Fishing (fishing)

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River anglers
Jigging anglers in Australia

Under fishing or sport fishing is defined as the practice of fishing with one or more hand fishing. In the simplest case , the fishing rod only consists of fishing line and fish hook , but generally also consists of the fishing rod , the fishing reel for rolling up the line and the so-called leader , a line between the main line and the hook, which is usually thinner than the main line. Most fishing methods use swivels as the link between the main line and the leader . A person who practices the sport of fishing is known as an angler .

Legal Aspects

Sign "No fishing" (Spain)
Fishing papers
Boundary water permit
Border water certificate inside.jpg
Border water certificate outside.jpg


In Germany, fishing is generally subject to the state fishing law and the state fishing regulations of the respective federal state. In Germany, you essentially need two papers to exercise:

  • A valid fishing license ; You can obtain this if you have a certificate of competence (this can be the passed fishing examination or training to become a fish keeper ) on application to the district government , the lower fisheries authority or the municipality / city administration (depending on the federal state).
In Rhineland-Palatinate, the state fisheries law only applies to persons “who live in the area of ​​application of this law”, i. H. a foreigner receives the fishing license without examination. In addition, everyone can receive a so-called "Grenzgewässerschein" (border water certificate) without an examination (e.g. from the Association of Southern Eifel ). It costs 15 euros for one year and is valid for the rivers Sauer, Our and Mosel where they are border waters to Luxembourg, and also in Luxembourg, where the Sauer, Our and Mosel are border waters to Germany. The border water permit is also valid in parts of the Saarland.

The fishing rights can lie with the water body owner or can be acquired from a tenant (e.g. a fishing club). There is the option of either leasing the waterfront property including the fishing rights or just the fishing rights. Fishing clubs often lease fishing rights for several waters in a region and issue fishing permits for their leased waters. At such fishing waters, the water regulations of the clubs must be observed, which can be stricter (but never milder) than the state laws in points such as closed seasons , precautionary measures and catch restrictions. Associations can stipulate that water regulations and catch logs must be carried on their waters.

In some bodies of water, fishing law is completely detached from property ownership, which is then based on historical backgrounds (e.g. old professional fishing families). Such fishing rights are called independent fishing rights.

In addition to the State Fisheries Act are also following the laws and regulations of relevance for anglers: Animal Welfare Act , bundesartenschutzverordnung , Federal Nature Conservation Act .

The so-called black fishing without papers is considered theft in private waters and fish poaching in rivers and is punishable by severe fines or imprisonment of up to 2 years (Section 293 No. 1 and 2 StGB ).

In many bodies of water, fishing rights are guarded by state or association or association fisheries supervisors. They control papers, fishing equipment and the behavior of the anglers.


The Swiss federal law specifies the general framework for fishing. However, fishing sovereignty lies with the cantons. These determine the subtleties (among other things, restricted size, closed season, prohibited material) and regulate fishing permits ("patents"). It follows that the fishing regulations vary from canton to canton. Some cantons have a so-called free fishing right , which means that fishing can usually be carried out in the larger standing waters from the bank with simple assemblies without a patent. B. on the larger lakes of the canton of St. Gallen , such as Lake Constance , Lake Zurich and Lake Walen , in the canton of Thurgau in addition to Lake Constance and Untersee also in the Rhine , in the canton of Glarus in the Walensee and Klöntalersee , in the canton of Zurich on Lake Zurich, Greifensee , Pfäffikersee and Türlersee , as well as in the canton of Schwyz on Lake Lucerne , Lake Zug , Lake Zurich, Lake Lauerz and in the Itlimoosweiher.

Since 2009, a so-called certificate of competence has to be presented throughout Switzerland for the acquisition of patents with a validity of more than one month. This is achieved by attending a course and taking an exam.


In Finland anyone under the age of 18 and over 65 is allowed to fish without a fishing license. 18- to 65-year-olds do not need a fishing license if pole fishing or ice fishing is practiced ( everyone's right ). For fishing with a rod and reel, however, a fishing fee must be paid as well as a water fee for the fished water.

With the water fee, it is important to ensure that you select the correct region (Southern Finland, Western Finland, Eastern Finland, Oulu or Lapland). Licenses can be purchased on the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MMM) website and paid for very easily online. Then you can print out your license yourself.

