Josquin Desprez

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Josquin Desprez, woodcut by Petrus Opmeer, 1611

Josquin Desprez , also Josquin des Préz , Jossequin Lebloitte or Latinized Josquinus Pratensis , (* between 1450 and 1455 in the area of Saint-Quentin ; † August 27, 1521 in Condé-sur-l'Escaut , France) was a Franco-Flemish Composer and singer of the Renaissance , all compositional techniques of the early Renaissance was a master, is considered bedeutendster representative of this time and was as far back as a famous composer.

Live and act

Childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood

Jossequin Lebloitte dit Desprez was born around 1450 or shortly afterwards as the son of Gossard Lebloitte dit Desprez († around 1466) and his wife, perhaps Jeanne. His first name Josquin is a diminutive form of Latin Jodocus , French Josse . The frequency of this first name has often led to confusion with other musicians in previous music research (especially with Judocus le Francia / de Kessalia , singer in Milan , also with Jo. De Pratis / Johannes de Stokem , composer and singer at the papal chapel, or Josquin Dor and others). A few days before his death, Josquin Desprez asked for entry in the list of residents of Condé-sur-l'Escaut to be listed as aubain (foreigner) because he was born beyond the “Noir Eauwe” (probably the Eau Noire , in parts the border river between the Burgundian province of Hainaut (Hainaut) and what was then France). South of the Eau Noire, near the source of the Aube , lies the village of Prez , possibly the namesake for Josquin's name of origin.

In 1466 Josquin's uncle Gille Lebloitte dit Desprez and his wife drew up their will in Condé-sur-l'Escaut in favor of Josquin, which suggests the previous death of his father. Beyond that, nothing has been handed down about Josquin's youth or his spiritual and musical training. A certain Claude Hérmeré , at the time canon at the collegiate church of Saint-Quentin, states, among other things, that Josquin was a choirboy there, which is highly likely. However, there is no direct biographical data for the period between 1466 and 1475; the music-historical researchers here have at best justified assumptions, e.g. B. due to the mention of Josquins in the musician motet "Omnium bonorum plena" by Loyset Compère , written perhaps in 1468 or 1472 for the cathedral of Cambrai , but in any case before the death of Guillaume Dufay (1474), where Josquin in one Series with Antoine Busnoys , Johannes Ockeghem , Johannes Tinctoris , Johannes Regis and Guillaume Dufay - a sign that he has enjoyed high esteem among his colleagues, perhaps since 1468.

A series of presumably early works by Josquin suggests a close relationship between him and Johannes Ockeghem: his chanson “D'ung aultre amer” is used by Josquin's mass of the same name and Sanctus , and Josquin's motets “Alma redemptoris mater / Ave regina caelorum” begin with a quote from Ockeghem's “Alma redemptoris mater”. Still, Josquin's relation to Ockeghem is not really clear; that he was his student, as has been said for a long time, has so far been absolutely unproven. On Ockeghem's death after 1497 Josquin wrote the Nänie (funeral song) “Nymphes des bois / Requiem aeternam”.

At the latest since the beginning of 1475, documented in April 1477, Josquin served as a singer in the court orchestra of the art-loving Duke René von Anjou (1409–1480), who was active as a painter and poet, in Aix-en-Provence . There is also a corresponding document for 1478. If Josquin had served the duke until his death in 1480, he and the court orchestra could then serve King Ludwig XI. have been taken over by France (reign 1461-1483) in the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris because the duchies of Anjou and Bar were regarded as "settled fiefs" and fell to the French crown.

King Ludwig suffered a stroke in September 1481 and in the following years (until his death in 1483) had a mass he had donated by eight singers from the Duke's chapel, which he had donated, to be sung every day at seven in the morning in the Sainte-Chapelle of the palace, which is quite possible that Josquin was involved here. Josquin's motet “Misericordias Domini in aeternam cantabo” was obviously written for the sick king; he had the text written on fifty huge parchments and hung in the rooms of his residence in the castle of Plessis-lès-Tours . At the royal court, Josquin also had contact with a number of important people: with the aforementioned Johannes Ockeghem, with the poet Guillaume Crétin (around 1460 / 70–1525), the lyricist of the aforementioned musician motet “Omnium bonorum plena”, and perhaps with the Burgundian court poet and historiographer Jean Molinet (1435–1507), the lyricist of the aforementioned funeral motets (Nänie). It should also be borne in mind that at this time Johannes Ockeghem was the only composer serving in the royal court orchestra and was therefore a central reference person for the younger Josquin.

Stay in Rome

Before Easter 1483, the composer stayed in Condé-sur-l'Escaut to inherit from his uncle and to organize the management of the inherited property. On this occasion, the chapter of the local church of Notre-Dame de Condé greeted him with a gift of wine, because it was Josquin's first return after the war between France and Habsburg Burgundy of 1477-1483 . This indicates a long-standing connection between Josquin and the chapter of this church. Around 1483 or 1484, after the death of King Louis XI, Josquin went to Italy and is in the household of the powerful, luxury-loving and art-loving Cardinal Ascanio Sforza (1455–1505) in Milan, where he wrote a request for his benefice referred to in France as capellanus et familiaris continuus commensuralis - a coveted status because of the usually associated exemption from taxes and military service. It is only unclear whether he was recruited in France, as his colleagues Loyset Compère, Gaspar van Weerbeke and Johannes Martini used to do, or whether, notably, he went to Italy to look for a job.

