|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Olomoucký kraj|
|Area :||4879 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||13,495 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||050 32, 785 01|
|License plate :||M.|
|Mayor :||Stanislav Orság (as of 2012)|
|Address:||Horní náměstí 16
785 01 Šternberk 1
Neighboring towns are Hlásnice ( Wächtersdorf ) in the north, Horní Loděnice ( Deutsch Lodenitz ) and Hraničné Petrovice ( Petersdorf b. Giebau ) in the northeast, Město Libavá in the east, Bohuňovice ( Boniowitz ) in the south, Pňovice ( Kniebitz ) and Žerotín in the southwest, Babice in the southwest West and Uničov and Komárov ( Komarn ) in the north-west. To the northwest lies the 660 m high Vysoká Roudná mountain, north of the 706 m high Pomezy.
After the Bohemian nobleman and margravial truchess ( dapifer Moraviae ) Zdeslav von Divišov, who had built the Sternberg Castle on the Sazavá around 1241 and then used the Sternberg title , he was rewarded by the king in the defense of Olomouc against the Cumans Ottokar II. Přemysl 1253 with some lands north of Olomouc. Zdeslav von Sternberg, who was married to NN von Meißen , is considered to be the founder of the Moravian line of the Lords of Sternberg . The oldest written mention of the Moravian castle of Šternberk , which he built, was made in 1269 in a document defining the boundaries between the Sternberg manor and the Hradisko monastery . Since Zdeslav died in 1265, the transfer of the Sternberg lordship to his eldest son Albert was probably decisive for the measurement of the rulership boundaries. Albert was appointed Burgrave of Olomouc in 1286 and ten years later treasurer of the Olomouc District Court. He also campaigned for the colonization of his Moravian territories, presumably populating Sternberg with German colonists from Olomouc.
As a city ( in civitate Sternberch ) Sternberg was first mentioned in a document in 1296, although it did not yet have full city rights at that time. Due to its location at the intersection of two important road connections, one of which led to the royal city of Mährisch Neustadt and the other to Silesia via the Jeseníky Mountains , Sternberg was able to develop rapidly. With a will drawn up in 1371, the Litomist Bishop Albrecht von Sternberg founded the Augustinian monastery with the Church of the Annunciation in Sternberg , which over the next few centuries earned services for the cultural and religious development of the city. After the death of Bishop Albrecht, Sternberg inherited his brother Peter, who was the last owner from the Moravian line of Sternbergs and died in 1397. He was married to Anna, a daughter of the Troppauer Duke Nicholas II .
In 1397, Sternberg came with the castle and the rulership of the same name, which at that time consisted of the towns of Bärn and Hof and 29 villages, to Peter (II.) Von Krawarn and Straßnitz. During his reign, in 1409, Sternberg received the Olomouc town charter as well as the judicial and administrative sovereignty and the miles law . In 1415 Peter von Krawarn was one of the signatories of a letter of protest against the burning of Jan Hus . In 1430 Sternberg was conquered by the Hussites , for whom it served as a base. After Peter's death in 1434 he was followed by his brother Georg / Jiří, with whom this line of the Lords of Kravarn expired in 1466. Sternberg inherited his daughter Ludmilla, who was married to Albrecht Kostka von Postupice . After his death in 1477, she married Jan Berka von Dubá , who died in 1501. In 1538 a fire destroyed the city, the monastery and the castle, which was rebuilt in the Renaissance style under Jan Wenzel / Václav Berka von Dubá. After his daughter Katharina / Kateřina von Berka and Dubá married the Münsterberg Duke Karl II in Mährisch Trübau in 1570 , the town and rule of Sternberg passed to this family. Charles II was a great-grandson of the Bohemian King George of Podebrady and held the office of governor of Silesia. Since he was a follower of the evangelical doctrine, he endeavored to spread this doctrine of faith in his entire domain. In 1577 the Jews were banished from Sternberg, in 1591 Charles II issued a religious ordinance, and in 1592 the Brethren had to leave the city. In the same year the Trinity Church was built for the Protestants, and a short time later a Protestant school was opened, whose students also came from the Moravian Protestant nobility. The preference for Protestant teaching led to disputes between Duke Charles II and the Augustinian monastery and the Olomouc bishopric , whereby economic interests also played a role.
