Stadelheimer Strasse 12
|Information about the institution|
|Employee||636 (512 civil servants + 124 other service personnel )|
|Institution management||Michael Stumpf, Senior Government Director|
The Penitentiary Munich in Stadelheimer street in Munich district of Giesing is one with 14 ha of agricultural land of the largest prisons in Germany . Like the street name, the name Stadelheim is derived from the former Gut Stadelheim.
The total of five buildings on the site (north, south, west, east and new), including the open penal institution in Leonrodstrasse, have a total capacity of 1379 prison places, which can be expanded to 2100 in emergencies. The highest occupancy of the prison building was on November 9, 1993 with 1969 prisoners. In Stadelheim, mostly male prisoners and detainees aged 16 and over are imprisoned. In addition, there is the youth arrest, the women's department and the now closed JVA Neudeck , which together could accommodate a further 124 prisoners. In 2001 the average occupancy was 1,581 inmates and was thus well above the regular, legally permitted inmate capacity. In 2001, 596 people were employed in the JVA Stadelheim, of which 506 were civil servants and 90 employees. There is also a church on the prison grounds.
The juvenile and women's penal system has been taking place in a new building since 2009, in the immediate vicinity of the main site. There are prison places for 150 women, 46 male and 14 female youths. The building, which is erected and operated as part of the public-private partnership (contract for planning, construction, financing, operation and maintenance of the supply and disposal systems including the energy supply is / was the task of the private contracting parties). The inauguration took place on May 26, 2009. The property owner of the large area (Stadelheimer Strasse 4 to 6, approx. 8,850 m²) has been the Free State of Bavaria since December 8, 1994 (previously federal property). For the enforcement of Freigängern there is a branch in the Leonrodstraße with 45 seats.
Until 2009, the penal system for women and young people was housed in the former Neudeck correctional facility in the Au district.
The permanent overcrowding of the Munich prisons Anger, Baaderstraße and Lilienberg as well as structural deficiencies led to considerations in 1892 to build a new central prison. In 1894, on the former Stadelheim estate in Giesing, just outside Munich, the so-called north building was built as the first phase of construction for 465 prisoners. Seven years later, in 1901, the south building opened. Executions were carried out here from April 1901 . Both buildings are now a listed building .
In total, at least 1049 prisoners were executed in Stadelheim, of which only 13 occurred between 1895 and 1927, including Eugen Leviné († 1919). Most of the executions were carried out during the National Socialist era between 1933 and 1945, when Stadelheim, together with the Stuttgart remand prison and the Bruchsal prison, was planned as the " central execution site for Execution District VIII "; Johann Reichhart acted as the executioner in charge . Among the at least 1,035 killed during this period were Ernst Röhm († 1934) and the members of the White Rose († 1943). Some of the executed people were buried in the neighboring cemetery at Perlacher Forst .
When the Munich Soviet Republic was crushed in early May 1919, the victorious Soldateska committed numerous unlawful killings in the Stadelheim prison . According to the testimony of Ernst Toller , who was imprisoned in Stadelheim, it was written in white chalk on the prison gate: "Here blood and liver sausage is made from Spartakist blood, here the reds are transported to death free of charge."
On August 22, 1986, a prisoner took hostage a lawyer who was waiting for a client in the conference room of the prison. The lawyer was rescued, but was injured by a homemade bomb the hostage taker made. Due to insufficient security measures in the prison, he received compensation from the Free State of Bavaria .
A memorial for the members of the White Rose, designed by the sculptor Wilhelm Breitsameter, was built in 1974 and can be visited by groups after registration. The memorial was opened to the public for the first time on the 65th anniversary of the execution (February 22, 2008) of Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst in Stadelheim.
Memorial outside the walls
Since July 24, 2020, three memorial plaques in front of the JVA Stadelheim have been commemorating the fate of the people who were imprisoned there during the Nazi era. The memorial stones are intended to commemorate the 1188 people who were executed behind the prison walls between 1934 and 1945. At the suggestion of the city of Munich, a memorial was also to be created outside the walls for the population. Stadelheim was one of the central execution sites in the German Reich.