For special fast-flowing, salmonid-rich waters, a day pass must be purchased, which is usually only available on site. Fishing in nature reserves is usually prohibited.

Economical meaning

The economic importance of recreational fishing in Germany is about as great as that of commercial fishing. The total economic benefit of fishing for society was estimated at around 6.4 billion euros annually. The industry employs 52,000 people. Most of these jobs are in the food and feed industries, in retail and fishing (e.g. fish farms), and in the hotel and restaurant industries. In 2002 about 45,000 tons of fish were caught. Commercial sea and river fisheries caught about 4,000 to 7,000 tons in the same period.

Aspects of recreational sports

Fishing is most popular in the federal states of Brandenburg , Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Schleswig-Holstein , where estimates are that at least one person is an active angler in 22–23% of households. Around one million people in Germany are organized in a fishing club. According to a survey by the Allensbach Institute for Demoscopy , around five million Germans say they fish now and then or regularly. Around 94% of German anglers are male, a similar rate applies in Switzerland.

Every year many fishing enthusiasts, their families, fishing clubs and youth groups spend fishing holidays in Germany and abroad. One can distinguish between anglers who z. B. Spend a week in France day and night at a Pay Lake carp fishing, and families who spend a few hours on the water fishing during their vacation. There are more than 200 such Pay Lakes in Germany, where payments are made either on an hourly basis, by weight or with fishing cards. In Germany there are some organizers for fishing trips abroad. Popular travel destinations are Sweden for pike fishing, France for carp fishing, Spain for catfish fishing, Norway for cod and halibut fishing or the Mediterranean for deep sea fishing.

For some of them, fishing for large fish, also known as “giants” or “giants”, is particularly attractive at fishing events from ponds in which these fish are used specifically for this purpose.


Rod hook

The oldest known fragment of a rod-shaped fish hook (rod hook) was made from the shell of a sea snail and is between 16,000 and 23,000 years old. He was found in 2001 in the Jerimalai Cave in East Timor . The hook was used for fishing in coastal waters, which became richer in fish due to the formation of coral reefs. The skeletons of deep-sea fish were also discovered in the cave, which suggest that people fished there as early as 42,000 years ago. The rod hook consists of a rod that is pointed at both ends and tied in the middle. When swallowed, the stick moves across the holding cord. The first fishhooks were also made from bone, horn, ivory or stone.


The oldest curved fishhooks (crooked hooks) to date were found in Wustermark , Brandenburg . There are six 12,300 years old fishhooks from 19,000 years old mammoth - ivory . The people of the penknife culture from the Younger Dryas period probably found the tooth of an extinct mammoth, from which they carved hook-shaped fishhooks, among other things.

The fish hooks of that time were noticeably large with a length of 8-15 centimeters and were only suitable for catching large fish such as pike and catfish. They had a handle and were tied to the end. There were no secondary barbs yet. The string was attached first to the fork, then in the middle and finally to the end of the handle. Reindeer tendons, horse hair and nettle fibers were used as material for the fishing line. The advantage of fishing over net and trap fishing is that smaller fish, which can hardly be hit with spears and arrows, can also be caught. Success can be achieved with this simple method even with a closed ice cover and in cloudy or very deep water.

Fishing methods

There are different fishing methods. What they all have in common is that the fish is made to pick up a hook on a line so that it can be pulled out of the water. In addition, there is often a barb at the tip of the hook, which is intended to prevent the fish from being lost while the line is being hauled in. Since all fish have to eat, all fish can in principle be fished. Some fish species immediately accept empty hooks thrown into the water because they cannot distinguish between hooks and food. However, this only occurs in waters with a lack of food or in breeding ponds. As a rule, the fish have to be fooled with a bait that is attached to the hook or pulled over the hook and conceals it. In order to put the fish in a feeding frenzy, they are often fed. This means that feed material and bait are put into the water at the point to be fished. With this method, a large amount of fish can be attracted to the fishing spot and there is a greater chance of catching fish. However, fishing is by no means always as easy as is often assumed. Fish species such as carp, for example, observe and learn from bad experiences with certain baits and avoid them in the future. It is also important to differentiate between non-predatory fish and predatory fish that hunt.

For this reason, there are various fishing methods that differ in the way the bait is presented depending on the target fish.