Cardinal Ascanio moved to Rome in August 1484 and Josquin joined him as a member of his house. Here Ascanio acted as the Milanese liaison at the papal court and became a focal point of social and artistic life. Josquin worked in Rome from June 1486 with the choir of the papal chapel, was demonstrably present there from September 1486 to January 1487, in September 1487 and from June 1489 perhaps even until February 28, 1495, including the composers Gaspar van Weerbeke and Marbriano de Orto were his colleagues. He also met the poet Serafino de'Ciminelli dall'Aquila (1466–1500), who was also in the service of Cardinal Ascanio from August 1484 to 1491. Serafino performed his own works improvising on the lute and wrote his sonnet "Ad Iusquino suo compagno musico d'Ascanio" during this time , with a clear reference to Josquin. Serafino indirectly praised his colleague with the traditional request that he should be grateful to Heaven for his “sublime ingegno” and his “virtù”.

Stay in Milan

During this time, even before 1485, Josquin planned to leave Ascanio's services and is referred to in a later document from February 11, 1489 as a singer in the court orchestra of Duke Gian Galeazzo Sforza (1469-1494), apparently only a temporary participation . During this time Josquin's contact with the composer, conductor and music theorist Franchino Gaffori (1451–1522), who had been the cathedral music director in Milan since 1484, was mentioned in his work Anglicum ac divinum opus musice . In June 1489 Josquin became an official member of the papal choir and was listed there in the Mandati Camerali (household lists ) until April 1494. These lists are missing for the years 1495 to 1500, after which Josquin is no longer listed. He was perhaps still in Rome at the beginning of 1495 and, like other composers, tried hard to obtain benefices , almost only in his home diocese of Cambrai, sometimes with the help of legal disputes. Negotiations for benefices in Saint-Aubin , Saint-Omer , Saint-Ghislain , churches near Frasnes and Saint-Géry in Cambrai are documented. However, it is uncertain whether the composer actually benefited from these benefits . However, it left a very special mark on Rome: There are various names carved into the wall of the choir (Cantoria) of the Sistine Chapel from the 15th to 18th centuries; here is also “Josquinus” - perhaps by your own hand?

Late years

After his time in Rome, Josquin may have had a relationship with the Burgundian court of Philip the Fair because he sent him a copy of his Stabat mater in 1495 . Perhaps the contact with Cardinal Ascanio was never broken , as indicated by a letter from the Mantoese bishop Ludovico Gonzaga from December 1498, in which he wrote that he had given Ascanio's servant Juschino a pack of hunting dogs for the cardinal as a gift to Rome, whereupon the recipient of the present himself thanked Isabella d'Este in Mantua in February 1499 for the pack that Juschino nostro servitore had brought him. It is just uncertain whether this Juschino was actually Josquin Desprez. It is very likely, however, that the composer, after leaving the papal chapel, at least for 1501 to 1503, transferred to the court chapel of the French King Louis XII. († 1515) changed.

The composer Johannes Ghiselin had also been a member of this court orchestra since 1501, and according to evidence, he and Josquin were recruited to the court orchestra of Duke Ercole I d'Este in Ferrara in 1503 . Duke Ercole had been looking for a new conductor since the death of Johannes Martini in 1497 and, with the help of his agent Girolamo da Sestola (called "Coglia") and his son Alfonso d'Este, after a diplomatic meeting with Louis XII. looking for candidates in France and maybe even negotiating with Josquin. Another Ercoles agent, Gian de Artiganova , was looking for singers for Ercoles court orchestra in Savoy and from there was able to name Heinrich Isaac as a possible candidate for directing the chapel. The agents wrote back to the Duke about the qualities of the candidates they had found, and finally to Gian's memorable letter of September 2, 1502, in which, after having examined a sample composition by Isaac, he compared both composers and their qualities. Here it says among other things:

“I must inform Your Grace that Isaac was the singer in Ferrara and wrote a motet on a fantasy titled 'La mi la sol la sol la mi'; this is very good, and he wrote it in two days. One can only conclude from this that he is very quick at the art of composition; otherwise he is benign and sociable. ... he stipulated that he had a month to answer whether he wanted to serve or not. We have… promised him 10 ducats a month… I think he is well suited to serve Your Grace, better than Josquin, because he is more amiable to his musicians and wants to compose new works more often. It is true that Josquin composes better, but he composes when he wants to and not when you expect him to, and he asks 200 ducats as wages, while Isaac wants to come for 120 ... ”.

Duke Ercole ultimately accepted the recognizable role of the great, albeit somewhat more difficult, composer, decided on Josquin and granted him the extraordinarily high salary demanded.

Josquin and Ghiselin were apparently recruited in Paris, traveled with the agent Coglia in a magnificent equipage drawn by five horses and made a stop in Lyon on April 12, 1503 , where Louis XII. and Philip the Handsome and their court orchestras stayed. Josquin had not yet arrived in Ferrara on April 28th, whereupon Duke Ercole wrote to his ambassador in France: "... de hora in hora io expectamo cum desiderio". Josquin received his first salary on June 13, 1503, and on July 5 he was named Kapellmeister. The last such payment was made on April 22nd, 1504, because the composer, strangely enough, had given up his brilliant position after less than a year. The only explanation for this is his flight from the plague , which broke out in Ferrara in July 1503 and which also led to the departure of the court in September 1504. Josquin's successor Jacob Obrecht stayed in Ferrara and fell victim to the plague in the summer of 1505.

