Guillaume Dufay

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Guillaume Dufay (left) and Gilles Binchois , around 1440

Guillaume Dufay , also Du Fay and Du Fayt , (* shortly before 1400 in or near Cambrai [?]; † November 27, 1474 in Cambrai) was a Franco-Flemish composer, singer and music theorist of the early Renaissance .

Live and act

Guillaume Dufay's origin and his exact date of birth have not yet been properly determined. His mother Marie Dufay (also Marie Du Fayt ; † April 23, 1444 in Cambrai) probably spent most of her life in Cambrai, where she ran the household to her cousin Jehan Hubert the Elder († December 12, 1424 in Cambrai). This uncle of Dufay was a baccalaureate of canon law and a cleric at Cambrai Cathedral.

That Dufay was born in Cambrai seems rather unlikely; perhaps he came from one of several localities in the near and far that bear the name Fay. The report by Dufay's executor points in a different direction. It speaks of acquisitions in his home country . According to this, Dufay could come from Wodeque in Hainaut (now Wodecq) or Bersele (now Beersel). That Dufay was born on August 5, 1397, was indirectly concluded from the dating of his will and his ordination , but it cannot be proven. In any case, the earliest preserved archival documents point to the late 1390s. No information has yet been found about the father. A reference from 1431 that Willermus dou Fayt was the child of a priest and a single woman cannot be confirmed by any other documents.


Cambrai Cathedral before its destruction in the turmoil of the French Revolution; front left, hidden by a tree, the maîtrise

The first reliable biographical evidence from August 1409 concerns his admission as puer altaris (chaplain) to the maîtrise (singing school) of the cathedral of Cambrai , where he was a member until 1414, probably initiated by his uncle Jehan Hubert and prepared by Jehan Rogier de Hesdin was. There, in addition to his vocal training, he probably received well-founded musical and music theory lessons from the Maîtrisen directors Nicholas Malin (tenure 1392–1412) and Richard Locqueville (tenure 1413–1418). Since maîtrises were the preferred institutions in which illegitimate clergy children were accepted, the reference to Dufay's origin from 1431 seems entirely plausible.

Dufay received, possibly as an award, a Doctrinale between June 1411 and June 1412 , probably a copy of the generally so-called, widespread Latin didctrinal poem Doctrina by Alexander de Villa Dei (* around 1170). From 1413/14 he is recorded as clericus altaris and was entrusted with a chaplaincy during this period .

Council of Constance

Probably in the summer or autumn of 1414 Dufay left Cambrai and traveled in the wake of Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly (1350 / 59-1420), also Chancellor of the University of Paris , or his successor in the episcopate Jean de Lens († 1439) to attend the Council of Constance (1414-1418). Here the young musician received significant impressions of the former council chapel as well as of the participating chapels of antipope John XXIII. (Term of office 1410–1415) and of Pope Martin V (term of office 1417–1431). Such influences can be traced in Dufay's early compositions, including those of the composer Antonio Zachara da Teramo (1350 / 60–1413 / 16), who until the end of 1413 was the magister of the chapel of Johannes XXIII. was active. In the course of these impressions he surely got his first experiences in diplomatic and canonical matters, which later became of great importance to him. In addition, he met some important patrons from the Italian Malatesta family , in particular Carlo Malatesta da Rimini (1368–1429) and Pandolfo Malatesta da Pesaro (1390–1441) as well as the later Bishop Louis Aleman (~ 1390–1450) and 1417 Pope Martin V crowned the council, whose esteem he was able to earn.

Cambrai and Italy I

Excerpt from He compaignons with the names of the compaignons .

Dufay left Constance - before the end of the council - in November 1417 for unknown reasons and returned to Cambrai, to the Church of St. Géry. There he was ordained a subdeacon in 1418 . Before 1420 he set out for Italy, for reasons that certainly go back to his time in Constance, because he took up his first musical position as a member of the Malatesta court orchestra in Pesaro or Rimini in 1419 . The composers Arnold and Hugo de Lantins were already active in Pesaro at this time . In which of the two cities Dufay worked is open: his Rondeau He compaignons relates to members of the chapel in Pesaro, but he himself is not listed in the membership directory from 1423 there.