Surf fishing

Surf fishing in Madeira

Surf fishing is done from the beach, a pier, or the cliff. Relatively heavy weights (typically 100–250 g) are used. The bait is cast as far as possible, often over 100 m. The rod lengths are often more than 4 m. Special long cast leaders are used to increase the casting distance. These are mainly used to reduce air resistance and stabilize the leader. Since the centrifugal forces during casting can become so great that the fishing line is overloaded and can break, so-called chalk lines with increased strength in double to triple rod length are used as a lead line. Typical target fish in Germany are representatives of cod (especially cod / cod and whiting ), the various flatfish and sea bass . As bycatch but are eels and eelpout caught.

Drop shot fishing

Drop shot fishing is a relatively new method of catching predatory fish.

With the drop-shot assembly, the hook is located directly on the leader, similar to a boom. Special drop-shot baits made of soft plastic are mounted on the hook. These baits emit fine vibrations and often continue to oscillate even in the stop phase. However, trying small dead bait fish or worms can also be worthwhile. The bait begins to play even with a light pluck. With a special drop-shot lead, the distance between the bait and the bottom can be adjusted very precisely to the respective conditions, so the danger of hangers is largely eliminated. The bait can be guided extremely slowly and is therefore in the predator's field of vision for a very long time. Predatory fish can rarely withstand the idiosyncratic bait movements and the fine vibrations of the drop-shot bait for long. The drop shot baits are often swallowed in full length.

The fishing rod assembly is easy. A special drop-shot hook is tied to a 150 centimeter long leader using a Palomar knot , so that the hook protrudes at an angle of around 90 degrees to the leader. A drop-shot soft bait is now placed on the drop-shot hook. At the end there is a special drop-shot lead that can be adjusted using a clamping mechanism. This sets the distance to the bait.

The bait is guided in absolute slow motion . After casting the drop-shot bait from the bank or boat, the “drop-shot assembly” is allowed to sink to the bottom.

This is followed by plucking, in which the bait is lifted and then lowered back to the bottom. In contrast to conventional fishing with artificial bait, retrieving is extremely slow and with the smallest of plucks. A standstill of about 5 seconds is necessary between the individual plucking. It should be noted that the fishing line must also be kept under tension during the standstill phase. Only then does the bait begin its typical “drop shot game” and emit its micro-oscillations.

When drop-shot fishing, the hook is in the front area of ​​the bait. As a rule, all kinds of predatory fish suck in the drop-shot bait due to its passive movement. With this angling method, there is no classic stop, as is the case with normal spin fishing with wobblers, rubber fish and Co. Instead, the rod tip is only slightly raised and you accelerate with three or four turns of the crank. This is enough to allow the hook to be gripped securely.

Feeder fishing

Feeder assembly

Feeder fishing is a fishing method that is mostly used to catch whitefish .

This technique combines the original basic assembly with a way to bring the basic feed directly to the actual bait that sits on the hook. This is achieved by using a feed basket (1). After the assembly has been thrown in, the feed is distributed on the floor and lures the fish close to the bait on the hook (2). If braided line is to be used as the main line (3), a shock absorber should be installed to protect the relatively thin leader from excessive stress. The usual leader length for feeder fishing is between 30 cm and 180 cm, but can be individually adjusted depending on the situation.

Special rods ( feeder rods ) with a fine tip and strong backbone are used for feeder fishing . The fish's bite is only noticeable by the “twitching” of the tip of the rod. A strong backbone of the rod is a prerequisite for throwing the heavy feeders. Even carefree feed baskets are quite heavy due to their filling with basic feed. Fine tips of different stiffness are used to detect bites. These are selected according to the wind and flow pressure so that their curvature allows bite detection. The fishing tackle manufacturers have been working intensively with this method for a number of years and have developed corresponding devices. There is now an enormous range of feeder rods available in specialist shops.

Fly fishing

The fly fishing is an active type of fishing. After the target fish has been identified, the bait is presented with a fly rod , fly reel and special fly line . Target fish are mostly salmonids, e.g. B. Trout and grayling. The difference to the other fishing methods is that no additional weight is required to cast the bait. The casting weight is only achieved by the fly line. Using special throwing techniques, it is possible to bring completely carefree flies at a distance. The bait imitates the fish's natural diet, such as insects. The most commonly used baits are dry fly , wet fly , streamer and nymph. Flies are around 0.6 to 3 cm tall and are made of feathers, animal hair and, increasingly, artificial materials. A distinction is made between dry and wet flies. Dry flies swim on the water surface, wet flies swim in the film of the water surface or directly in the water. Streamers are larger than flies (up to about 20 cm), they usually imitate small fish and are mostly offered under the water surface. Nymphs are only offered underwater, they imitate insect larvae or insects that rise to the surface of the water.

