|Region :||Southern Transdanubia|
|Small area until December 31, 2012 :||Pécs|
|District since 1.1.2013 :||Pécs|
|Coordinates :||46 ° 5 ' N , 18 ° 14' E|
|Area :||162.61 km²|
|Residents :||157,721 (Jan 1, 2011)|
|Population density :||970 inhabitants per km²|
|Telephone code :||(+36) 72|
|Postal code :||7601-7693|
|Structure and administration (as of 2019)|
|Community type :||city|
|Mayor :||Attila Péterffy (Mindenki Pécsért Egyesület)|
|Postal address :||Széchenyi tér 1
|(Source: A Magyar Köztársaság helységnévkönyve 2011. január 1st at Központi statisztikai hivatal )|
Pécs [ ˈpeːʧ ] ( German Fünfkirchen , Latin Quinque Ecclesiae, Slovak Päťkostolie , Croatian Pečuh, Serbian Pečuj ) is the fifth largest city in Hungary and the seat of Baranya County with 142,873 inhabitants (as of 2019) . It is located near the Croatian border.
The city is the seat of a bishopric and the seat of a university as well as the center of the Danube Swabians and home to nine ethnic minorities with their own self-governments.
Pécs is located at the foot of the Mecsek Mountains and the numerous architectural monuments give the place a Mediterranean atmosphere. On October 19, 2005, the city won the national qualification for the title "European Capital of Culture 2010" and organized the year under the motto Pécs2010 European Capital of Culture .
The University of Pécs offers the study of human medicine and dentistry in German and English, as well as an English-language study of pharmacy . An English-language course is also offered at the Faculty of musical and visual arts .
Pécs is one of the oldest cities in Hungary and was already a settlement in prehistoric times. At the time of Roman rule, the city founded at the beginning of the 2nd century under the name of Sopianae has been an important center of the province of Pannonia since the 3rd century . It was later called (Latin) Quinque Ecclesiae ("five churches"), from which its later German name Fünfkirchen is derived. The current name of the town appears for the first time in 1235 in a document as Pechut ("Pécs way"). In 1290 the city was named Peech in a document . The meaning of the name is not clear, there are several theories about it. Pécs interprets one of them as a derivation of the Slavic root for “five” (Czech pět, Slovak päť, Serbian / Croatian pet) .
In 1367, King Ludwig the Great founded the first Hungarian university, at the time one of the earliest universities in Central Europe. From 1543 to 1686 Pécs was under Ottoman rule. Many architectural monuments from this time have been well preserved and have now been renovated. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Pécs was a center of Hungarian unitarianism . At that time the All Saints Church was shared by Catholics, Reformed and Unitarians. In 1588 the church was the scene of the Fünfkirchen disputation between Reformed and Unitarians .
- Cathedral (11th century, rebuilt in the 19th century with paintings by the German painter Karl Christian Andreae )
- Episcopal Palace
- Episcopal library, established in the 18th century by Bishop György Klimo
- Barbakán (fortress tower)
- National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) by Adolf Lang and Antal Steinhardt (opened in 1895)
- Gazi Khassim mosque , converted into a Christian church
- Zsolnay fountain in the main square (Széchenyi-tér), a gem of Art Nouveau with the typical eosin glaze of local majolica
- Mosque of Pasha Jakowali Hassan , the best preserved Islamic building in Hungary. The prayer room serves as a museum and displays Turkish historical and art objects. Next to it is a 23 meter high minaret .
- Baba Idris burial chapel
- Bath of Pasha Memi (Törökfürdő; Turkish bath)
- Early Christian Necropolis from late Roman times with frescoed grave chambers ( World Heritage of UNESCO )
- Important museums such as the Csontváry Museum, the Vasarely Museum, the Zsolnay Museum, the Modern Hungarian Gallery and the Roman Lapidarium
- Numerous monuments, picturesque squares, courtyards and street cafes with a southern flair
- Botanical Garden of the University of Pécs (PTE)
- Post Palace
- Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology (FVM Szőlészeti és Borászati Kutatóintézete Pécs) with one of the largest collections in the world of wine and table grapes (almost 1,200 varieties)
- TV tower on Mount Misina
- Church on Mount Havihegy (Schneeberg)
- Ruins on the Tettye
- Synagogue , built in 1869
- The Pécs Árkád is the largest shopping center in Pécs. The center built by ECE Projektmanagement was opened in March 2004 and houses 130 international and regional shops on 35,000 square meters of retail space .