Guillaume Dufay's wedding motet Vasilissa, ergo gaude

Dufay's work at the Malatesta Court was associated with larger and so far unparalleled composition commissions from the start, because the clients were not content with the usual tasks of sacred band singers, but wanted large-scale motets based on the example of representative music in Constance. The first such work is Vasilissa ergo gaude , probably already created in May 1419 in Pesaro or in the first half of 1420 in Rimini, at least before the departure of Pandolfo Malatesta's second daughter, Cleofe Malatesta da Pesaro, to celebrate her upcoming marriage the ruler of Morea , Theodoros II. Palailogos . The motets O gloriose tyro martir (for the patron saint of St. Theodor Tyro on November 19, 1419) and the ballad Resvelliés vous (for the wedding of Carlo Malatesta and Vittoria Colonna in 1423) also belong in this context . After the outbreak of the plague in Rimini in 1425, parts of the Malatesta court were evidently moved to Patras ( Peloponnese / Greece ) in 1425/26 ; Pandolfo Malatesta da Pesaro, who was elected archbishop here in 1424 , had the cathedral erected over the grave of St. Andrew . Dufay's motet Apostolo glorioso certainly refers to the consecration of this church in 1426. There are (based on the Rondeau Adieu ces bons vins de Lannoys from 1426) assumptions that Dufay was a singer at the cathedral of Laon (northern France) between 1424 and 1426 knitted; but these cannot be proven, so that his remaining in the service of the Malatesta until the end of 1426 can be assumed.

San Giacomo Maggiore in Bologna, location of Dufay's Missa Sancti Jacobi

Between spring 1427 and March 1428 at the latest, Dufay was in the service of Louis Aleman in Bologna . The latter was appointed papal legate (ambassador) in 1424 and cardinal in 1426 . It is open whether Dufay had more musical or more administrative tasks here. Around the beginning of 1428 he was ordained a priest in Bologna. It is very likely that Dufay's most important mass to date , the Missa Sancti Jacobi for the Church of San Giacomo Maggiore in Bologna , was written during this time (1427 or 1428) . In the second half of 1428 he left Bologna and went to Rome , although the reasons are unclear, because here too the danger of a plague epidemic was evident at this time.

From December 1428 he was listed as a member of the cantores capelle pape in Rome until May 1437, with an almost two-year break from summer 1433 to summer 1435. Under Pope Martin V, i.e. until 1431, he does not yet have any played a prominent role. Only the motet O sancte Sebastiane , probably composed in 1428/29 on the occasion of the outbreak of the plague in Rome, belongs with some certainty to this period.


Documents from the late 1420s attest for the first time that Dufay was endowed with benefices , in Laon and in Cambrai (on St. Géry). In April 1430 a canonical was added in Nouvion-le-Vineux. These benefices, which were followed by seven more and which were sometimes observed at the same time and sometimes without compulsory attendance, offered Dufay a regular basic income and ultimately a pension in addition to the rather irregular, non-permanent donations from his artistic work as a singer and composer to princes and bishops - and papal courts.

Italy II

A fundamental change arose with the beginning of the pontificate of Pope Eugene IV, who loved representation and splendor, in Rome and Florence (term of office 1431–1447), in which a systematic curial music policy with mensural polyphony was pursued for the first time . The motet Ecclesiae militantis probably refers to the last-mentioned papal coronation (March 11, 1431) .

Guillaume Dufay's cathedral inauguration motet Nuper rosarum flores

After it was customary in Pope Eugen's homeland of Venice to provide all important events with specially composed music, the plan has certainly emerged to continue this under his pontificate, so that Dufay's oeuvre in this period includes an impressive series of the most important works. In addition to the aforementioned coronation motet, these include in particular Balsamus et munda (March 11, 1431), Supremum est mortalibus for the coronation of the German Emperor Sigismund (May 31, 1433), and Nuper rosarum flores for the consecration of the Florence Cathedral (with the famous dome by Brunelleschi ) on March 25, 1436. Charles Warren (1973) related the proportions of the size of the four sections of this motet to the proportions of the nave , side aisles , apse and dome height of the cathedral, as well as more extensive correspondences with the structural dimensions of the Solomonic Temple , ratios of the golden one section and geriatric numerical values of linguistic expressions suspected. Such numerical relationships have, however, been questioned several times.