Josquin Desprez had already arrived at his former place of work Condé-sur-l'Escaut on May 3, 1504 after a journey of over a thousand kilometers, after the chapter there had elected him provost ; he is referred to as monsieur le prevost messire Josse des pres . The position there was attractive to the former conductor not only because of his house and property there, but even more because of the good staffing of the church and the quality of the music there, which is only available from the cathedral in Cambrai and from Saint-Vincent in Soignies was exceeded. The provost here (according to a list from 1523) held the secular power in the parish and was the superior of the dean , the treasurer, 25 canons, 18 chaplains, 16 vicars and six choirboys, plus some priests without benefices; A choir of vicars and choirboys usually took part in the lavishly designed church services, so that up to 22 music-trained voices were available and up to six-part works could be performed.

Josquin worked in this position for 17 years until the end of his life. There is hardly any important news about this last period of his life, apart from a few canonical transactions. The chapter in Condé informed the court of the Burgundian regent Margaret of Austria on May 23, 1508 that Josquin was in good health after it was learned there that Josquin's predecessor as provost, Pierre Duwez, had died on May 20; this mix-up shows that Josquin was hardly known at the Burgundian court. A year later, the same regent asked Josquin to accept Jehan Lommel, chaplain of Philip the Fair, as dean in his collegiate church. From 1508 to 1509, the chapter of Bourges Cathedral tried unsuccessfully to hire "Dominus Josquin" as the master of the chapel boys. The composer negotiated with the Roman Curia in May 1509 for a benefit in Arras and in January 1513 for a benefit in Tournai . On August 23, 1521, officials of the city of Condé visited Josquin to check the legality of his claim to inherit certain rights, whereupon Josquin raised the above-mentioned objection that he had to be listed in the list of residents as an "outsider" for the reasons given .

The composer died a few days later. He bequeathed a house and land in Condé to the Notre-Dame Church in his place of residence, with the condition that it was used to finance the costs of various memorial services, namely to celebrate the Salve Regina on all evenings of the Marian festival and on Saturdays as well as during the general processions in front of his house to sing his motet “ Pater noster / Ave Maria ” on the market square . Josquin was buried in front of the high altar of the collegiate church in Condé-sur-l'Escaut. However, this church and with it his grave were destroyed in the coalition war against France after the French Revolution in 1793 .

meaning

The extensive oeuvre of Josquin Desprez can only be compared with the work of Heinrich Isaac in his time. It comprises 19 complete masses, a few individual ordinarium movements , around 90 motets, 70 secular works and some instrumental compositions. Of the approximately 60 five- and six-part motets that have come down to us under Josquin's name, today only 15 are considered genuine and the remaining three-fourths as doubtful or inauthentic; in the four-part works there are 38 real versus 68 dubious or fake.

Josquin is regarded as an outstanding master of the sovereign mastery of the art of contrapuntal composition and is therefore undisputed at the top of all composers in the period from the last quarter of the 15th century to the first quarter of the 16th century. The time of his composing ranges from the years 1470/1475 to around 1515/1520, and he never developed a precisely defined and technically describable "personal style". With him there are chronologically definable style phases and genre styles, with works for special occasions also work styles side by side; also, stylistically and technically very different works can be assigned to exactly the same time. For this reason, there are sometimes great difficulties in dating his works in a critical way. A prime example of this is the one year from summer 1503 to spring 1504 in Ferrara, in which extremely diverse works such as the Missa “Hercules Dux Ferrariae”, the motet “Miserere mei Deus” and the motet “Virgo salutiferi” were created.

In Josquin's masses, it is above all the composer's constructive imagination that develops into representative, but also intimate, large-scale forms. In the motet, the respective individual text demands the respective individual implementation, but at the same time, for reasons of binding nature, the connection to very different types of text and composition, which results in a different relationship to tradition.

If in the Missa “Pange lingua” the amalgamation of expressive intensity and fullness of expression, transparency and rigor of the construction deserve the greatest admiration, it was above all the motets on Bible texts such as “Planxit autem David”, “De profundis”, “Miserere mei” or “ Memor est tui ”, in which Josquin uses means such as bicinium formation , choir splitting and imitation , partly combined with the known counterpoint techniques and with the alternation of polyphonic and homophonic sections, taking into account the close word-tone relationship, the affect content of the text and the Declamation principle has given the decisive impetus for a new expressive sound and style ideal (Friedhelm Brusniak, Arolsen, in the article Josquin des Prez of the Great Lexicon of Music).

His special ability to "make a text speak" was already praised by his contemporaries and is evident in the invention of concise, mostly very short motifs from the emphatic, affective and illustrative declamation of the text, also in the contrasting of executions of such Motifs in a chordic- syllabic tutti declamation, in emphatic repetitions of words or parts of sentences with the same music or increasing with new music in the rounding-off repetition (recapitulation) of the beginnings of sentences. Josquin has, most noticeably in the masses, most persistently perhaps in the chansons , taken up the same problem or closely related problems over and over again in order to solve them in different ways and sometimes with increasing success, which may be seen as an expression of a work or work- Ethos can be understood. This is reflected in another way in the well-known tradition that the composer often withheld a work for years and refined it until he brought it to the public (analogous translation of a Latin statement by Heinrich Glarean in his Dodekachordon , Basel 1547, page 363).

