Climate policy

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Climate policies are political avoidance strategies with which global warming is to be contained through concrete measures and an adaptation to the consequences of global warming is to be achieved. Climate policy is part of environmental policy , but it can only be successful if it is pursued with global strategies. Its success depends on the willingness of the individual states to cooperate internationally as well as on national and local action.

The aim of climate protection is to reduce or stop the speed and effects of global warming. The main means to achieve this is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases , which are responsible for climate change. Important measures for this are the expansion of renewable energies , the increase in energy efficiency and energy saving , the pricing of greenhouse gas emissions through emissions trading or taxation , the core elements of the energy transition and other political measures.


Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1999)

In 1969, US President Richard Nixon began the first initiatives to coordinate environmental policy measures on an international level. The idea was to do this as part of a third civil pillar of NATO . In addition to technical capacities in the field of meteorology and atmospheric physics, the defense alliance already had experience in the field of international research coordination and was supposed to guarantee direct access at government level. In 1969, Nixon's representative Daniel Patrick Moynihan brought, in addition to acid rain with the (then translation) greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climatic influences on the international political agenda for the first time. The initiative was initially received with interest by Chancellor Kiesinger and intensive preparatory work began at the administrative level, but shortly afterwards the Federal Government rejected it and thus put it on hold; France, too, which had left military integration in NATO shortly before, was rather skeptical about dealing with civil issues in the alliance.

In addition, the global environmental problems were dealt with in the civil sector. Corresponding institutions first had to be established. Initial German government considerations on climate change saw measures and research projects only possible in an international context.

The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm dealt with the greenhouse effect. According to Kai Hünemörder, the delegation of the federal government , led by Erhard Eppler , represented significantly more progressive positions on the international stage than at home. Further milestones were the North-South Commission , which was institutionally anchored by Olof Palme and Willy Brandt in 1979 , the Brundtland Report published in 1987 and the speech by British Prime Minister Thatcher on November 8, 1989 at the UN General Assembly under the title "CO2 and man-made." Climate Change "with a view to a resolution for a conference in 1992. At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development , which met in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted.

Al Gore (2006)

For his activities to raise awareness of climate change and its causes , former US Vice President and Democratic presidential candidate in 2000, Al Gore , who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007, sees the transition to a “clean energy” economy through the economic and political representatives of coal and Although the internal combustion engine industry has been made more difficult, it considers this process unstoppable: “We are in the early stages of a sustainability revolution. It is as far-reaching as the industrial revolution , as fast as the digital revolution . And it is also based on new digital technologies such as the Internet of Things , artificial intelligence and lesser known advances. "

According to the US writer Nathaniel Rich's opinion expressed in 2019, the most important efforts in the years up to 1989 failed.

Worldwide measures

In 1992, after long negotiations in Rio de Janeiro, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, known internationally under the acronym UNFCCC, was signed. It is called a framework convention because it essentially only stipulates a general understanding of the objectives of climate protection, including the core objective,

“… To stabilize the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level at which a dangerous anthropogenic disturbance of the climate system is prevented. Such a level should be reached within a period of time sufficient for ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, for food production not to be threatened and for economic development to continue in a sustainable manner. "

- Framework Convention on Climate Change, Article 2

The development of a set of instruments to achieve the goals is left to further negotiations, the so-called UN Climate Conferences ( Conference of the Parties , COP for short ).

A major milestone in these negotiations was reached five years later in the form of the Kyoto Protocol. One of the measures that made the agreements of the Kyoto Protocol a reality was emissions trading , which gave states and companies around the world the opportunity to benefit from their own investments in climate protection.

One of the biggest problems of climate policy is - besides the refusal of the USA - the demand of many developing countries not to be hindered in their industrial development by climate protection obligations. There is a conflict of objectives with development policy that cannot be completely resolved. However, development policy is increasingly taking into account the demands of climate protection by concentrating on the transfer of modern, “clean” technology that is adapted to the needs of developing countries as far as possible.

The 4th UN Climate Report (2007) showed that global greenhouse gas emissions should have been stabilized by 2015 at the latest in order to avert the worst consequences of climate change. From this point on, greenhouse gas emissions should not have increased any further.