Predator fishing

Bait for trout

Predator fishing is the targeted fishing for predatory fish. In European waters, these include pike, chub, eel, catfish, trout, perch and pikeperch, to name just a few of the most important. Predatory fish can be caught with baits made of wood or plastic , for example . These baits are pulled through the water and imitate a swimming or injured fish. Another option is fishing with dead bait, either on the bottom or with the help of a float. A dead bait fish or an artificial bait (such as a wobbler) can also be actively pulled through the water. This is known as towing.
A steel leader is often used for predator fishing to prevent the line from biting through.

Bait for pike

Effect of the artificial bait on predatory fish

Every fish has a sense organ called the sideline . With this the fish registers pressure fluctuations in the water. For example, if an artificial predatory fish bait is pulled past a predatory fish, the fish will notice this. A staggering movement of the artificial bait imitates an injured fish, which a predator considers easy prey, whereupon the bite reflex is triggered. In addition to the cloudiness of the water, temperature and food availability, the color and size of the bait can also have a significant influence on the fish's biting behavior.

Spin fishing

Spin fishing, also known as spinning or blinking (from the English spin “to turn, whirl, spin”) is an active type of fishing that mainly uses artificial lures such as blinkers , wobblers , soft plastic baits (twisters and shads) or spinners . Vibrations and visual stimuli when pulling in the bait tempt predatory fish to bite. Spin fishing is practiced from a boat or from the shore . Getting the bait right is an art in itself, whether you're making short stops or just catching up quickly. With this method, one does not usually remain in one place for long, but rather searches the water for biting fish. However, once the fish has been found, it is often worthwhile to linger a little longer at this point.

Wobblers are fish imitations made of balsa wood or plastic, which are usually provided with a so-called diving scoop. This ensures that, on the one hand, the bait goes deep when hauling in, and on the other hand, it ensures that the bait moves and stabilizes it in the water. The first wobbler was developed in 1936 by the Finnish angler Lauri Rapala. Rapala is still one of the leading manufacturers of wobblers today.

  • Classic wobblers are made of balsa wood, are mostly floating and are usually caught evenly. They are also used for trolling. Some wobblers contain rattle balls that exert an additional stimulus on the target fish.
  • Crankbaits are usually slightly bulbous plastic wobblers that have metal balls inside. When the wobbler vibrates strongly, the balls generate noises that are intended to attract aggressive fish and entice them to bite.
  • Twitchbaits are somewhat slimmer wobblers that are caught evenly, but are also jerked slightly through the water with short strokes of the rod to imitate a sick prey fish. Some twitchbaits are balanced so that when you pause hauling in, they float in the water without sinking or floating. This type of Twitchbait is called a suspender. Often only this motionless floating of the bait in the water triggers the bite.
  • Swimbaits are wobblers without a diving shovel. They consist of several moving segments that run through the water in a natural-looking swimming movement due to the turbulence at the "head" of the swimbait.
  • Jerkbaits form a very large fringe group in the field of wobblers. They usually do not have a diving shovel and must be brought to life with movements of the rod. A stable reel is required to fish with jerkbaits, and multiplier reels are often more stable than stationary reels. The transmission of such a roller would be exposed to high wear due to the high loads on the roller transmission when using larger jerkbaits.

There are other differences in the running depth. A distinction is made between floating wobblers, sinking wobblers and the suspenders mentioned above.

  • Rubber wobblers are hybrids of wobblers and rubber fish. The head is mostly made of hard plastic; the rear part made of soft plastic or rubber. These baits are probably the most realistic replica of a live prey fish.

Tip fishing

Tip fishing is a fishing technique that usually uses a rod without a reel.

The line is mounted on the tip and should not be longer than the rod itself. The rod can have a length of 3 m to 16.5 m. This method is mainly used to catch whitefish .