The foundation for Josquin Desprez's fame was laid by the printer and publisher Ottaviano dei Petrucci , and he benefited from that fame. No other composer was so extensively taken into account in the prints of his publisher and so demonstratively emphasized. This is also confirmed by the volume Misse Josquin from 1502 as the first print in music history to contain only works by a single composer. Only through Petrucci's chanson, trade fair and motet prints, their new editions and reprints by the Italian, to a small extent also by the French printing industry until the last third of the 16th century, also through the Josquin reception and its "pseudo reception" of the Protestant printer in the German-speaking area, Josquin became the undisputed most famous and most popular composer of his generation.

In Josquin, "the decisive tendency towards expression and symbolism related to the movement of humanism , the overcoming of medieval rationalism in favor of a humanization of music, found its greatest, groundbreaking representative" (Helmuth Osthoff, Würzburg, in the article Josquin des Prez des Große Lexikon der Music). His work thus marked the beginning of the new musical era in a special way.

Works

Total expenditure:

  • Works by Josquin des Prés, edited by A. Smijers (until 1957), continued by M. Antonowycz (from 1958) and W. Elders (from 1965), Amsterdam / Leipzig 1921–1927, Leipzig 1929–1042, Amsterdam 1948–1969 (AGA)
  • Josquin des Prez. New Edition of the Collected Works / The Collected Works of Josquin des Prez, edited by W. Elders and others, Utrecht [1988] (short title: New Josquin Edition [NJE])