- Breno , serious arson (July 2012 to December 2014)
- John Demjanjuk , alleged war criminal
- Kurt Eisner , arrested after the January strike in 1918, in Stadelheim from summer to October 14th of that year
- Willi Graf (White Rose) was killed here on October 12, 1943
- Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley , Kurt Eisner's murderer
- Hans Hartwimmer, Wilhelm Olschewski and other members of the Hartwimmer-Olschewski resistance group were executed here or killed in custody
- Adolf Hitler was imprisoned from June 24th to July 27th, 1922 for breach of the peace
- Kurt Huber (White Rose) was killed here on July 13, 1943
- Gustav Landauer was killed here on May 2, 1919
- Eugen Leviné was killed here on June 5, 1919
- Lehmann "Leo" Katzenberger , executed (murdered) here on June 3, 1942
- MOK , Berlin rapper, imprisoned in 2003/04
- Karl Punzer , Austrian resistance fighter, was killed here on December 5, 1944
- Christoph Probst (White Rose) was killed here on February 22, 1943
- Ludwig Quidde , After a political speech on January 20, 1896, Quidde was accused of attempted lese majesty and sentenced to three months in prison in Stadelheim
- Ernst Röhm , former SA chief of staff, was killed in cell 70 on July 1, 1934
- Alexander Schmorell (White Rose) was killed here on July 13, 1943
- Hans Scholl and Sophie Scholl ( White Rose ) were killed here on February 22, 1943
- The Austrian resistance fighters Ludwig Haiden , Alfred Höchstätter and Josef Postl were killed here on January 25, 1944 by the Nazi regime
- Ingrid Schubert , RAF terrorist, committed suicide by hanging on November 18, 1977
- Oliver Shanti , from 2008, sentenced to 6 years and 10 months for child abuse
- In 1906 Ludwig Thoma was serving a six-week prison sentence for insulting the moral associations
- Ernst Toller , imprisoned 1919–1924
- Friedrich Ritter von Lama , a well-known Catholic journalist, was imprisoned for listening to Vatican Radio, killed here as a prisoner on February 9, 1944
- Bebo Wager ( Revolutionary Socialists ) was killed here on August 12, 1943
- Konstantin Wecker , musician, 1995 custody for drug offenses
- Dieter Zlof , Richard Oetker's kidnapper , was imprisoned here until he was transferred to the Straubing correctional facility
- Johannes Feldmayer , member of the Siemens central board , was held in custody on charges of infidelity
- Beate Zschäpe , member of the National Socialist Underground (NSU), in custody from 2013–2019, relocated to Chemnitz
The chapel of Saint Mary is part of the building complex. An underground meeting room building is currently being built within the fenced off area for procedures with the highest level of security. There is room for 250 people. The hall can be divided into two smaller halls. It is intended to primarily negotiate state security proceedings here, the occasion was the NSU trial . The opening was planned for the second half of 2016. The cost was estimated at 15 million euros. There is currently only one high-security courtroom in Germany that is located within a prison, which is the Stuttgart penal institution .
A "Stadelheimer" is a criminal in the everyday language of Munich and the surrounding area . The prison is also jokingly called “Sankt Adelheim / St. Adelheim "called.
- Irene Stuiber : executed in Munich-Stadelheim. Victims of Nazi persecution in the Perlacher Forest cemetery. , Cultural Department of the City of Munich, 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0733-6 ( PDF; 2.2 MB ).
- Prison Munich on the website of the Bavarian Ministry of Justice
- As of 2001
- justizvollzug-bayern.de: JVA München ( Memento of 27 April 2008 at the Internet Archive )
- www.justizvollzug-bayern.de ( Memento of the original from October 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. 3. b) New building projects. Accessed February 13, 2011.
- www.justiz.bayern.de ( Memento of the original from January 17, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Inauguration of the JVA Munich (PDF; 47 kB). Accessed February 13, 2011.
- www.justizvollzug-bayern.de ( Memento of April 27, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Munich prison, brief description. Accessed February 13, 2011.
- Prison in Bavaria: Brief description of the Munich JVA ( Memento from April 27, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Ernst Toller: Eine Jugend in Deutschland , Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag (Reinbek) 1963, p. 126.
- Allan Mitchell: Revolution in Bavaria 1918/1919. The Eisner government and the Soviet republic . Beck, Munich 1967, note 57 on p. 60.
- Claudia Wessel : Place of Terror - Place of Remembrance . In: SZ from February 25, 2008.
- Susi Wimmer: Memorial outside the walls. SZ.de, July 24, 2020 (accessed July 25, 2020)
- Steffen Ufer, Göran Schattauer: Not guilty: Justice is not a matter of negotiation. Heyne Verlag, 2016, ISBN 978-3453201385 . Focus-Online: slightly shortened chapter.
- Keyword St. Adelheim in: bayrisches-woerterbuch.de.
- Stadelheim correctional facility , section historical walls , in: muenchen.de - the official city portal.