Dufay mentions himself in his motet
Salue flos tusce gentis , a praise for the city of Florence and its inhabitants:
Guillermus cecini natus est ipse fay ([I,] Guillaume, a born Fay, sang)
Guillermus in the motetus of the motet Salue flos tusce gentis (excerpt)

In addition, the motets Salve flos tusce and Mirandas parit were created for unknown occasions in Florence, as well as O beate Sebastiane on the occasion of a plague epidemic in 1437/38, from which the papal court, like Dufay before, fled to Ferrara .

Wanderjahre - branch in Cambrai

Musicians and singers from the book of hours of Duke Amadeus VIII, the employer and client Guillaume Dufays

In the preceding two-year break from 1433 to 1435, Dufay lived at the court of the Duke of Savoy in Chambéry and in his homeland. He first traveled to Savoy in July / August 1433 for unexplained reasons and was appointed conductor of Duke Amadeus VIII in February 1434 at the latest. He stayed in this position until the spring of 1435 and resumed it from 1452 at the latest. He came into contact with the Burgundian chapel when the Burgundian Duke Philip the Good (1419–1467) was also staying at the Savoyard court in February 1434. From there, Dufay visited his mother in Cambrai in August 1434. It is difficult to decide which of Dufay's works fall into the Savoy period; a greater probability speaks only for the ballad Se la face ay pale .

The last payments by the papal court to Dufay date from May 1437; In the same month, however, he received the considerable sum of 20 ducats from the ducal court in Ferrara, which is the first time that closer contact there is documented; moreover, the meeting of the Counter-Council of Ferrara was imminent. Shortly thereafter, Dufay traveled to the meeting of the cathedral chapter in Lausanne and then to Chambéry, where he again received money from the Savoyard court. It was Dufay's apparently ingenious tactics that enabled him not only to maintain good contact with all opponents in the long-standing ecclesiastical disputes of the time, but also to gain considerable economic advantages for himself. In April 1438, Dufay was a representative of the Cambraier cathedral chapter at the Council of Basel (1431–1449), but at the same time seems to have presided over the Savoyard court chapel; there he must have loosened or broken contact with the ducal house from November 1439 after Duke Amadeus VIII was elected antipope Felix V , because in December Dufay can be traced back to Cambrai. An eventful phase of life of over 20 years with services at prince, bishop's and papal courts and many trips came to an end. His fame had consolidated through 1440 through his diverse work in a way that was unprecedented for the 15th century.

The following ten years in Cambrai were marked by the intention to settle down. There were only smaller trips. In August 1445, a good year after his mother's death, he moved into a new house and devoted himself to his clerical office with full commitment. Musically, Cambrai continued to be of great importance during this period, also because of the presence of three papal band singers as well as Nicholas Grenon and Robert Anclou . In 1446 all cathedral music in Cambrai was reorganized; the sheet music copyist Simon de Mellet († 1481) was his most important partner until Dufay's death, because numerous musical manuscripts go back to his collaboration. It was at this time that Dufay decided to turn to the cantus firmus mass ; Motets were also created, only the large-scale political representation music was no longer relevant.

Guillaume Dufay's handwriting in the only surviving letter to the brothers Piero and Giovanni de 'Medici dated February 22, 1454 or 1456. Dufay used a musical rebus in his signature. He wrote the fa of his name as a note on the line of a C clef in the
hexachordum durum . Compare the note rebus on Dufay's epitaph (picture below).

Dufay's connection to the House of Savoy persisted, however, and so after a trip to Italy in 1450, paid for by the Savoy court, the duke wrote a request to return to work as Kapellmeister. There is no archival evidence of such an activity, but there is evidence of a trip to Geneva (bishopric of Savoy) and Dufay's letters to Piero and Giovanni de 'Medici in Florence; in Cambrai it can only be traced back to the end of 1458. Here he took over the office of magister de petits vicaires (previously exercised) ; As part of the renewal of the chapter liturgy, he sought to sift through his own work, to document it and to enrich it with exceptional compositions. In 1460 he sponsored the composer Johannes Regis , in 1464 the composer Johannes Ockeghem lived in his house for two weeks. The extraordinary homage Omnium bonorum plena written by Loyset Compère from 1468 refers to his fame and was at the same time a tribute to the French court orchestra.