After the death of Duke Karl II. Sternberg inherited his sons Heinrich Wenzel and Karl Friedrich . In February 1620 they welcomed the newly elected Bohemian King Frederick V in Sternberg in 1619 , who was on his homage journey to Breslau . Although the dukes Heinrich Wenzel and Karl Friedrich were on the side of the rebels, they were not expropriated after the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. The friars they had expelled returned to the city and the damage caused to the monastery was repaid. In 1624 Sternberg was the seat of the imperial commissioner , in the same year the counter-Reformation measures began. The evangelical priests had to leave the country on the instructions of the Olomouc bishop Dietrichstein . The subsequent violent re-Catholicization , which also affected the non-Catholic nobility, led to a decline in the Czech population, which was offset by the increased immigration of Germans from Silesia. During the Thirty Years War, the city had to endure numerous army raids and looting, as well as paying contributions and protection money. In addition, a plague epidemic raged in 1633/34. In May 1633, the Spanish King Philip IV stayed in Sternberg accompanied by the Imperial General Wallenstein . Although the Thirty Years' War ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 , the Swedes did not leave the Sternberg they had occupied until 1650 after paying war compensation.
As early as 1647, after the death of Duke Karl Friedrich, with whom the Münsterberg line of the Lords of Podiebrad expired, the town and rule of Sternberg came to Silvius Nimrod von Württemberg-Oels . He came from the House of Württemberg and was married to Karl Friedrich's only daughter, Elisabeth Maria . Probably after the death of their son Silvius in 1697, Sternberg passed to Johann Adam Andreas von Liechtenstein , with whose descendants Sternberg Castle remained until it was expropriated in 1945. During the rule of the Liechtenstein family , there was an economic boom in Sternberg, which was initially based on home weaving. In 1790 the Norbert Langer factory weaving mill was established. In the field of education, the dissolution of the Augustinian monastery in 1784 as part of the Josephine reforms had a negative effect. On the other hand, Joseph II, in his capacity as King of Bohemia, supported the growing textile industry by granting the town of Sternberg privileges to hold annual and regular markets in 1782 and 1788. From 1787 the city administration was led by Franz Eberle, who wrote the first city history. In 1789, a flood that also killed numerous people caused severe damage. Before the Battle of Austerlitz , the Russian Tsar Alexander I and Emperor Franz I met in Sternberg on November 5, 1805. In 1806, a typhus epidemic claimed 2,400 victims.
In the first half of the 19th century there were 30 textile factories, bleaching plants and dye works in Sternberg, in which a large part of the population found work. After patrimonial was replaced in 1848, Sternberg was an independent municipality, which from 1850 was the seat of the district authority of the same name. There was a noticeable decline in linen and cotton production due to the loss of raw materials due to the American Civil War 1861–1865. In 1861 a workers' association was founded, which campaigned for better living conditions for workers. In 1870 Sternberg got a railway connection, in 1872 a technical school for weaving was opened and in the same year a state tobacco factory was founded. In 1905 the Ecce homo mountain race track was opened, which led from Sternberg to Freudenthal and which is still in operation today with interruptions.
After the First World War and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Sternberg belonged to the Sudetenland province from October 29, 1918 . The Czech-Slovakian state, which was proclaimed at the same time, set up its district administration in Štěpánov for the ten mostly Czech-inhabited villages Lašťany, Bohuňovice, Štarnov, Moravská Huzová, Štěpánov, Krnov, Liboš, Hnojice, Žerotín and Strukov. In 1919 the city was assigned to Czechoslovakia against the will of the German residents . As a result, on March 4, 1919, there was a large protest action by the German population. They occupied the city and district offices and fought with the Czechoslovak army , with victims on both sides. In 1930 the population was 12,760 (11,179 Germans and 1,346 Czechs). In 1935 a Czech secondary school was opened.