At the climate conference in Bali in December 2007, 186 countries (including the USA, the People's Republic of China and India) agreed to negotiate a new climate protection agreement by 2009 and ratify it by 2012. This agreement was supposed to be the Kyoto Protocol that had not been ratified by 21 countries the first commitment period ended in 2012. Scientifically justified demands were only included as a footnote, according to which the industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions by 25 to 40 percent below the 1990 level by 2020. The "Bali Roadmap" states u. a. that all industrialized countries have to reduce their emissions “quantitatively and in a comparable manner”, and that the so-called developing countries, with the support of the industrialized countries, have to make “measurable and verifiable” contributions to global emissions reduction. The 2009 Copenhagen Climate Conference failed, however, without a contract being concluded as planned. Such a Kyoto successor agreement should only be adopted with a considerable delay at the UN climate summit in Paris in 2015.

In 2010 in Doha, the world of states agreed to limit global warming to below 2 degrees. With this 2-degree target , it was specified what the participating countries see as a “dangerous anthropogenic disturbance”. According to a study by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), effective climate protection by reducing greenhouse gas emissions worldwide is affordable and makes economic sense. In order to meet the 2-degree target, the costs for climate protection are calculated to be one percent of the global national product . According to the IPCC, the accelerated development of renewable energies , the effective increase in energy efficiency and the capture and storage of CO 2 are of decisive importance .

At the G7 summit at Schloss Elmau in 2015 , the industrialized nations decided to phase out fossil fuels entirely by the end of the century. At the same time, there were signs of a trend reversal in core parameters of international climate policy with regard to global CO 2 emissions, renewable energies and the use of coal : The energy-related CO 2 emissions stagnated for the first time in 2014 despite strong global economic growth, the costs of renewable energies fell more significantly than expected, Renewable energies were expanded faster than forecast, and the expansion of coal-fired power plants lost momentum.

At the 2015 World Summit for Sustainable Development , the 193 current member states of the UN unanimously adopted 17 global goals for sustainable development (SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals, or “Agenda 2030” for short) in New York . Goal number 13 includes immediate measures to combat climate change and its effects. Based on these development goals, local authorities derive local sustainability strategies. In Germany, the development and implementation of communal sustainability strategies under the heading "Global Sustainable Commune" is supported by the Service Point Communes in One World .

At the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris in December 2015 , the countries participating in the Framework Convention on Climate Change reached agreement on a new climate agreement that came into force in 2016. In the agreement, the contracting parties set themselves the goal of keeping the increase in the global average temperature (calculated from industrialization) "well below + 2 degrees" Celsius. Efforts should also be made to limit the increase to + 1.5 degrees Celsius if possible. In addition, the contracting parties have adopted so-called "Intended Nationally Determined Contributions" (INDC), which indicate how much the respective state / group of states would like to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 2025/2030 (industrialized countries) or limit their increase (emerging and developing countries) in order to make a national contribution to the achievement of the above to achieve global temperature targets. However, compliance with the INDC is not subject to sanctions; H. a state that does not comply with its INDC can expect at most a loss of international reputation (this has not prevented countries such as Canada in the past from later ignoring and accepting its reduction "commitments" made in the Kyoto Protocol violate). Even if all states / groups of states actually dutifully adhered to their current INDC, significantly more greenhouse gas emissions would be emitted than is compatible with the temperature targets specified in the Paris Treaty: if all current INDCs are implemented, there is a 50% probability that the global temperature rise will be more than + 2.7 degrees Celsius (this is the result of the calculations by the Climate Action Tracker; MIT even comes to a value of 3.7 degrees Celsius). So far there has been a clear disproportion between the official goals of the Paris Climate Agreement and its main instrument for achieving them, the states' INDC (at least in their current form). The treaty therefore also stipulates that from 2020 onwards the states should regularly submit new, more ambitious INDCs every 5 years. However, the remaining time to meet the targets is very short: if one wants to meet the 1.5 degree target with 66% probability, the current annual global CO 2 emissions should only be emitted for about 5 years (and then none at all more); with the 2 degree target it is approx. 21 years (with 66% probability). In any case, these data apply if insufficiently researched, possibly very dangerous technologies for so-called “negative emissions” (techniques with which CO 2 are removed from the air ) are not used and their actual effectiveness is uncertain .

According to the Allianz Climate & Energy Monitor 2016 , the G20 countries run the risk of missing the climate targets agreed at the UN climate conference in Paris in 2015. This is due to the growing gap between current investments in renewable energies and future needs. The G20 countries will need investments of around 710 billion US dollars annually until 2035 in order to meet the climate targets. The most attractive countries for investors are Germany, Great Britain, France and China.