Death in Cambrai

Guillaume Dufay on his epitaph (kneeling on the left); the Latin inscription refers primarily to the musicus Dufay. In each corner of the epitaph there is a note rebus:
G du fa y (the fa ≙ of the Longa and the tone letter c on the stave of the C clef
formed by the G (= Guillermus) in the hexachordum durum ).

In the middle of 1474 Dufay seems to be seriously ill, so that his will was drawn up in July. In it he wished to hear the hymn Magno salutis gaudio and the motet Ave regina celorum after receiving the final sacraments . In this four-part motet the Ave regina celorum is interwoven with a Miserere , in which Dufay is named and the Mother of God (genetrix Domini) is asked for mercy and, in anticipation of Dufay's death, for intercession before God. The fact that these pieces were then sung for his Requiem indicates that his death occurred unexpectedly on the evening of November 27, 1474. His material estate was substantial, and his will listed many testimonies to his wide-ranging activity. The lamentations composed on the death of Dufay by Ockeghem, Antoine Busnois and Jean Hemart are missing in the tradition.


The great importance of Guillaume Dufay is that he was the first to fuse musical elements of art music from the traditions of France, the Netherlands, England and Italy; In this way he created a musical language that was binding for high art music in all of Europe for a long time. He is the outstanding figure in early Franco-Flemish music. His tendencies towards polyphony, which was fundamentally binding for the musical development of Europe, were followed up by the following generations of this music, for example by Johannes Ockeghem, Jacob Obrecht and Josquin Desprez and reached their preliminary conclusion in the work of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso .

Comparison of the spellings of two compositions by Guillaume Dufay. On the left a Kyrie in black notation (approx. 1430–1440), on the right a Kyrie in white notation (approx. 1472)

Dufay's work includes all areas of secular and spiritual polyphony; his main genres are chansons , tenor motets and the setting of the Mass Ordinary. While his chansons and motets tend to look backwards, his mass compositions clearly point to the future. In the mostly three-part chansons, Dufay continues the tradition of Guillaume de Machaut , and the mostly four-part, isorhythmic motet is also rooted in the French Ars nova . His numerous mass movements from earlier times are predominantly composed in three-part, traditional chanson movements, while his large four-part masses of the later period ( Se la face ay pale , L'homme armé , Ecce ancilla Domini , Ave regina celorum and others) are individual Movements based on the English model linked to a cycle by a constant cantus firmus in the tenor; this represented something new and was decisive for the subsequent period. Dufay is said to have introduced the white ones instead of the previously common black notes ; Other innovations in the notation are also ascribed to him (by Adam von Fulda).

Edited excerpt from the Postcommunio of Guillaume Dufay's Missa Sancti Jacobi with inserted middle part not notated in the original.

Suggestions from England can be seen, among other things, in Fauxbourdon , which Dufay first appears in his Missa Sancti Jacobi from 1427. In Postcommunio , to a movement made up of superius and tenor, which Dufay has notated in two parts, an unnotated middle voice is sung, which follows the superior in parallel sub-fourths. In the actual core of the movement, the tenor forms the distance of a sixth or an octave to the superius, with dissonances sometimes also arising in the passage. The overall sound is determined by sixth chords and empty perfect fifths.

The influence of Italian Trecento music can be seen in certain melodic and tonal properties in Dufay's compositions, in particular in the quasi tonal IVI steps of the deepest voice, which, however, is more of a supplementary voice for him, in contrast to the tonal function of the bass voice ( figured bass ) of the Music from 1600.

Further innovations include the abandonment of isorhythmics and the "melting down" of the rigid ornamental phrases that were typical of the Ars nova. The increasing consideration of the individual voices for one another while still increasing independence lead to an increasingly strict rationalization of the musical notation, whereby the rhythm in each voice is related to the melodic and rhythmic course of the entire composition at every moment. In this way Dufay's music is the first European testimony to a real “polyphony” in the familiar sense with a temporal long-range effect for centuries.