Works with guaranteed authenticity

  • measure up
    • Missa ad fugam to four voices
    • Missa "Ave maris stella" for four voices (Rome, 1486–1495)
    • Missa de Beata virgine with four to five voices
    • Missa di dadi to four voices
    • Missa "D'ung aultre amer" for four voices (Milan, 1483/85)
    • Missa “Faisant regretz” with four voices
    • Missa “Fortuna desperata” with four voices
    • Missa “Gaudeamus” with four voices
    • Missa "Hercules Dux Ferrariae" for four voices (Ferrara, 1503/04)
    • Missa “La sol fa re mi” with four voices
    • Missa “L'ami Baudichon” with four voices
    • Missa “ L'homme armé ” sexti toni to four voices
    • Missa “L'homme armé super voces musicales” with four voices
    • Missa “Malheur me bat” to four votes
    • Missa “Mater patris” with four voices
    • Missa "Pange lingua" with four voices (Condé, after 1514)
    • Missa sine nomine with four voices
    • Missa “Une Mousse de Biscaya” with four voices
  • Mess parts
    • Credo “Chascun me crie” (“Des rougesnes”) to four voices
    • Credo “De tous biens playne” with four votes
    • Credo de vilaige (vilayge) (I) to four votes
    • Credo de vilaige (vilayge) (II) to four votes
    • Credo de vilaige (vilayge) (III) to four votes
    • Gloria de Beata Virgine to four votes
    • Sanctus de passione to four voices
    • Sanctus “D'ung aultre amer” to four voices
  • Motets
    • "Alma redemptoris mater" to four voices, 2nd part: "Tu quae genuisti"
    • "Alma redemptoris mater" / "Ave Regina caelorum" to four voices, 2nd part: "Tu quae genuisti" / "Gaude Virgo gloriosa"
    • “Ave Maria […] benedicta tu” to four voices
    • “Ave Maria […] benedicta tu” to six voices
    • "Ave Maria [...] virgo serena" for four voices (Milan 1484/85)
    • "Ave mundi spes, Maria" to four voices (incomplete), 2nd part: "Ave gemma", 3rd part: "O castitatis lilium"
    • "Ave nobilissima creatura" to six voices, cantus firmus: "Benedicta tu", 2nd part: "Tibi, domina gloriosa"
    • “Ave verum corpus natum” with two to three voices, 2nd part: “Cuius latus perforatum” with two to three voices, 3rd part: “O dulcis, o pie Jesu” with three voices
    • “Benedicta es, caelorum regina” with six voices, 2nd part: “Per illud ave” with two voices, 3rd part: “Nunc mater exora” with six voices
    • "Christi, fili Dei" with four voices (7th part of the cycle "Vultum tuum", handed down separately)
    • "Christum ducem, qui per crucem" for four voices (6th part of the cycle "Qui velatus facie fuisti", handed down separately and perhaps also composed separately)
    • “De profundis clamavi” to five votes
    • "Domine, ne in furore tuo" to four voices, 2nd part: "Cor meum conturbatum est"
    • "Domine, non secundum peccata nostra" with two voices (for Rome), 2nd part: "Domine, ne memineris" with two voices, 3rd part: "Quia pauperes" with four voices, 4th part: "Adjuva nos, Deus ”to four votes
    • “Ecce, tu pulchra es, amica mea” to four voices
    • "Factum est autem" to four voices, 2nd part: "Qui fuit Heli", 3rd part: "Qui fuit Obed"
    • “Gaude virgo, mater Christi” to four votes
    • "Homo quidam fecit cenam magnam" to five voices, 2nd part: "Venite, comedite"
    • “Honor, decus, imperium” to four votes
    • "Honor et benedictio" to four voices (end of the 3rd part of the cycle "Qui velatus facie fuisti", as an elevation motet)
    • "Huc me sydereo descendere jussit Olympo" with five to six voices, Cantus firmus: "Plangent eum", 2nd part: "Felle sitim magni regis"
    • "Illibata Dei virgo nutrix" to five voices, Cantus firmus: "La mi la", 2nd part: "Ave virginum decus hominum"
    • "In amara crucis ara" (number of votes not given; 4th part of the cycle "Qui velatus facie fuisti", handed down separately)
    • "In exitu Israel de Aegypto" to four voices, 2nd part: "Deus autem noster", 3rd part: "Dominus memor fuit"
    • “In illo tempore assumpsit Jesus duodecim disciplus” to four voices
    • "Iniquos odio habui" for four voices (only tenor preserved)
    • "In principio erat Verbum" to four voices, 2nd part: "Fuit homo missus", 3rd part: "Et verbum caro factum est"
    • "Inviolata, integra et casta es, Maria" for five voices, 2nd part: "Nostra et pura pectora", 3rd part: "O benigna"
    • "Liber generationis Jesu Christi" with four votes, 2nd part: "Salomon autem" with three votes, 3rd part: "Et post transmigrationem" with four votes
    • "Memor esto verbi tui" to four voices, 2nd part: "Portio mea, Domine"
    • “Mente tota tibi supplicamus” to four votes
    • "Miserere mei Deus" with five voices (Ferrara, 1504/05), 2nd part: "Audi, auditui meo", 3rd part: "Domine, labia mea"
    • "Misericordias Domini in aeternum cantabo" to four voices (France, 1480/83), 2nd part: "Quoniam est Dominus suavis", 3rd part: "Miserere nostri, Domine"
    • “Missus est Gabriel angelus ad Mariam Virginem” with four votes
    • "Mittit ad Virginem" to four voices, 2nd part: "Accede, nuntia"
    • “Monstra te esse matrem” to four votes
    • "O admirabile commercium" (cycle of 5 motets), 2nd part: "Quando natus es", 3rd part: "Rubum quem viderat Moyses", 4th part: "Germinavit radix Jesse", 5th part: "Ecce Maria genuit "
    • "O bone et dulcissime Jesu" to four voices, 2nd part: "Si ego commisi"
    • "O Domine Jesu Christe" for four voices (5-part Passion cycle, the parts of which all begin with the same invocation)
    • "[O] intemerata virgo" for four voices (3rd part of the cycle "Vultum tuum", handed down separately)
    • "O Maria, nullam tam gravem" for four voices (4th part of the cycle "Vultum tuum", handed down separately)
    • "Ora pro nobis virgo sine termino" with four voices (6th part of the cycle "Vultum tuum", handed down separately)
    • "O virgo prudentissima" to six voices, cantus firmus: "Beata mater et intacta virgo", 2nd part: "Audi, audi, virgo puerpera"
    • "O virgo virginum" to six voices, 2nd part: "Filiae Jerusalem"
    • "Pater noster, qui es in caelis" to six voices (Condé, 1505–1521), 2nd part: "Ave Maria"
    • "Per illud ave prolatum" for two voices (2nd part of "Benedicta es", handed down separately)
    • "Planxit autem David" to four voices, 2nd part: "Montes Gelboae", 3rd part: "Sagitta Jonathae", 4th part: "Doleo super te"
    • "Praeter rerum seriem" with six voices, 2nd part: "Virtus sancti spiritus"
    • "Qui habitat in adiutorio altissimi" to four voices, 2nd part: "Non accedat ad te"