In order to clearly recognize the bite of a fish, fine swimmers (also called floats ) are used as bite indicators. You can of course also use a rod with a reel. For example, if you want to catch a bait fish in order to use it to catch pikeperch, you can use the pikeperch rod and attach a pin assembly to the end of the line. You can use almost anything when spotting on white fish: small worms, one to three maggots, small corn kernels, bread flakes, etc.

Furthermore, fishing with a shortened line is another popular variant of pole fishing. The line is attached to the upper end of a 9 to 16 meter long rod, but only extends to the fourth or fifth part of the plug-in pole. The shorter line, usually 1 meter more than the bottom of the water, enables the bait to be guided more precisely, as you can fish from a distance of 9 to 13 meters directly under the tip of the rod. To catch the lines of the hooked fish, an elastic band is usually pulled into the upper two to three parts. This takes on the function of a buffer during the drill, similar to the brake when fishing with the stationary reel.

Hegen fishing

A hegene is a line (called a leader by anglers) from which up to five shorter, vertically offset lines run off at the side. Nymphs (bait in the form of fly larvae) or other small artificial baits are attached to these side arms . At the end of the Hegene there is a plumb line or another bait, for example a pirk, usually without a hook. So it is fished with several baits at the same time.

There are different ways to fish with the Hegene. In the most common method, the Hegene is slowly raised with the rod and then quickly lowered again. The movement is intended to attract the fish. With the float method, the Hegene is mounted under a float / float assembly, so the bait drifts at different heights in the water and increases the likelihood that a fish will bite.

When catching predatory fish that predate in the upper water (perch, asp), the Hegene is thrown over long distances with a slim pirk and quickly caught up shortly after hitting the water surface.

This type of fishing was probably developed in Switzerland, where there are numerous specialists in tying a catchy hedge. Whilst whitefish / vendace is outwitted with this method in the Alpine region, it is often used for perch in northern Germany. There, however, the number of baits allowed is often limited to two to three. In the dams of the Sauerland, the Hegene is successfully used in both ways.

Carp fishing

Carp fishing is the specialized catching of carp . The most commonly used bait is the so-called boilie , a boiled ball of dough that is available in different flavors or is homemade. There are both sinking and floating boilies, so-called pop-ups. The boilie is offered because of the so-called hair. There is a kind of thread directly on the hook, real hair was used in the past - hence the name. A hole is drilled through the boilie with a boilie needle through which the yarn is then threaded. The end is provided with a stopper. The hook is located outside of the bait and is sucked in by the fish and it hooks itself. Special carp hooks are used. These are available with and without barbs. The lead of the basic assembly is either permanently mounted - this is also referred to as a self-hooking method. There is also carp mounts where the lead is continuously mounted, with or without a stopper. Corn , tiger nuts , peanuts , dog food can also be raised on the hair of the carp assembly . In most cases, a whole or two boilies are fished by the hair. If you use a floating boilie and a sinking boilie you get a snow manure.

With this fishing method, the fishing rods are usually placed horizontally as possible on two rod holders or on a so-called rod pod . The rollers are open or the freewheel is activated. The bite is indicated by special electronic and analog bite indicators .

Another type of carp fishing is that with a feeder basket that can either be attached directly to the swivel or threaded onto the line as in the running float. A feed mixture is added to the feed basket. The feed softens in the water, spreads in the immediate vicinity of the bait and attracts the goby carp, which ideally picks up the bait with a hook. It is also possible to add maggots to the feeder. This increases the attractiveness of your feed. This type of sport fishing is also called feeder fishing .

Another good practice is to fish with swim bread . Carp like to search the water surface for food in sunny weather. To do this, the fishing line is greased so that it floats on the surface of the water . In addition to swimming bread, there are special artificial baits, such as insect replicas, which are used for surface fishing for carp. With polarizing glasses, the reflection on the water surface is reduced to a minimum so that the fish can be better recognized.

Marine fishing


In northern Europe, cod , coalfish (also called saithe) and mackerel are caught on the high seas . Near the coast are also seasonal herring , sea trout , flounder , eel , sprat and garfish to fish.

Fishing at sea is mostly done with a chartered cutter. The largest cutter fleet in Germany is located in Heiligenhafen on the Baltic Sea. The main target fish in the Baltic Sea is cod .

The cod are caught by the cutter either with artificial bait such as pirk and / or jigs. The use of natural baits such as waders and / or ringworms, then mostly on longer rods, is a technique that is often seen.