Works (summary)

Dufay's approximately 200 surviving compositions include sacred and secular works. All of his sacred music is vocal, although it is possible that instruments have been used to amplify and replace vocal parts. Even the rondeaus, ballads and other forms of secular works are never set purely instrumental.

The oeuvre , which was quantitatively singular for Dufay's time, has only survived in fragments. Apart from a few copies in Codex Tr87, there are no performance manuscripts . No sources have been preserved directly from Dufay's places of activity. Nevertheless, the surviving sources - all of them copies, almost always in collective manuscripts - document a rich oeuvre, but do not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the diversity of genres and the chronology of the works.

  • nine complete masses, two of which have been lost
  • nine pairs of mass sentences (Kyrie-Gloria, Gloria-Credo, Sanctus-Agnus and others)
  • 19 Mass single sentences (Kyrie, Gloria)
  • six proprien
  • 14 isorhythmic motets
  • nine non-isorhythmic motets, two of which have been lost
  • two motet chansons
  • 15 antiphons
  • nine sequences , one of which is missing
  • 33 hymns, two of which are missing
  • two Benedicamus dominoes
  • five Magnificats , one of which is missing
  • a 1-part chorale
  • two Latin secular chansons
  • four Italian ballats
  • a stanza di canzone
  • three Italian rondeaux
  • eleven French ballads
  • 59 French rondeaux
  • four virelais
  • four lamentations on the occasion of the fall of Constantinople (1453), three of which are missing

The musicological directories also contain:

  • 36 attributions and works of doubtful authenticity
  • 18 inauthentic works (Dufay's authorship is unlikely or another author is relatively certain)

Music theory writings (lost)

  • Musica , quoted in Biblioteca Palatina [I-PAp] MS 1158.
  • Tractatus de musica et de proportionibus , mentioned in Fétis.

A detailed catalog raisonné with details of the sources and editions can be found in Laurenz Lütteken:  Dufay, Guillaume. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 5 (Covell - Dzurov). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1115-2 , Sp. 1510–1550, here Sp. 1518–1541 ( online edition , subscription required for full access).

Literature (selection, chronological)

Overall representations

  • Franz Xaver Haberl: Wilhelm du Fay. Monographic study of his life and works. In: Quarterly journal for musicology No. 1, 1885, pages 397-530.
  • Charles van den Borren: Guillaume Dufay. Son importance dans l'évolution de la musique au XVe siècle (= Académie Royale de Belgie, Classe des beaux-arts, Mémories 2,2), Brussels 1926
  • Heinrich Besseler:  Dufay. In: Friedrich Blume (Hrsg.): The music in past and present (MGG). First edition, Volume 3 (Daquin - Fechner). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 1954, DNB 550439609 , Sp. 889-912.
  • David Fallows: Dufay (= The Master Musicians), London / Toronto / Melbourne 1982, ISBN 0-460-03180-5 (2nd supplemented edition 1987).
  • Massimo Mila: Guillaume Dufay , 2 volumes, Giappichelli Verlag, Turin 1972–73 (new edition by Simone Monge, Verlag Einaudi Editore, Turin 1997, ISBN 88-06-14672-6 )
  • Laurenz Lütteken:  Dufay, Guillaume. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 5 (Covell - Dzurov). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1115-2 , Sp. 1510–1550 ( online edition , subscription required for full access).
  • Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, ISBN 3-7618-2026-7 (with catalog raisonné).
  • Alejandro Enrique Planchart: Guillaume Du Fay: the life and works , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, ISBN 978-1-107-16615-8