    • "Qui velatus facie fuisti" to four voices (6-part Passion cycle), 2nd part: "Hora qui ductus tertia", 3rd part: "In flagellis potum fellis", 4th part: "In amara cricis ara", 5th part Part: "Qui jacuisti mortuus", Part 6: "Christum ducem"
    • “Salve regina” to four voices
    • "Salve regina" to five voices (1502), 2nd part: "Eia ergo advocata", 3rd part: "Et Jesum"
    • “Stabat Mater” for five voices, Cantus firmus: “Comme femme desconfortée”, 2nd part: “Eia mater, fons amoris”
    • “Tu lumen, tu splendor Patris” to four voices
    • "Tu solus qui facis mirabilia" to four voices, 2nd part: "D'ung aultre amer" - "Nobis esset fallacia"
    • “Ut Phoebi radiis” to four voices
    • "Victimae paschali laudes" to four voices, 2nd part: "Dic nobis, Maria"
    • “Virgo prudentissima” to four votes
    • "Virgo salutiferi" to five voices (Ferrara, 1504/05), Cantus firmus: "Ave Maria", 2nd part: "Tu potis es primae", 3rd part: "Nunc, caeli regina"
    • “Vultum tuum deprecabuntur” for four voices (7-part Passion cycle), 2nd part: “Sancta Dei Genitrix”, 3rd part: “Intemerata virgo”, 4th part: “O Maria”, 5th part: “Mente tota ", 6th part:" Ora pro nobis ", 7th part:" Christe, Fili Dei "
  • Motet chansons
    • “A la mort” / “Monstra te esse matrem” with three voices
    • “Ce povre mendiant” / “Pauper sum ego” with three voices
    • "Nymphes de bois" / "Requiem aeternam" with five voices (on the death of Johannes Ockeghem)
    • “Nimphes [Nymphes], nappés” / “Circumdederunt me” with six voices
    • "Que vous madame" / "In pace in idipsum" with three voices (partly attributed to Alexander Agricola, certainly by Josquin)
  • Three-part chansons and other three-part secular movements
    • "A l'ombre d'ung buissonet, au matinet" (Chanson rustique)
    • "Cela sans plus" (instrumental movement)
    • "De tous biens plaine" (soprano of the chanson by Hayne van Ghizeghem)
    • "En l'ombre" (see above "A l'ombre")
    • "En l'ombre d'ung buissonet, tout au long" (Chanson rustique)
    • "Entrée suis en grant pensée" (Chanson rustique)
    • "Fortuna d'un gran tempo" (instrumental movement)
    • "Helas madame" (in several sources a surely bogus additional voice)
    • "Ile fantazies de Joskin" (instrumental movement)
    • "Je n'ose plus" (probably a Rondeau quatrain, but text incomplete)
    • "Je ris et si ay larme a l'œil" (only 1 attribution, probably spurious)
    • "La belle se siet" (text and melody: old French folk song)
    • La Bernardina (instrumental movement)
    • "La plus de plus" (only text incipit handed down; probably a Rondeau cinquain)
    • "Mon mary m'a diffamée"
    • "Quant je vous voye" (Rondeau quatrain)
    • "Si j'ay perdu mon amy" (Chanson rustique)
  • Chansons and other secular phrases of four voices each
    • "Adieu mes amours" ( Virelai )
    • "A l'heure que je vous px" (corrupted title, probably instrumental movement)
    • "Basiés [Baisés] moy, ma doulce amye" (double canon, melody of a chanson rustique, probably an instrumental movement)
    • "Belle, pour l'amour de vous" (tenor and bass quasi-canonical, perhaps via a chanson, authenticity of 1 author doubted)
    • " Bergerette savoyenne" (Chanson rustique)
    • "Comment peult haver joye" (Chanson rustique)
    • “De tous biens plaine” (soprano and tenor of the chanson by Hayne van Ghizeghem, combined with two canonical bass parts; instrumental movement)
    • "Dulces exuviae" (on Virgil's Aeneis IV, text identical to that of the motet with the same text by Jean Mouton)
    • "El grillo" (Frottola)
    • "En l'ombre d'ung buissonet au matinet" (Chanson rustique)
    • "Entrée je suis en grant pensée" (Chanson rustique)
    • "Fama malum" (about Virgil's Aeneid)
    • "In te Domine speravi per trovar pietà" (Frottola)
    • "Je sey bien dire" (Bergerette?)
    • "Le villain [jaloux]" (Chanson rustique?)
    • "Plus nulz regretz" (Text: Jean Lemaire de Belges, on the Peace of Calais of December 21, 1507)
    • "Qui belles amours a" (Chanson rustique)
    • "Recordans de my signora" ( double canon alto soprano and bass tenor over the melody of a chanson rustique)
    • "Scaramella va alla guerra" (folk song)
    • "Se congié prens" (see under "Recordans de my segnora")
    • "Si j'ay perdu mon amy" (Chanson rustique / ballad)
    • "Tant vous aimme Bergeronette" (Cento from two chansons rustiques, incomplete: bass missing)
    • "Une mousse de Biscaye" (Chanson rustique / Ballad, Canon Alto-Soprano)
    • "Vive le roy" (instrumental movement, probably homage composition for King Ludwig XII.)
    • textless piece (only in a later German manuscript from 1820, real after David Fallows)
  • Five-part chansons
    • "Cueur langoreulx" (refrain of a Rondeau cinquain? Soprano and 5th part in the canon)
    • "Douleur me bat" (refrain of a Rondeau cinquain? Soprano and 5th part in canon)
    • "Du mien amant" (Chanson rustique, soprano and 5th voice in the canon)
    • "Faute d'argent" (Chanson rustique, soprano and 5th part in canon)
    • "Incessament livré suis à martire" (Refrain of a Rondeau cinquain? Tenor and 5th part in the canon)
    • "Je me complains" (Chanson rustique, soprano and 5th voice in canon)
    • "Ma bouche rit et mon cueur pleure" with five to six voices (soprano of the chanson by Johannes Ockeghem; doubts about authenticity by LF Bernstein)
    • "N'esse pas ung grant desplaisir" (Chanson rustique, tenor and 5th part in the canon)
    • "Parfons regretz" (refrain of a Rondeau cinquain? Bass and 5th voice in canon)
    • "Plaine de dueil" (5th part and soprano in canon)
    • "Plusieurs regretz" (refrain of a Rondeau cinquain, tenor and 5th part in the canon)
  • Six-part chansons
    • “Adieu mes amours” with six or seven voices (only soprano, tenor 2 and bass 1 received, only Ave Maria survived as text )
    • "Fors seulement" (only soprano preserved, this is identical to the soprano of the respective chanson by Johannes Ockeghem)
    • "Petite camusette" (Chanson rustique, canon tenor-alto)
    • "Pour souhaitter" (Chanson rustique, canon tenor-sixth part)
    • "Regretz sans fin" (shortened Rondeau cinquain? Canon tenor-sixth part)
    • "Se congié prens" (Canon fifth-sixth part)
    • "Tenez moy en voz bras" (Chanson rustique, melody in tenor)
    • "Vous l'arez, s'il vous plaist" (Canon Tenor - Sixth Part)
    • "Vous ne l'arez pas" (Canon Tenor - Sixth Part)

