaltatione Santae Crucis ”, for Bruges 1485/1491?
    • “Salve Regina” to three voices, Marienantiphon
    • “Salve Regina” for four voices, Marian antiphon, only even-numbered verses set to music
    • “Salve Regina” with six voices, Marian antiphon, only even-numbered verses set to music
    • “Salve sancta facies” with four voices, cantus firmus “Homo quidam”, 2nd part “Salve nostra gloria”, sequence or hymn to St. Veronica or for the feast of the holy countenance, cantus firmus: Responsory for Corpus Christi, cantus firmus in soprano, for Bruges 1485/1491?
    • “Si sumpsero” to three voices, psalm verses, wrongly attributed to Alexander Agricola in a safe organ tablature
  • Motet of doubtful authenticity
    • “Nec mihi nec tibi” for two or three voices, text 1. Kings. 3, 26, attributed to “Virgilius”, partly text incipit “Helas”, instrumental movement
  • Flemish songs (if not otherwise stated, four voices)
    • "Adiu, adiu", see "Meiskin es u"
    • "As al de weerelt in vruechdenleeft", only text incipit
    • “Den haghel end the calde snee”, just text incipit
    • "Ic draghe de mutse clutse", only text incipit
    • “Ic hoerde de clocskins loaded”, only text incipit
    • "Ic ret my uut spacieren", spiritual or secular unanimous song ?, only text incipit
    • "Ic weinsche all scöne vrauwen EERE" only Text incipit, in one manuscript with German text mistakenly Thomas Stoltzer attributed
    • “In hebbe gheen gilt in mijn bewelt”, only text incipit
    • "Lacen adieu wel zote partye", only text incipit, in 1 handwriting Latin counterfactor "Largire nunc mitissime"
    • “Laet u genoughen liever Johan”, only text incipit
    • “Meiskin es u cutkin ru”, only text incipit
    • “Moet my lacen u vriendelic schijn” with three voices, only text incipit
    • "Sullen wij langhe in drucke moeten leven", only text incipit, the 4th voice (alto) is perhaps a later ingredient
    • "Tsat een cleyn meiskin al up een blokskin", only text incipit
    • “What sij di Han? How do you roupt ons daer? “, Only text incipit
    • “Wat willen wij metten budel spelen”, only text incipit
    • "Weet ghij wat mijnder jonghen hert deert", only text incipit
  • Flemish songs of doubtful authorship
    • "Rompeltier" for four voices, song or dance melody, distributed in Flemish and German sources of the 15th and 16th centuries with various texts, attribution in 1501
    • “Tmeisken was jonck” (“De tusche in Busche”) with three or four voices, attributions to Obrecht, Heinrich Isaac, Jean Japart and in an organ tablature by Arnolt Schlick 1512, anonymously in other sources; the 4th part (alto) is certainly added afterwards
  • Chansons and Italian song (for four voices, unless otherwise stated)
    • “Fors seulement”, about the tenor of the chanson by Johannes Ockeghem
    • "Helas", see "Nec mihi nec tibi"
    • “Helas mon bien” to three voices, only text incipit, Rondeau?
    • “J'ay pris amours”, about soprano and tenor of an anonymous three-part chanson
    • "La tortorella e semplice uccelletto", presumably a unison Italian song, Ferrara 1488?
    • "Ma bouche rit" about the tenor of the chanson of the same name by Ockeghem, only the first part of Ockeghem's tenor used, perhaps not a chanson, but a fair sentence, only intabulated (safe organ tablature) with the incipit "Ma menche vel ma buche"
    • “Marion la doulce” to three voices, only text incipit
    • “Se bien fait”, just text incipit, Ferrara 1488?
    • "Tant que nostre argent dura", only text incipit
  • Probable or suspected instrumental sentences
    • Fugue to four ex 1 votes, Ferrara 1488?
    • Tandernaken ( T'Andernaken ) for three voices, one-part Flemish song in tenor
    • textless I to three parts, 1488/1490 from Northern Italy, instrumental movement or mass movement
    • textless II to three voices, cantus firmus in soprano, not identified, instrumental movement or mass movement
    • textless III to three voices, cantus firmus in tenor, not identified, instrumental movement or mass movement
    • textless IV to three voices, originally vowel movement ?, fermata bar 38
    • textless V to three (?) voices, only bass preserved
  • Inauthentic works, authorship of other composers proven
    • “Een vraulic wesen” with four voices, Flemish song, attribution to Obrecht only in 1 source, in most sources attributed to Jacques Barbireau or Heinrich Isaac and three voices, most likely by Barbireau; the additional alto part is certainly not right
    • "Judea et Jerusalem" to four voices, Christmas responsory, attributed to Obrecht and Heinrich Isaac, in other only German manuscripts anonymous, certainly not from Obrecht, probably from Isaac
    • “La stangetta” for three parts, instrumental movement, Obrecht, attributed to Heinrich Isaac and Gaspar van Weerbeke, certainly not by Obrecht
    • “Mijn hert heft altijt verlanghen” for four voices, Flemish song, Obrecht only ascribed in 1 manuscript, is by Pierre de la Rue
    • “O vos omnes” for three voices, motet chanson, Obrecht only ascribed in 1 manuscript, is by Loyset Compère
    • “Passio Domini nostri Jesu Christi” with four voices, motet passion, Obrecht only ascribed in one manuscript from 1538 and other dependent German manuscripts, also Pierre de la Rue, Jo. ala Venture and Antoine de Longueval , certainly not from Obrecht, most likely from Longueval
    • “Pater noster” with four votes, although only ascribed in 1 German manuscript (Thomaskirche), is by Adrian Willaert
    • “Si dedero” (I) with three voices, although only ascribed in two manuscripts, is by Alexander Agricola
    • “Si dedero” (II) for three parts, in a print by G. de Baena Lisbon 1540, intabulation of a parody motet over Alexander Agricola's motet
    • “Si oblitus fuero” with four voices, although only ascribed in 1 manuscript, is by Ninot le Petit