- Guinness Book of Records . Because of the location in the middle of a residential area, blasting was not an option, so it was removed from top to bottom in 2016.
- The 2006 Brick Award architecture prize went to the Hungarian architects Ferenc Cságoly and Ferenc Keller for a residential and office complex integrated into the historical surroundings of Pécs.
Economy and Transport
Pécs is the center of an industrial region ( coal , uranium , leather , ceramics , beer and cigarettes as well as electronics ). The uranium mining, which was discontinued in 1997 , was examined for its profitability from 2006 with a concession for Wildhorse Energy Limited (WHE, based in Perth , Australia). According to a feasibility study, the test wells in a region between the holiday resort Abaliget northwest of Pécs and the Mecsek Mountains near the center of Pécs, which make a fertile uranium deposit probable, in connection with the world market price for uranium, which has risen sharply in recent years, allow uranium ore mining to resume appear lucrative. On June 27, 2012, the Hungarian government gave its formal commitment for a joint venture between two Hungarian energy companies and WHE with the aim of mining the ore deposits.
Since March 31, 2010, Pécs has been completely accessible from Budapest via the M6 and M60 . The way to Budapest by motorway is about 220 km. It is about 110 km to Lake Balaton and about 35 km to the Croatian border.
In addition, Pécs is a railway junction with its main train station (Főpályaudvar) . There are two-hour intercity connections to Budapest.
Since December 2003, Pécs has had an airport in the southern suburb of Pogány with landing rights for aircraft weighing up to 40 tons. It is a purely private airport for small aircraft without scheduled services.
The following graph shows the development of the Pécs population since 1850.
A smaller part of the German emigrants, who lived in about twenty villages in the area around Fulda in their home country , came to Hungary at the end of the 18th century. They call themselves "Stiffolder", which means Stiftsfuldaer, as their ancestors came from the Fulda monastery . There are two German-speaking kindergartens and two grammar schools in the city where German is taught as a nationality subject.
In the cultural life of the Hungarian Germans, Pécs is considered the most important city in Hungary. More than half of the German-speaking population in Hungary live in the vicinity of the city. The Nikolaus Lenau Foundation in Pécs is one of the most important German cultural institutions in Baranya County.
Pecs is so far the only Roma - school Hungary, the Gandhi School , which in 1994 took up the teaching.
Around 3,500 Jews lived in Pécs in 1944. After the German occupation of Hungary, these were ghettoized by the Hungarian authorities and deported to Auschwitz concentration camp in early July 1944 .
- The PÉCSI MFC is a gambling in the third Hungarian National League soccer club.
- The women's basketball team MiZo Pécs 2010 was Hungarian champions, cup winners and third in the Euroleague in 2001 and 2004.
- From 19th to 25th March 2016 the Easter seminar of YEN ( Youth of European Ethnic Groups ) took place in Pécs, and the GJU (Community of Young Hungarian Germans) helped with the realization.
- In 2013 the GJU (Community of Young Hungarian Germans) and the YEN ( Youth of European Ethnic Groups ) organized the YEN autumn seminar in Pécs and the surrounding area
- In 2010 the GJU (Community of Young Hungarian Germans) and the YEN ( Youth of European Ethnic Groups ) organized the Voices of Europe in Pécs.
- From April 8th to 14th, 2006, the YEN ( Youth of European Ethnic Groups ) Easter seminar took place in the city , which dealt with the peaceful coexistence of ethnic groups.
- On April 11, 2006, the city was voted European Capital of Culture 2010 by a seven-person EU jury and was confirmed on November 15, 2006 by the Council of Ministers of Culture of the then 25 EU countries.
- The Pécs State Theater Meeting (Pécsi Országos Színházi Találkozó, POSZT) , one of the biggest events in Hungarian theater life, takes place every year.