Individual aspects

  • Frederick Joseph Barbour: A Model for the Analysis of Structural Work and Tonal Movement in Composition of the Fifteenth Century , 2 volumes, dissertation at Yale University 1975.
  • Heinrich Besseler: From Dufay to Josquin. A literature review . In: Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft No. 11, 1928/29, pages 1–22.
  • Heinrich Besseler: New documents on the life and work of Dufay . In: '' Archives for Musicology '' No. 9, 1952.
  • Heinrich Besseler: Dufay in Rome. In: Archives for Musicology , 15, 1958.
  • Rudolf Bockholdt: The early mass compositions by Guillaume Dufay ( Munich publications on music history , 5). Schneider Verlag, Tutzing 1960.
  • Rudolf Bockholdt: The hymns in the handwriting Cambrai 6 - two unknown settings by Dufay ?. In: Tijdschrift der Vereeniging voor Nederlandsche Muziekgeschiedenis , 30, 1980.
  • Stanley Boorman: The Early Renaissance and Dufay. In: The Musical Times No. 115/1577, 1974, pp. 560-565.
  • Gerhard Croll: Dufay's festival music for the consecration of the Florentine cathedral . In: Austrian music magazine No. 23, 1968.
  • Rolf Dammann: Dufay's Florentine cathedral dedication motet . In: W. Braunfels, Der Dom von Florenz , Olten Verlag 1964.
  • Willem Elders: Humanism and Early-Renaissance Music. A Study of the Ceremonial Music by Ciconia and Dufay. In: Tijdschrift der Vereeniging voor Nederlandsche Muziekgeschiedenis No. 27, 1977.
  • Peter Gülke: Great, almost lost music. On the 500th anniversary of Guillaume Dufay's death. In: Music and Society No. 24, 1974, pages 668-672
  • Charles E. Hamm: A Chronology of the Works of Guillaume Dufay. Based on a Study of Mensural Practice ( Princeton Studies in Music No. 1). Princeton / New Jersey 1964 (Reprint: New York 1986, ISBN 0-306-76225-0 ).
  • Laurenz Lütteken: Guillaume Dufay and the isorhythmic motet. Genre tradition and work character on the threshold of modern times ( contributions to musicology from Münster , 4), Verlag der Musikalienhandlung Wagner, Hamburg / Eisenach 1993, ISBN 3-88979-062-3 .
  • Wolfgang Marggraf : Tonality and harmony in the French chanson between Machaut and Dufay . In: Archives for Musicology , 23, 1966.
  • Wolfgang Nitschke: Studies on Guillaume Dufay's Cantus firmus masses ( Berlin Studies in Musicology , 13), 2 volumes, Berlin 1968
  • Rudolf Nowotny: scale length, cantus firmus, movement in the caput masses by Dufay, Ockeghem and Obrecht , dissertation at the University of Munich 1970
  • Alejandro Enrique Planchart: Relations between Cambrai and the Papal Chapel from 1417 to 1447. In: Collectanea II, Studies on the History of the Papal Chapel (= Capellae Apostolicae Sixtinaeque Collectanea Acta Monumenta No. 4), Conference Report Heidelberg 1989, Vatican City 1994, page 559– 574
  • Hans Ryschawy, Rolf W. Stoll: The meaning of the number in Dufay's type of composition: Nuper rosarum flores. In: Heinz-Klaus Metzger, Rainer Riehn: Guillaume Dufay (= Music Concepts No. 60), edition text + kritik, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-88377-281-X , pages 3-73
  • Rolf W. Stoll: Music: words, tones, numbers. Guillaume Dufay's chanson “Mon chier amy”. In: Neue Zeitschrift für Musik No. 1, 2001, pp. 42–47
  • Reinhard Strohm: Guillaume du Fay, Martin Le Franc and the humanistic legend of music ; Amadeus Verlag, Winterthur 2007 ( New Year's Gazette of the Allgemeine Musikgesellschaft Zürich , 192); ISBN 978-3-905075-15-1 .
  • Leo Treitler: Tone System in the Secular Works of Guillaume Dufay . In: Journal of the American Musicological Society No. 18, 1965.
  • Charles van den Borren: Guillaume Dufay. Center de rayonnement de la polyphonie européenne à la fin du moyen age . In: Bulletin de l'Institut historique belge du Rome No. 20, 1939, pages 171-185 (reprinted in: Revue belge de musicologie No. 21, 1967, pages 56-67).
  • Charles Warren: Brunelleschi's Dome and Dufay's Motet. In: Musical Quarterly No. 59, 1973, pp. 92-105.
  • Craig Wright: Dufay and Cambrai. Discoveries and Revisions. In: Journal of the American Musicological Society No. 28, 1975.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Laurenz Lütteken:  Dufay, Guillaume. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 5 (Covell - Dzurov). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1115-2 , Sp. 1510–1550 ( online edition , subscription required for full access)