Literature (selection)

  • Robert Eitner: Obrecht, Jacob. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB), Volume 24, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1887, pp. 116–119
  • Otto Gombosi : Jacob Obrecht: A style-critical study. With a note attachment. Contains 31 previously unpublished compositions from the period between 1460–1510 . Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1925, Diss. Phil. Berlin
  • A. Pirro: Obrecht à Cambrai. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis No. 12/2, 1927, pp. 78-80
  • A. Piscaer: Jacob Obrecht. In: Sinte Geertruydsbronnen No. 15, Bergen op Zoom 1938
  • A. Smijers: De Missa carminum by Jacob Hobrecht. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis No. 17/3, 1951, pp. 192–194
  • M. Kyriazis: The cantus firmus technique in the Obrechts trade fairs , Bern 1952
  • M. Antonowytsch: Renaissance tendencies in the Fortuna desperata masses by Josquin and Obrecht. In: Die Musikforschung No. 11, 1956, pp. 1–26
  • B. Murray: Jacob Obrecht's Connection with the Church of Our Lady in Antwerp. In: Revue belge de musicologie No. 11, 1957, pp. 125-133
  • A. Salop: The Masses of Jacob Obrecht (1450–1505): Structure and Style , dissertation at Indiana University 1959
  • RB Lenaerts: Jacob Obrecht. In: Musica No. 15, 1961, pp. 255-258
  • JA Bank: Some Comments on the Transcription of "Pleni sunt coeli" in Jacob Obrecht's Missa Maria zart. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis No. 20/3, 1966, pp. 170–177
  • K. Vellekoop: Relationships between text and number in Jacob Obrechts' type of composition. Analysis of the motet "Parce Domine". In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis No. 20/3, 1966, pp. 97–119
  • LG van Hoorn: Jacob Obrecht , The Hague 1968
  • ME Nagle: The Structural Role of the Cantus Firmus in the Motets of Jacob Obrecht , dissertation at the University of Michigan 1972
  • M. Staehelin: Obrechtiana. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis No. 25, 1975, pp. 1–37 (on this, correction and addition in the same journal No. 26, 1976, p. 41ff.)
  • Chr. J. Maas: Towards a New Obrecht Edition: a Preliminary Worklist. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis No. 26, 1976, pp. 84-108
  • RL Todd: Retrograde, Inversion, Retrograde-Inversion, and Related Techniques in the Masses of Jacob Obrecht. In: Musical Quarterly No. 44, 1978, pp. 50-78
  • RD Ross: Toward a Theory of a Tonal Coherence: the Motets of Jacob Obrecht. In: Musical Quarterly No. 47, 1981, pp. 143-184
  • B. Hudson: Two Ferranese Masses by Jacob Obrecht. In: The Journal of Musicology No. 4, 1985/86, pp. 276-302
  • Kr. K. Forney: Music, Ritual and Patronage at the Church of Our Lady, Antwerp. In: Early Music History No. 7, 1987, pp. 1-57
  • Rob C. Wegman: Music and Musicians at the Guild of Our Lady in Bergen op Zoom, c 1470–1510. In: Early Music History No. 11, 1989, pp. 175-249
  • Mary Jennifer Bloxam: "La Contenance Italienne": the motets on "Beata es Maria" by Compère, Obrecht and Brumel. In: Early Music History No. 11, 1992, pp. 39-89
  • Rob C. Wegman: Born for the Muses. The Life and Masses of Jacob Obrecht , Oxford 1994
  • R. Sherr: A Biography Miscellany: Josquin, Tinctoris, Obrecht, Brumel. In: Festschrift for W. and U. Kirkendale, edited by S. Gmeinwieser / D. Hiley / J. Riedlbaur, Florenz 1994, pp. 65–73
  • BJ Blackburn: Obrecht's Missa "Je ne demande" and Busnoys's Chanson: an essay in Reconstructing Lost Canons. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis No. 45, 1995, pp. 18–32
  • I. Karevold: Jacob Obrecht's Missa sub tuum praesidium. In: Studia musicologica norvegica No. 23, 1997, pp. 21-38
  • J. Heidrich: The Missa "Beata progenies" in the choir book Jena 32. a previously unrecognized composition by Jacob Obrechts ?. In: Archives for Musicology No. 57, 2000, S, 151–171
  • B. Lodes: »Maria tender« and the fear of purgatory and Malafrantzos - the career of a song at the beginning of the 16th century. In: Musical everyday life in the 15th and 16th centuries, ed. by N. Schwindt, Kassel and others 2001, pp. 99–131 (= Trossinger Yearbook for Renaissance Music No. 1)
  • S. Gallagher: Pater optime: Vergilian Allusion in Obrecht's "Mille quingentis". In: The Journal of Musicology No. 18, 2001, pp. 406-457
  • B. Lodes: Jacob Obrecht's "Ambt regina celi" for Maximilian I (1503). A reinterpretation of the Missa "Sub tuum presidium". In: Early Music History, 2005, dissertation 2005

Web links

Commons : Jacob Obrecht  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Ludwig Finscher:  Obrecht, Jacob. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 12 (Mercadante - Paix). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2004, ISBN 3-7618-1122-5  ( online edition , subscription required for full access)
  2. Marc Honegger, Günther Massenkeil (ed.): The great lexicon of music. Volume 6: Nabakov - Rampal. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau a. a. 1981, ISBN 3-451-18056-1 .