- Rockmaraton fesztivál (music festival)
- ICWiP (International Cultural Week in Pécs)
- European Convival Winesong Festival
- International Evening
sons and daughters of the town
- József Angster (1834–1918), instrument maker, especially organ builder
- Marcel Breuer (1902–1981), architect and designer
- Pál Dárdai (* 1976), soccer player and coach at Hertha BSC
- András Dienes (* 1974), soccer player and junior national player
- Ferdinand Dorsch (1875–1938), painter and graphic artist
- Adolph Engel de Jánosi (1820–1903), Hungarian industrialist
- Josef Engel de Jánosi (1851–1939), royal Hungarian councilor, writer and patron
- Wladimir Giesl Freiherr von Gieslingen (1860–1936), Austrian diplomat and Lieutenant Field Marshal
- Leopold Fejér (1880–1959), Hungarian mathematician
- Fred Forbát (1897–1972), architect, town planner and painter
- Zoltán Gera (* 1979), soccer player at Fulham FC
- Imre Gyöngyössy (1930–1994), director and screenwriter
- Josef Maria Horváth (1931–2019), composer, pianist, professor at the Mozarteum in Salzburg
- Péter Horváth (* 1972), chess grandmaster
- Katinka Hosszú (* 1989), swimmer
- Zsuzsanna Jakabos (* 1989), swimmer
- Miklós Maros (* 1943), composer
- Ibolya Mehlmann (* 1981) handball player with Aalborg DH
- Farkas Molnár (1897–1945), architect (Bauhaus)
- Simon Péchi (1575–1642), Transylvanian Chancellor and leading Sabbatarian
- Ibrâhîm Peçevî (1572 – around 1649), historiographer
- Anton von Rosas (1791–1855), Austrian ophthalmologist
- Elisabeth Ruttkay (1926–2009), Austrian archaeologist
- Johann Schweiger , master locksmith, inventor of the pass-through key in Berlin
- László Sólyom (* 1942), Hungarian politician, President of Hungary
- Norbert Spannenberger (* 1969), German-Hungarian historian
- Bernadett Szél (* 1977), economist and politician
- Sándor Szombati (1951–2006), musician and artist, sound sculptures and kinetic objects.
- Béla Tarr (* 1955), Hungarian film director
- Olga Tass (1929–2020), artistic gymnast
- Attila Tököli (* 1976), Hungarian football player
- Emerich Ullmann (1861–1937), Austrian surgeon, first kidney transplant (on dogs)
- Victor Vasarely (1906–1997), French painter and printmaker
- Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900), Hungarian ceramic artist and industrialist
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Pécs
Source: WMO ; wetterkontor.de
- Wilhelm Droste , Éva Zádor: Pécs: a travel and reading book . Verlag Arco, Wuppertal 2010, ISBN 978-3-938375-35-8
- Konrad Gündisch, Harald Roth: Fünfkirchen / Pécs. History of a European Capital of Culture . Verlag Böhlau, 2010, ISBN 978-3-205-78438-8
- Pécs , in: Guy Miron (Ed.): The Yad Vashem encyclopedia of the ghettos during the Holocaust . Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2009 ISBN 978-965-308-345-5 , pp. 579f.
- Official website of the city of Pécs (Hungarian, English, German)
- Pécs - European Capital of Culture 2010 (Hungarian, English, German, Croatian)
- Pécs in A Pallas nagy lexikona (Hungarian)
- On the history of the cathedral
- Aerial photos of Pécs
- Historical illustration by Lukas Schnitzer from 1665 ( digitized version )
- ↑ Helyi önkormányzati választások 2019 - Pécs (Baranya megye). Nemzeti Választási Iroda, accessed December 25, 2019 (Hungarian).
- ^ University of Pécs Medical Faculty - Főoldal. Retrieved May 30, 2020 .
- ↑ PTE ÁOK: pharmacy. Retrieved May 30, 2020 .
- ↑ Harald Roth and Konrad Gündisch: Fünfkirchen / Pécs - History of a European Capital of Culture . Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2010, p. 54 .
- ↑ Tourist information Pécs: All Saints Church
- ^ The restoration of the Sopianae cemetery, Metropolis contribution in Arte TV ( Memento from January 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Wildhorse Energy Signs Cooperation Agreement With Mecsek-Öko And MECSEKÉRC For Developing Mecsek Hills Uranium Project In Hungary. NS Energy, October 12, 2009
- ↑ See http://www.miningweekly.com/article/pfs-confirms-mecsek-hills-profitability-2012-03-28 , visited on July 2, 2012
- ^ Joint venture to rebuild the Uranerz Mine , accessed July 2, 2012
- ↑ Pécs Airport
- ↑ Archived copy ( Memento from December 6, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Building - The Lenau House. on pecs.hu, archived from the original on January 3, 2014 ; accessed on February 14, 2018 .