Africa's contribution to global warming and climate change

Numerous scientific studies show that Africa, with its low CO 2 emissions, has contributed the least to global warming and climate change as a region, but is most affected by them. Despite the 45% increase in CO 2 emissions between 1990 and 2004, the 48 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and thus 11% of the world's population still account for only 2% of global CO 2 emissions. In addition, the African continent has not contributed anything to the historical accumulation of greenhouse gases due to its low industrial development. Poverty has probably brought about the greatest limitation in emissions here. While the technical emissions from fossil energy and transport sources are extremely marginal and come from only 15 countries, larger CO 2 emissions come from deforestation and deforestation. After all, there are large rainforests in Africa like the forests in the coastal areas of West Africa and in Central Africa. The second largest rainforest area in the world in the Congo Basin would shrink by 40% if clearing continued at the same height by 2050. Overall, Africa's forests, which make up 21% of the total area, are currently shrinking by 0.62% per year, according to the FAO, combined with the reduction of important CO 2 storage capacities. Continued deforestation, economic development and catching up industrialization will increase emissions in Africa. In particular, the population development will be a significant factor for the increased emissions in Africa. The United Nations Population Program (UNPP) assumes in its projections for the year 2050 that the population of Africa will double or even triple to 2 or 3 billion people. While it is expected that the emissions of the industrialized countries will stagnate at a high level or will decline somewhat, in the future the additional emissions will come from developing countries and especially from Africa.

Regarding the current effects of climate change, there are large regional differences. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change soberly states that regions that are already economically weak are most at risk from climate change and are at the same time most susceptible to climate-related damage and thus exposed to multiple stress. Africa is highlighted as particularly at risk due to the numerous and diverse effects of climate change and the low adaptive capacities to it. The African Development Bank puts the current cost of climate change at 3% of the continent's annual economic output. This does not include the necessary and expected costs for adaptation measures. With regard to future impacts of climate change on Africa and future threats, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for Africa points to a lack of information on rainfall, droughts and the frequency of tropical cyclones. Africa's “information gap” is related to the fact that it has only one eighth of the meteorological stations per square kilometer recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Against this background, the special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Water (2008) states on the basis of several precipitation forecasts that there are very different and sometimes contradicting forecasts for Africa, based on the numerous and different factors, indicators and criteria that the the respective projections. Statements on future effects are therefore substantially uncertain. This scientifically founded objection can presumably - cum grano salis - also be carried over to other areas, but should not be misunderstood as an attempt to downplay the possible effects of climate change in Africa as a whole, but should - for the time being - partly hypothetical and highly complex Expressing character. Nonetheless, there is a certain trend in the scientific literature with relatively reliable forecasts for the areas and regions in Africa that will be affected by the effects of climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlights the following areas for Africa in a special report on the future effects of climate change: water, energy, health, agriculture, ecosystems, coastal areas, tourism, settlements, industry and infrastructure.


European Union

→ Main article: European Union climate policy

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The 2-degree target was capped by the heads of state and government of major economies at the G8 summit in L'Aquila in 2009 .

In addition to its member states, the European Union has joined the Framework Convention on Climate Change as a regional economic organization and has ratified the Paris Agreement. The climate policy of the European Union explicitly focuses on the so-called two-degree target and tries to make a contribution to ensuring that the global average temperature does not rise above 2 degrees Celsius.

According to the current legal situation, the total emission of greenhouse gases in the EU is to be reduced by 20% by 2020 compared to the base year 1990. The EU has also committed itself to this reduction target at UN level, within the framework of the Kyoto II Agreement.

The “climate package” passed in December 2008 provides for measures to intensify EU emissions trading . From 2013 onwards, a common CO 2 budget will apply to all member states. While the (Western European) energy industry will have to bid for 100% of the CO 2 certificates from 2013 onwards, refineries, the chemical industry and airlines will still receive certificates, some of them free of charge, until 2020. For sectors that are not covered by EU emissions trading, differentiated national reduction obligations apply in accordance with the burden-sharing decision of 2009.

The Covenant of Mayors was also founded on the initiative of the European Commission . The municipalities united in the convention have set themselves the goal of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20% in their own area of ​​responsibility.

