from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wittum ( Latin Vidualitium ), Widum , Widdum or Witthum is a term from medieval legal language . The words "widum" and "wittum" derive from the same root as "dedicate"; Widum and Wittum thus designates a “dedicated property”, which is still used today in Tyrol and South Tyrol as a term for a rectory . In German, medieval law, the widow's pension from the estate was named, since these were also "dedicated goods"; the association of the word widum with widow is a folk etymology .

Pension benefit upon marriage

The term initially referred to the purchase price (bride money ) to be paid by the groom to the bride's sex guardian , the treasure trove or the bride money given by the bride's father, the dowry , and then also a care taken by the husband in favor of the maintenance of his wife in the event that she should one day become a widow , the personal thing . The Wittum became more and more similar to the Morgengabe , indeed it took its place, until finally Wittum and Morgengabe could no longer be clearly separated. Wittum thus became the supply of the widows, since it remained in their possession for life. It was often stipulated by law. Wittum then also means in particular the endowment to be granted by princes of a princely house for the proper maintenance of the monarch's widow and the widows of princes of a princely house (who live in their assigned widow's residence, for example in a widow's palace) .

Originally the Wittum consisted only of Fahrnis , also called Mobilien, Mobiliarwittum . It later became a property , which was transferred by means of a deed. Noble families who housed their female members in monasteries furnished them with widum farms. In order to free the noble nuns from any work, the monasteries received courtyards and serfs to care for the ladies. In this context, the term Widumshof was also transferred to the rectory, which served the clergy as an economic basis.

Name for a parsonage or parish charter

Widum in Silandro

In Swabia, Bavaria and Tyrol, Widum or Widdum is also the name for the immovable property of the parish priests and especially for the rectory. Agricultural businesses called Widumhof served to supply clergy until modern times. Widum still appears in Austria today as the name of the residential and farm building of a Catholic parish.

In Northern Germany, this corresponds to the (Middle) Low German Wedeme (High German also Wiedenhof ) and the Dutch w (h) eem, weme 'Pfarrei, Pfarrhof'. In Lübeck the Wehde is the historical rectory of the Marienkirche .

Place naming

The root is very productive in toponymics , settlement and field names. Important corruptions are:

  • obd. Wim [m] - with numerous variants up to the frequent personal name Wimmer as a name of origin , here both derivations come into question , from the treasure trove as possession as from parish foundations , and these passed on as fiefdoms (but also out-of-root too whimsy 'gnarled', and other)
  • Wieden about mhd. Widem (also an etymology to willow trees , Wied 'Au' possible)

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Duden: Etymologie , sv dedicate, Wittum, Witwe; especially clear H. Paul: German dictionary , sv dedicate; also: M. Lexer: Middle High German Dictionary , sv widem, widum etc; also M. Lexer: Carinthian Dictionary (Leipzig 1862), p. 257 sv widn; and also other dictionaries with etymological notes
  2. a b Wittum ... widem, m. and f., 'bridal gift; church property '. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 30 : WilbHyssop - (XIV, 2nd section). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1960, Sp. 830-838 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
  3. a b c Wittum . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 16, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885-1892, p. 705.
    Wittum . In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition. Volume 20, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1909, p.  704 .
  4. ^ Pierer's Universal Lexicon . tape 19 . Altenburg 1865, p. 303-304 .
  5. Wittum . In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition. Volume 20, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1909, p.  704 .
  6. Martin Funk : Some notes about the official residences of the clergy in Lübeck. In: Zeitschrift des Verein für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 4 (1884), pp. 68–83; see. weem , Dutch Wikipedia).
  7. ^ Wimmer / Wemmer ( memento of April 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) , deutsche-nachnamen.de
  8. about the 4th district of Vienna


  • Herder's Conversations Lexicon . tape 2 . Freiburg im Breisgau 1854, p. 437 ( zeno.org ).
  • Eckhardt: The Witthum or the Dotalitium and Vidualitium in their historical development . In: Journal for German. Right . tape X , 1846.
  • Karl Salomo Zachariä: From the Dotalrechte . In: Handbook of French Civil Law . 4th edition. tape 3 . JCB Mohr, Heidelberg 1837, p. 297 ( google.at ).