After the Munich Agreement in 1938, Sternberg was annexed to the German Reich and occupied by German troops. Subsequently it became the seat of the district of Sternberg , administrative district of Troppau , in the Reichsgau Sudetenland . After the Second World War, Šternberk was taken over by Czechoslovakia in 1945. The German population was expelled . In 1947 7,224 inhabitants were counted. After the dissolution of the Okres Šternberk, the city was added to the Okres Olomouc. During the democratization efforts in 1968 Šternberk was occupied by the Polish army, which was part of the Warsaw Pact .
|1930||12,608||of which 1,249 Czechs (in the municipal boundaries of 1939 12,760 inhabitants)|
|1939||12,141||thereof 314 Evangelicals, 11,262 Catholics, 31 other Christians and 18 Jews|
Šternberk consists of the following districts:
- Dalov ( jackdaw )
- Chabičov ( Gobit Show )
- Krakořice ( Krokersdorf )
- Šternberk ( Sternberg ) and
- Těšíkov ( Zeschdorf ).
Basic settlement units are Babí hora-Spálená, Bouda, Dalov, Dlouhá ulice, Dolní Žleb ( Niedergrund ), Horní Žleb ( Obergrund ), Chabičov, Krakořice, Lhota ( Allhütten ), Mlýnský příkop-Světlov, Náměstí Svobedody., Obedora , Tyršovy sady, U nádraží, U nemocnice, Uničovské Předměstí, Vinohradská, Za nemocnicí, Za vsí-Čepky and Zámecký kopec.
The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts Dalov, Chabičov, Krakořice, Lhota u Šternberka, Šternberk and Těšíkov.
- Šternberk Castle
- Augustinian monastery on the Obermarkt
- Marian column from 1719
- Hospital Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- Ecce homo hill climb track
sons and daughters of the town
- Joseph Altmann (1777–1831), Austrian officer
- Edmund Götz (1792–1862), Austrian Benedictine and politician
- Franz Xaver von Hlubek (1802–1880), Austrian agronomist and agricultural writer
- Adolf Bachrach (1853–1932), lawyer in Vienna
- Ernst Beutel (1877–1944), Professor of Commodity Science and Technology at the University of World Trade in Vienna
- Adolf Duda (1878–1940), Austrian politician
- Walter von Molo (1880–1958), German writer
- Rudolf Heeger (1883–1939), Social Democrat, member of the Czech Parliament from 1920 to 1938
- Ferdinand Kuschel (1899–1966), sculptor, painter, draftsman
- Vincy Schwarz (1902–1942), Czech publisher and translator of German origin
- Kurt Gröger (1905–1952), German painter
- Ernst Tittel (1910–1969), composer and professor at the University of Music in Vienna
- Erica Pedretti (* 1930), née Erika Schefter; Swiss writer, object artist and painter
- Jiří Kořalka (1931–2015), Czech historian
- Eckhart Schmidt (* 1938), German film director
- Hana Maciuchová (* 1945), Czech actress
- Robert Hock (* 1973), German ice hockey player
- Patrik Siegl (* 1976), Czech football player
- David Rozehnal (* 1980), Czech football player
- David Krejčí (* 1986), Czech ice hockey player in the NHL; Top scorer NHL play-offs 2011
- Ladislav Prášil (* 1990), Czech shot putter
- Joachim Bahlcke , Winfried Eberhard, Miloslav Polívka (eds.): Handbook of historical places . Volume: Bohemia and Moravia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 329). Kröner, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-520-32901-8 , p. 584 f.
- Sternberger Heimat-Post , newspaper in exile since 1952
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Carl Kořistka : The Margraviate of Moravia and the Duchy of Silesia in their geographical relationships . Vienna and Olmüz 1861, pp. 268–269 .
- Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 19, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, p. 1, left column.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Sternberg district. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).