A commissioner (from lat. Commissarius = "commissioner"), in the south of the German-speaking area also commissioner (from frz. Commissaire ), is someone who is commissioned by a client with a matter or task or by order to act on behalf of the official business . Different clients and orders create functions that are often assigned to the title. There are and were, for example, royal commissioners, district, district, civil, police, political , government commissioners and episcopal commissioners .
The term stands for lat .: Commissioners = "send", "commission" and is today's word in both senses Commission to understand: As a person in a body representative is, or provisional task perception acts as a commission agent . The term EU Commissioner (government member of the EU) should also be understood in this sense .
Provisional exercise of office
In politics , administration and economy and any organization (e.g. associations and church structures), responsibility can temporarily or temporarily be transferred to individual persons; for example, if a person in charge fails due to serious illness. One then speaks, for example, of a "provisional department head" or a "provisional district administrator". If necessary, this must also be indicated in business dealings (when signing with a service function) in order to underline that the person concerned is interim entrusted with the management of current business, but is not authorized to make long-term decisions.
- In the European Union , the members of the European Commission are also known colloquially as commissioners . The function is roughly comparable to that of a minister in a government .
- Police commissioner resp. Kriminalkommissar are official designations of the higher service in the police of the Federal Republic of Germany . They are assigned to the protection police or the criminal police . Numerous television series , such as “ Der Kommissar ”, have meant that in German usage the term Kommissar is understood to be a (leading) criminal investigator. The official titles of the German police in the higher service are in detail: Police / Criminal Commissioner, High Commissioner, Chief Commissioner and First Police / Chief Commissioner.
- In the German customs administration , a customs commissioner is the head of a customs commissioner's office .
- According to the Bavarian grammar school regulations, there is a “ministerial commissioner” and a “ministerial commissioner”, who can be appointed by the ministry of education as chairman of the Abitur examination commission in place of the school principal.
- In Austria, the notary, as a court commissioner, handles the majority of probate proceedings , but the judge makes the decisions.
- Commissioners are representatives of sports organizations in Switzerland and southern Germany.
- Commissioner was a police rank in the whole of Switzerland, but is now only used in the canton of Basel-Stadt . Friedrich Dürrenmatt attached great importance to the fact that commissioner Bärlach played a role in his book “ The Judge and His Executioner ” .
- In Switzerland, commissioner is the name given to a representative in a wide range of functions defined by cantonal law; the word also occurs in combinations such as government, civil, district, tax, viticulture, field, and bee commissioner .
- In the provinces of the Netherlands , the chairman of the cabinet ( Gedeputeerde Staten ) holds the title of Royal Commissioner (Commissaris van de Koning) . His rank corresponds roughly to that of a governor .
- In France, commissaires-priseurs are the people who, in addition to notaries , bailiffs and registered commodity brokers, are authorized to hold auctions . Your jobs are for sale.
- Commissaires de Police are called (senior) investigators of the criminal police in France.
- Commissioner is the rank corresponding to a consul held by diplomats from one Commonwealth country in another Commonwealth country. However, the offices of these commissioners are called consulates and not commissions - in contrast to the high commissions .
In the Austrian police - contrary to some television series - there is no rank of "commissioner". However, there are officials of the legally qualified service who carry the official designation of commissioner and chief commissioner . However, these are police lawyers whose range of tasks is only partially congruent with that of the commissioners in Germany. The duties of the commissioners are usually carried out by inspectors, but also by officers.
- In northern Germany, especially in the 18th century, a more frequently verifiable term, used in the sense of “agent”. A "Cammer-Commissair" is someone who, as a princely leaseholder or administrator, represented his interests in an estate, whether on his own or on the account of the owner, is not sufficiently secure. Such persons were later generally called bailiffs .
- The Archdiocese of Mainz was divided into commissariats until 1803, which were headed by an archbishop's commissar.
- In the army of the German Empire as well as in Switzerland there used to be a war commissioner or (Swiss) war commissioner who took care of the food and transport of the troops.
- In the Austrian army and navy , the commissar was like paymaster .
- In the former Soviet Union at the time of Lenin and Stalin , the term for government minister was used in the form of a people's commissar .
- Cf. on the political commissar in the Red Army (also political commissars): Political officer and Hitler's commissar order
- In the German Reich (1871-1945) the term Reichskommissar was used for representatives of Reich governments or Reich authorities. Reich commissioners were given powers for central state locations or large civil territories to take on complex administrative tasks.
- Hans Bickel , Christoph Landolt : Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-411-70418-7 , p. 52.
- Georg May : The organization of jurisdiction and administration in the Archdiocese of Mainz from the High Middle Ages to the end of the Reich Church , Volume 2: The Commissariats . Society for Middle Rhine Church History, Mainz 2004, ISBN 3-929135-44-2 .