In pilk fishing, after the cutter has reached the target area, the bait is dropped by opening the reel. A few turns of the crank pull the bait across the bottom. By raising and lowering the rod, life is breathed into the bait. The staggering movements when the bait sinks tempt the fish to bite.

At the time of the annual rapeseed bloom (May / June) the garfish come to spawn near the coast. Then the fish can be wading fishing with a wide variety of bait techniques such as shredded meat or fish, wobblers and spoons, but also fly fishing.

In the summer months of July and August, mackerel can mainly be caught in the North Sea. Schools of fish are localized by targeting schools of seagulls or by using echo sounder systems that can determine fish or fish-rich subsoil and the nature of the subsoil. When fishing for mackerel, a paternoster system is usually used, on which 3 or more hooks are tied together. Otherwise, pilk movements are also used to guide the bait.

Night fishing

All fishing between sunset and sunrise is called night fishing. Headlamps, electronic bite indicators and electric or glow stick poses serve as aids . The classic eel bell is also often used. You can fish for all nocturnal fish species, but especially for eels , pikeperch , carp and catfish (catfish) and burbot . Often the size and quantity of fish caught by these species is larger at night.

Deep sea fishing for large fish species

Fishing for large species of fish (e.g. sharks , marlins , swordfish ) is differentiated from normal sea fishing as big game fishing. Fishing is often done according to the principle of trolling from seaworthy motor boats, mostly with local skippers and local assistants - which is essential because the fish caught can weigh 100 kilograms and be considerably heavier. The extent to which big game fishing has contributed to the declining population of fish species is controversial.

The so-called “ catch and release ”, in which the fish is caught, drilled to the boat, photographed and released again, is becoming increasingly popular among big game anglers . This type of fishing is also often seen as cruelty to animals , but at least protects the fish stocks.

Sometimes, however, markings are also attached to the fish for scientific purposes.

The use of the catch therefore depends on the motives of the angler and the region in which the fish is caught.

Areas include the Caribbean , Cape Verde and the Maldives . For some years now, the small island of Ascension in the Atlantic has also been one of the top spots. The problem is the journey, which is only possible with the RAF from Brize Norten Military Airport .


As trolling , trolling or trolling is called fishing with a fishing rod in a moving boat (motor or muscle operated), the nachgeschleppte bait device by the speed of the boat in motion. This is the preferred way to fish for predatory fish . In fresh water, pike , pikeperch , lake trout and large perch are mainly fished. Atlantic salmon , sea ​​trout and cod are caught in the Baltic Sea .

Match fishing

Match anglers are anglers who take part in organized fishing events in order to regulate or take stock. In doing so, only certain types of fish (mostly roach, bream and gustern) that are out of balance with other types of fish are targeted. These fish are properly killed on the water or transferred to water with few fish. One speaks here of targeted hedge fishing or hedge fishing. An international recommendation from the CIPS describes the requirements for the fishing tackle, fishing time and maximum usable feeding equipment and bait limits. The rod length is limited to 13 m for match fishing. The fishing time is usually 2-4 hours. The most common one here is fishing with a shortened line on the pole (specks). In connection with match fishing, terms such as competition fishing, cup fishing, all-round fishing or competition fishing are often mentioned. Competition fishing is prohibited in Germany. Since "catch and release" is not allowed in Germany, match anglers' events are increasingly being held outside of Germany. Approved fishing tackle here are the pole, match rod, spear and Bolognese rod. Since the float has to carry the lead according to CIPS requirements, fishing with the feeder rod is not allowed at these events.

Catch and release

In addition to the usual catching of the fish in order to eat them, there are also anglers who do not kill the caught fish, but take photos after weighing and measuring them and release them back into their element. This method is called " catch and release " or "catch and release", its followers are called specimen hunter . The procedure is controversial in the Federal Republic of Germany for reasons of animal welfare and is also prohibited in some federal states (e.g. Bavaria: AVFIG §9.9). In other EU countries, such as the Netherlands, when fishing for pike, you are generally obliged to return the caught fish to the water. This is not without danger for the fish, since fungi etc. can settle through the damage to the mucous membrane and can sometimes lead to the death of the fish.