  2. Marc Honegger, Günther Massenkeil (ed.): The great lexicon of music. Volume 2: C - Elmendorff. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau a. a. 1979, ISBN 3-451-18052-9 .
  3. ^ Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, p. 6.
  4. ^ Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, p. 4.
  5. ^ Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, p. 2 f.
  6. ^ Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, p. 5.
  7. Compare the floor plan on the website of the Office de tourisme du Cambrésis. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  8. ^ Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th Century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, p. 8.
  9. a b Laurenz Lütteken:  Dufay, Guillaume. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 5 (Covell - Dzurov). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1115-2 , Sp. 1510–1550, here Sp. 1510 ( online edition , subscription required for full access).
  10. ^ Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, p. 72 f.
  11. Laurenz Lütteken:  Dufay, Guillaume. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 5 (Covell - Dzurov). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1115-2 , Sp. 1510–1550, here Sp. 1511 ( online edition , subscription required for full access).
  12. ^ Alejandro Enrique Planchart: The Early Career of Guillaume Du Fay . In: Journal of the American Musicological Society , Vol. 46, No. 3 (autumn 1993), p. 361.
  13. ^ Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th Century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, pp. 76–79.
  14. on the criticism see Werner Keil : Does the golden ratio exist in the music of the 15th to 19th centuries? In: Augsburger Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft No. 8, 1991, pages 7–70
  15. Craig Wright: Dufay's "Nuper rosarum flores" and King Solomon's Temple. In: Journal of the American Musicological Society No. 47, 1994, pp. 395-439
  16. ^ Marvin Trachtenberg: Architecture and Music Reunited: A New Reading of Dufay's "Nuper Rosarum Flores" and the Cathedral of Florence. In: Renaissance Quarterly No. 54, 2001, pages 740-775
  17. ^ Peter Gülke: Guillaume Du Fay. Music of the 15th century , Bärenreiter Verlag 2003, p. 188.
  18. Laurenz Lütteken:  Dufay, Guillaume. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 5 (Covell - Dzurov). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1115-2 , Sp. 1510–1550, here Sp. 1542 ( online edition , subscription required for full access).
  19. Item volo et ordino quod postquam ecclesiastica sacramenta michi fuerint ministrata et ad agoniam tendere videbor, si, hora pati possit, sint octo ex sociis ecclesie juxta lectum meum qui, submissa voce cantent hympnum Magno salutit Paris legi XL , quo hympno finito pueri altaris, una cum magistro corum et duobus ex sociis, inibi similiter presentes decantent motetum meum de Ave Regina Celorum pro quo eis lego XXX solidos. Quote from: Franz Xaver Haberl: Wilhelm du Fay. Monographic study of his life and works. In: Quarterly journal for musicology No. 1, 1885, p. 516.
  20. Guillaume Du Fay: Opera Omnia 01/06 Ave Regina caelorum 3 Edited by Alejandro Enrique Planchart Marisol Press Santa Barbara 2008. ( Memento of November 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) PDF 503 kB. Retrieved April 4, 2015
  21. ^ Hans-Otto Korth: The Fauxbourdon in its music-historical environment. In: Heinz-Klaus Methger and Rainer Riehn (eds.): Guillaume Dufay . Music Concepts, Issue 60, April 1988, p. 74 f.
  22. Roland John Jackson: Performance Practice: A Dictionary Guide for Musicians . New York et altera: Routledge, 2005, p. 131 f.
  23. Laurenz Lütteken:  Dufay, Guillaume. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 5 (Covell - Dzurov). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1115-2 , Sp. 1510–1550, here Sp. 1541 ( online edition , subscription required for full access).
  24. a b F.Alberto Gallo: Citazioni da un trattato di Dufay . In: Collectanea historiae musicae IV , 1966, pp. 149-152.