World Meteorological Organization
|World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
|Organization type||Specialized agency|
|Abbreviation||WMO, OMM, ВМО ( BMO )|
Gerhard Adrian Germany General Secretary Petteri Taalas Finland
|Founded||March 23, 1950|
|Upper organization||United Nations|
The World Meteorological Organization ( English World Meteorological Organization , shortly WMO , Spanish and French acronym OMM , commonly known from World Meteorological Authority or World Meteorological Organization ) is a specialized agency of the United Nations . The WMO has 193 members in the form of states and territories. The seat is in Geneva , Switzerland .
For 2016, the organization had revenues of $ 80 million and expenses of $ 98 million. The WMO is financed from the voluntary contributions of the member countries and private donations.
The WMO is supposed to
- Support worldwide cooperation in the establishment of networks of weather stations for meteorological, hydrological and other geophysical observations that are meteorologically relevant, and promote the establishment and maintenance of centers that provide meteorological and related services;
- Promote the establishment and maintenance of systems for the rapid exchange of meteorological data and related information;
- Promote the standardization of meteorological and related observations and ensure consistent publication of observations and statistics;
- promote the application of meteorology in aviation , shipping , water issues, agriculture and other anthropogenic activities;
- promote activities in the field of operational hydrology and promote close cooperation between meteorological and hydrological services;
- Strengthen research and training in meteorology and, if necessary, in related areas and help coordinate the international aspects of such research and training projects;
their "vision" is to provide global expertise and international cooperation in the areas of weather , climate , hydrology & water resources and related environmental areas to contribute to the safety and well-being of people around the world and the economic benefit of all nations.
The WMO was founded in 1950 from 1873 the International Meteorological Organization ( English International Meteorological Organization , IMO) out. Its founding convention came into force on March 23, 1950. In 1979 the WMO hosted the first World Climate Conference in Geneva (February 12-23). This led to the adoption of the World Climate Program (WCP) in May of the same year.
In 1991 the Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay is used.
Since 2005, the climate conference has been supplemented by the meeting of the members of the Kyoto Protocol (the only binding instrument of climate protection policy under international law ) ( Meeting of the Parties to the Protocol , MOP ).
Ever since there has been increasing evidence that global warming (the increase in the average temperature of the near-Earth atmosphere and oceans observed since the 20th century) is anthropogenic and the consequences of global warming have been scientifically investigated, efforts have been made to address this through climate policy measures (for example the 2 degree goal ) to slow down.
In 2007, the IPCC , which was set up jointly by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the WMO, and often referred to as the “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”, received the Nobel Peace Prize for its research work together with Al Gore .
The management level of the WMO is the Executive Council under the leadership of the President (since 2019 Gerhard Adrian ) and Vice President, the body as the General Assembly of the World Meteorological Congress. The administrative management department is the Secretariat under the direction of the Secretary General. The current incumbent, Petteri Taalas , was re-elected for a second four-year term in 2019. Jelena Manajenkowa is the deputy general secretary .
The members are 187 states and 6 territories (as of 2019), which are represented by their national or regional weather services . The organization comprises six regional associations , they form the regional assemblies of the members: Africa; Asia; South America; North America, Central America and the Caribbean; South-West Pacific; Europe (with the Middle East and Greenland) - these also form the usual meteorological regions (the seventh is Antarctica).
The most important departments are the eight technical commissions:
- Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology - CAeM
- Commission for Agricultural Meteorology - CAgM
- Commission for Atmospheric Sciences - CAS
- Commission for Basic Systems - CBS
- Commission for Climatology - CCl
- Commission for Hydrology - CHy
- Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation - CIMO
- Joint WMO- IOC Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology - JCOMM
Their general assembly is the Meeting of Presidents of technical commissions .
The work of the WMO is divided into several scientific and technical programs of varying numbers, each consisting of sub-programs. The most important program is the World Weather Watch Program (WWWP), the world to more than 10,000 weather stations accesses and standards developed for the measurement, the exchange and processing of meteorological data.
The WMO member countries send authorized experts to the Commission for Infrastructure ( Commission for Basic Systems ), who coordinate technical changes (data structuring, data transfer protocols, abbreviation keys) that have become necessary every two years. After appropriate agreement, these new features will be made generally accessible in WMO manuals 306 and 386. The permanent representative at the WMO are: from Germany, the respective President of the German Weather Service , of Austria, the head of agency of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics and Switzerland, the Director of the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology .
Since 1956 the WMO or its predecessor organization IMO has been awarding the International Meteorological Organization Prize for outstanding achievements in the field of meteorology.
To promote young researchers in the field of meteorology, the WMO Research Award for Young Scientists has been presented since 1967 .
The Professor Vilho Väisälä Award is given for outstanding research work, particularly in connection with observation methods and measuring instruments. The prize was first awarded in 1985. In 2004, the Executive Council of WMO decided to offer a second Professor Vilho Väisälä Award. This is awarded for work with meteorological equipment in developing and emerging countries.
From 1987 to 2014 the WMO presented the Norbert Gerbier-MUMM International Award . It was awarded for an original scientific paper on the influence of meteorology in a particular area of the natural or human sciences or the influence of one of these sciences on meteorology.
- Frömming, Detlev (1985): The World Organization for Meteorology. Geosciences in our time; 3, 2; 58-63; doi : 10.2312 / geosciences . 1985.3.58 .
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- No new cyclone, but severe thunderstorm star
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- WMO, Members: Members (English)
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- Expenditure by Agency | United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination. Retrieved November 22, 2018 .
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- https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/2007/press-release/ accessed on June 21, 2019
- Structure of the Organization. ( Memento from June 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) wmo.int
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