Different fishing hooks

Special methods are used so that the animals do not injure themselves too much. For example, fish skin-friendly nets , unhooking mats and special hook assemblies (for example hooks without barbs, known as “soft hooks”) are used.

Ice fishing

Main article: Ice fishing

Ice fishing is winter fishing on frozen waters. For this purpose, a hole is drilled or sawed in the supporting ice with an ice drill or a chainsaw and then fished either with line or a short rod. In Germany, the hole must be clearly marked. In addition to natural baits, such as worms, bait fish or fish scraps, the Mormyshka and char spoon are often used for ice fishing . Fish are often landed with the gaff .

Prohibited fishing methods

There are some methods that are forbidden and aim to get a lot of fish with little effort. Sometimes these methods are not very selective or do not involve any actual fishing activity. This includes long cords laid across the water with hooks on them at regular intervals and which often remain in the water overnight in order to be caught the next morning. Here, any fish of different ages are caught, fish or eels that are often rooting in the bottom area. They are often already dead by the time they are caught. In countries where the population lives from fishing or where there is an abundance of fish, this method is often allowed. Other methods that are not suitable for fish hunting are dynamite fishing and cyanide fishing .

Casting fishing lines with dozens of leaders (Hegene) into a shoal of fish that has been fed (so-called “tearing”) is not considered appropriate for fishing, as this method aims to hook the fish from the outside. In addition, other methods are frowned upon or forbidden, e.g. B. fishing with a live bait fish (this is allowed in Luxembourg, Italy and France) or other live bait (frogs, mice, ducklings, etc.).

Fishing gear

In addition to suitable fishing accessories (see below), the most important requirements for a successful catch include weather-appropriate clothing and a lot of patience. Suitable fishing equipment for a fishing trip includes not only clothing, but also seating and accommodation, especially for night fishing. Today's angler 's clothing also protects the angler in the event of going overboard. The manufacture and certification of swimming suits, for example for deep sea fishing, is carried out in accordance with the new EU "ISO12402" (Type 50 N). In addition to the complete suits, there are wading jackets, waders, wading belts, wading boots as well as thermal jackets and thermal pants for anglers.

In order to bridge long waiting times, there are now various fishing stools, fishing chairs and armchairs as well as fishing loungers. Compared to camping chairs, these are closed on the side and back so that the angler does not get a nephritis or cold while waiting. In bad weather or night fishing, fishing tents or fishing umbrellas are an advantage. An optimal fishing tent is water-repellent and offers sufficient protection, especially against mosquitoes. Additional insulating covers are so-called overwraps, which are thrown over the fishing tent or angler's umbrella. There is also an impregnation spray and wax for further protection against moisture. Night fishing is widespread because a particularly large number of fish species feed on the surface of the water during the dark. In order to have bait , lead boxes and fishing line to hand, there are extra large and wide-ranging fishing bags. It is advisable to get suitable lighting for optimal lighting. In addition to water-repellent camping lamps, practical head torches and handy flashlights should also be part of the standard equipment. The head lamps are attached to the head with an adjustable rubber band. Today, numerous head lamps are equipped with different light levels.

For optimal and successful fishing on the river or in the sea, more and more belly boats , also called belly boats , have been used in recent years . Appropriate angler's clothing is particularly important for fishing with a belly boat so as not to overcool yourself in the water. Belly boats only need an air pump to be used. Belly boats are used very often today because of their handiness. Basically, a belly boat is just a swimming aid. The "driver" lies on the surface of the water and steers easily with his legs. To make steering easier, it is advisable to use fins. With a suitable anchor, the fisherman can stop at the right place and fish in peace. Because of the belly boat, it is possible to reach hard-to-reach places in a lake or river area without any problems and to be able to fish effectively.

Fishing accessories

The right fishing tackle favors or enables fishing success in the first place, although fish of considerable size can also be caught with simple means. Depending on the type of fish, individual baits and attractants are required . Because of the large number of baits, there are different storage options: fly boxes, small parts boxes, bait boxes, seat boxes, twister boxes and worm boxes. Numerous boxes can be used for different baits at the same time. There is a special differentiation in the storage of live (grasshoppers, worms, flies) and artificial (wobblers, rubber fish, vertebrae) bait.

Fly boxes are suitable for storing flies, dry flies and nymphs, for example for fly fishing . They are water-repellent and have floral foam inside. So the flies are protected from loss and moisture.