Works with dubious authenticity, hypothetical and incorrect attribution

  • Measure with doubtful authenticity
    • 2 works (details: MGG person part volume 9, column 1226 below)
  • Fair sentences with doubtful authenticity
    • 1 work (details: MGG person part volume 9, column 1227 above)
  • Motets of doubtful authenticity
    • 43 works (details: MGG personal section, volume 9, columns 1227–1230)
  • Motet chansons with doubtful authenticity
    • 2 works (details: MGG personal section, volume 9, column 1230)
  • Chansons with doubtful authenticity
    • 17 works (Details: MGG Personnel Part Volume 9, Columns 1230–1232)
  • Non-authentic fairs
    • 11 works (details: MGG person part volume 9, column 1232 below)
  • Inauthentic fair sentences
    • 5 works (details: MGG person part volume 9, column 1233 above)
  • Inauthentic motets
    • 80 works (details: MGG personal section, volume 9, column 1233–1239)
  • Inauthentic motet chansons
    • 1 work (details: MGG person part volume 9, column 1239 below)
  • Inauthentic chansons and songs
    • 26 works (details: MGG Personnel Part Volume 9, Columns 1240–1242)
  • Works with implicit and hypothetical attributions in Josquin literature
    • 11 works (details: MGG personal section, volume 9, columns 1242–1243)
  • Lost and possibly real works
    • 9 works (Details: MGG Personnel Part Volume 9, Columns 1243–1244)
  • Counterfactures and incorrect or alternative titles
    • 52 works (details: MGG personal section, volume 9, columns 1244–1246)

Literature (selection)

  • Gaetano Cesari: Musica e musicisti alla corte sforzesca. In: Rivista musicale italiana. No. 29, No. 1, 1922, ZDB -ID 205565-x , pp. 1-53.
  • Carl Dahlhaus : Studies on the Josquins des Prés masses . (Göttingen, Univ., Dissertation April 22, 1953).
  • Albertus Smijers: Josquin des Prez. In: Proceedings of the Musical Association. Vol. 53, 1926/1927, pp. 95-113, doi: 10.1093 / jrma / 53.1.95 .
  • Helmuth Osthoff : On the question of authenticity and the chronology of Josquin's works. In: Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis: International Society for Musicology. Fifth Congress, Utrecht, July 3 to 7, 1952. Alsbach, Amsterdam 1953, pp. 303–309.
  • Charles Van den Borren : Une hypothèse concernant le lieu de naissance de Josquin des Prez. In: Dagmar Weise (Ed.): Festschrift Joseph Schmidt-Görg for his 60th birthday. Beethovenhaus, Bonn 1957, pp. 21-25.
  • Suzanne Clercx: Lumières sur la formation de Josquin et d'Obrecht. In: Revue belge de musicologie. Vol. 11, No. 3/4, 1957, pp. 155-158, doi: 10.2307 / 3685988 .
  • Helmuth Osthoff : Josquin Desprez. 2 volumes. H. Schneider, Tutzing 1962-1965, (In addition the review by Edward E. Lowinsky : Scholarship in the Renaissance: Music. In: Renaissance News. Vol. 16, No. 3, 1963, ISSN  0277-903X , pp. 255– 263, JSTOR 2857314 ).
  • Chris Maas: Josquin - Agricola - Brumel - De la Rue. An authenticity problem. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis. Vol. 20, No. 3, 1966, pp. 120-139, doi: 10.2307 / 938993 .
  • Edward Clinkscale: Josquin and Louis XI. In: Acta Musicologica . Vol. 38, No. 1, 1966, pp. 67-69, doi: 10.2307 / 932305 .
  • Edward E. Lowinsky: Josquin des Prez and Ascanio Sforza. In: Maria Luisa Gatti Perer (Ed.): Il Duomo di Milano. Congresso Internazionale, Milano, Museo della Scienza e della Tecnica, 8 - 12 September 1968. Atti (= Arte Lombarda. Monograph di 'Arte Lombarda'. I monumenti. 3, 2, ZDB -ID 414849-6 ). Volume 2. Edizioni La Rete, Milan 1969, pp. 17-22.
  • Herbert Kellman: Josquin and the Courts of the Netherlands and France: the Evidence of the Sources. In: Edward E. Lowinsky, Bonnie J. Blackburn (eds.): Josquin des Prez. Proceedings of the International Josquin Festival-Conference held at The Juilliard School at Lincoln Center in New York City, June 21-25, 1971. Oxford University Press, London u. a. 1976, ISBN 0-19-315229-0 , pp. 181-216.
  • Lewis Lockwood : Josquin at Ferrara: New Documents and Letters. In: Edward E. Lowinsky, Bonnie J. Blackburn (eds.): Josquin des Prez. Proceedings of the International Josquin Festival-Conference held at The Juilliard School at Lincoln Center in New York City, June 21-25, 1971. Oxford University Press, London u. a. 1976, ISBN 0-19-315229-0 , pp. 103-137.
  • Jitka Sníková: Josquin in Czech Sources of the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century. In: Edward E. Lowinsky, Bonnie J. Blackburn (eds.): Josquin des Prez. Proceedings of the International Josquin Festival-Conference held at The Juilliard School at Lincoln Center in New York City, June 21-25, 1971. Oxford University Press, London u. a. 1976, ISBN 0-19-315229-0 , pp. 279-284.
  • Jaap van Benthem: Some recognized Josquin chansons in Codex 18746 of the Austrian National Library. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis. Vol. 22, No. 1, 1971, pp. 18-42, doi: 10.2307 / 938732 .
  • Suzanne Clercx-Lejeune: Fortuna Josquini. A proposito di un ritratto di Josquin des Prez. In: Nuova rivista musicale italiana. Vol. 6, No. 3, 1972, ISSN  0029-6228 , pp. 315-337.
  • Heinz-Klaus Metzger , Rainer Riehn (eds.): Josquin des Prés (= music concepts . H. 26/27). Edition Text and Criticism, München 1982, ISBN 3-88377-130-9 .
  • Sydney Robinson Charles: Josquin des Prez. A Guide to Research (= Garland Composer Resource Manuals. Vol. 2). Garland, New York NY et al. a. 1983, ISBN 0-8240-9387-9 .
  • Tom R. Ward: A Newly-Discovered Josquin Attribution. In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor nederlandse muziekgeschiedenis. Vol. 33, No. 1/2, 1983, pp. 29-48, doi: 10.2307 / 939059 .
  • Lewis Lockwood: Music in the Renaissance Ferrara 1400-1505. The Creation of a Musical Center in the Fifteenth Century. Clarendon Press et al. a., Oxford et al. a. 1984, ISBN 0-19-316404-3 .
  • Rebecca Stewart: Jean Mouton, Man and Musician: Motets attributed to both Josquin and Mouton. In: Willem Elders (ed.): Proceedings of the International Josquin Symposium, Utrecht 1986. Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, Utrecht 1991, ISBN 90-6375-148-6 , pp. 155-170.
  • Frits de Haen: Josquin des Prez. “The Master of Music ”. Musica, Peer 1988, ISBN 90-6853-033-X .
  • Martin Just : On the question of authorship in the works attributed to Josquin des Prez. An overview. In: Hanspeter Bennwitz , Gabriele Buschmeier , Georg Feder, Klaus Hofmann , Wolfgang Plath (eds.): Opera incerta. Questions of authenticity as a problem of overall musicological editions. Colloquium Mainz 1988. Report (= Academy of Sciences and Literature Mainz. Treatises of the humanities and social sciences class . 1991, no. 11). Steiner, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-515-05996-2 , pp. 301-318.
  • Dawson Kiang: Josquin Desprez and a Possible Portrait of the Ottoman Prince Jem in Cappella Sistina Ms. 41. In: Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance. Vol. 54, No. 2, 1992, ISSN  0006-1999 , pp. 411-426, JSTOR 20679304 .
  • David Fallows: Josquin and Milan. In: Plainsong and Medieval Music. Vol. 5, No. 1, 1996, pp. 69-80, doi: 10.1017 / S0961137100001078 .
  • Patrick Macey: Galeazzo Maria Sforza and Musical Patronage in Milan: Compère, Weerbeke and Josquin. In: Early Music History. Vol. 15, 1996, pp. 147-212, doi: 10.1017 / S0261127900001546 .
  • Lora Matthews, Patrick Macey: Iudochus de Picardia and Jossequin Lebloitte dit Desprez: The Names of the Singer (s). In: The Journal of Musicology. Vol. 16, No. 2, 1998, pages 200-226, doi: 10.2307 / 764140 .
  • David Fallows: Approaching a New Chronology for Josquin: an Interim Report. In: Swiss Yearbook for Musicology. NF Vol. 19, 1999, ISSN  0259-3165 , pp. 131-150.
  • Richard Sherr (Ed.): The Josquin Companion. Oxford University Press, Oxford u. a. 2000, ISBN 0-19-816335-5 .
  • David Fallows: Who Composed "Mille regretz"? In: Barbara Haggh (Ed.): Essays on Music and Culture. In Honor of Herbert Kellman (= Collection “épitome musical” 8). Minerve, Paris a. a. 2001, ISBN 2-86931-097-8 , pp. 241-252.
  • David Fallows: Josquin. Brepols Publishers, Turnhout 2009, ISBN 978-2-503-53065-9 .
  • Peter Petersen : On the rhythm of Josquin's (and Bauldeweyn's) masses. Isometric repetitions of phrases and their relationship to the mensural order. In: History of Music Culture Today. Historical musicology at the University of Hamburg, Ed. F. Geiger (= Hamburger Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft Vol. 26). Lang, Frankfurt a. M. 2009, pp. 9-29.

Web links

Commons : Josquin Desprez  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Orm Finnendahl : On the number construction of the motet Alma Redemptoris Mater / Ave Regina Coelorum by Josquin Desprez , Freiburg 2007. Retrieved on December 23, 2019