Small parts boxes are suitable for the safe storage of important accessories, tools and material as well as documents. Various hooks can be stored safely and securely in it.

Bait boxes are special boxes for storing a variety of artificial baits with different shimmers and uses. For example, barbels can be caught with the help of rubber fish. Wobblers have a different structure. They are particularly suitable for heavily fished waters to fish for predatory fish such as pike or zander as silently as possible. With the help of the bait boxes, the angler can keep his collection tidy. The easy sorting also makes it possible to always have the right bait at hand, depending on the depth and type of water, fish species and method.

Seat boxes, also called seat boxes, are storage boxes and seating options in one. They are stackable, water-repellent and offer plenty of storage space for fishing gear. They are mostly used as seats by pole fishermen, as they have a lot of things that they can easily stow away. However, a fishing chair offers more comfort. There are also loungers for night fishing.

Twister boxes are intended for the storage of Twister baits. These are small rubber fish with a flapping tail that mimic real fish. They are therefore longer and larger and need special storage. Twisters are suitable, for example, for giant cod. Fishing with a twister bait is particularly recommended for beginners.

Worm boxes are used for the safe storage of live worms and maggots. They are water-repellent, airtight and unbreakable and thus protect the contents.

A transmitter rod is used to accommodate the transmitters and receivers of echo sounders. The pole is attached to the side of a boat with the help of a clamp.

See also


The two Englishmen Izaac Walton and Charles Cotton are considered the “fathers” of anglers and fishing literature .

  • Hans Eiber: fishing knowledge at a glance. Data and facts for practice and testing . BLV Munich, 2011 ISBN 978-3-405-16178-1 .
  • Hans Eiber: fishing knots & leader assemblies . BLV Munich, 2010 ISBN 978-3-8354-0678-0 .
  • B. Gramsch, J. Beran, S. Hanik & RS Sommer: A Palaeolithic fishhook made of ivory and the earliest fishhook tradition in Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, 2013.
Literary anthology
  • Jon Day (Ed.): A twitch upon the thread: writers on fishing . London: Notting Hill Editions, 2019

Web links

Commons : Angling (fishing)  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Free fishing , information page of the Canton of St. Gallen, accessed on August 21, 2013
  2. Freiangelei ( Memento from September 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), information page of the hunting and fishing administration of the Canton of Thurgau, accessed on August 21, 2013.
  3. free fishing rights in the canton of Zurich , information side of the fishermen's association Canton Zurich, accessed on August 21, 2013.
  4. Fischereibetrieb ( Memento from May 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), information page of the Canton of Schwyz, accessed on August 21, 2013.
  5. Fishing in Finland
  6. purchase fishing permits online ( Memento from November 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  7. ^ Robert Arlinghaus: Fishing in Germany - a social and economic analysis (PDF) Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
  8. Angelpedia: Fishing pond in the vicinity - 2019. In: Angelpedia. October 9, 2019, accessed on December 27, 2019 (German).
  9. Fishing events with large fish
  10. ^ Archaeologists land world's oldest fish hook . nature . November 24, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
  11. ^ Sue O'Connor et al .: Pelagic Fishing at 42,000 Years Before the Present and the Maritime Skills of Modern Humans , Science 2011, Vol. 334, p. 1117
  12. ^ Adelaide Now: World's first anglers hooked in Timor , November 26, 2011
  13. Ice age hunters invented fishing - 12,300 year old fish hooks made of bone and ivory discovered in Brandenburg. Scinexx, March 8, 2013, accessed March 8, 2013 .
  14. Bernhard Gramsch, Jonas Beran, Susanne Hanik, Robert S. Sommer: A Palaeolithic fishhook made of ivory and the earliest fishhook tradition in Europe. In: Journal of Archaeological Science. Volume 40, No. 5, May 2013, pp. 2458-2463. ( ) doi: 10.1016 / j.jas.2013.01.010 .
  15. The term "feeder" comes from England and means that you fish with a feed basket. see. accessed February 18, 2016
  16. Angelle Lexicon; Barbed hooks Does barbed fishing have a hook?
  17. Angler Lexikon; Overwraps ( Memento from September 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  18. Fishing from the belly boat
  19. Angling for barbel with rubber fish ( Memento from July 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  20. The wobbler when fishing for pike
  21. Twister for pike