The European Commission is aiming for the EU to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 2020 more than previously planned: Because greenhouse gas emissions have fallen significantly during the economic crisis (e.g. by 14% in 2009 compared to 2008), the Commission is aiming tougher emissions targets. That is what a communication to the European Parliament and the Member States says. The paper advocates raising the reduction target to 30 percent; it is "technically feasible and economically desirable."

To date, the formula “20-20-20” has been used in European climate policy. Three goals are to be achieved by 2020:

  • greenhouse gas emissions are expected to decrease by 20 percent compared to the reference year 1990. In the event that a binding international climate agreement is concluded that includes all major emitters in both industrialized and emerging countries, the EU offers an even higher reduction of 30%.
  • the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should increase to at least 20%.
  • Primary energy consumption is to decrease by 20% compared to the level forecast for 2020 by increasing energy efficiency.

The European Union agreed on binding climate targets up to 2030 on October 24, 2014: The share of renewable energies in the energy mix (electricity, heating, transport) in the EU should be “at least 27 percent” in 2030; an increase in energy efficiency by at least 27 percent is also planned. The EU is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 percent compared to 1990 levels by 2030.

Shipping is a particular topic, after greenhouse gas emissions from shipping in the EU increased by 48 percent between 1990 and 2008 and, for example, accounted for around 13 percent of total emissions from transport in the EU in 2015. It is about recording the travel time and the distance covered, or information about the amount of freight transported. This applies in particular to the shortening of senselessly long transport routes, as well as the considerable reduction in travel speed to avoid unnecessary CO 2 pollution. For example, for environmental protection and CO 2 avoidance reasons, an important future European issue is the steadily increasing container traffic on the maritime Silk Road, which comes from Asia to Europe via the Suez Canal . The container ships are currently taking the considerable detour via the Strait of Gibraltar to the northern ports to be unloaded there. Unloading ships onto trains in Mediterranean ports such as Trieste, Genoa or Venice is considerably more environmentally friendly and sustainable.

In October 2019, it was announced that the five largest oil and gas companies ( BP , Shell , Chevron , ExxonMobil and Total ) had spent a total of at least $ 251 million on lobbying in the EU Parliament between 2010 and 2018. About half of these payments were made for direct lobbying by these companies and lobbying actions by industrial organizations or associations they funded. Lobbying activities in national parliaments and institutions are not taken into account here, and according to the authors of the study commissioned by NGOs, the figure only represents the "tip of the iceberg", as some companies would not have provided any voluntary information about their lobbying activities in individual years. A total of 200 lobbyists are active in Brussels for this purpose, who held 327 meetings with high-ranking EU politicians between 2014 and 2018; more than one meeting per week on average. According to environmental organizations, the aim of these activities is to postpone, soften or combat climate protection .

On 11 December 2019 with the European Green Deal ( European Green Deal ) by the European Commission , Ursula von der Leyen , a concept introduced with the goal of 2050 in the European Union, the net emissions of greenhouse gases to reduce to zero. Europe should be the first continent to become climate neutral .


The articles Climate Policy # Germany and Climate Protection # Germany thematically overlap. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. - Hannover86 ( discussion ) 00:21, Apr. 5, 2019 (CEST)

See also: Climate Protection - Germany

Development of greenhouse gas emissions in Germany (
- CO 2 , - CH 4 , NO 2 , F-gases , - targets )

When it comes to climate policy, a distinction must be made in Germany between federal, state and local government measures.

Germany has committed itself to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 40% compared to 1990 levels by 2020, by 55% by 2030, by 70% by 2040 and by 80% to 95% by 2050.

However, all forecasts indicate that this target will not be achieved unless major political efforts are made. In a meta-analysis of eleven studies, the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (2015) found that if the previous trend was continued until 2020, a reduction of only 33% to 34% would be achieved. An Allianz SE report (2016) and a study by the University of Economics and Technology in Berlin (2016) also confirmed that Germany will miss its climate targets. The reason is the slow expansion of renewable energies, which has recently weakened again.

The Federal Government's "Monitoring Report on the Energy Turnaround " for 2014 and 2016 also unanimously assumes that Germany will miss its 2020 climate target if current climate and energy policy does not change. The rising emissions in Germany are therefore not due to the nuclear phase-out , but rather to the displacement of natural gas power generation by hard coal and lignite as well as the lack of CO 2 reductions in the areas of heating, transport and industry. Existing buildings are hardly being renovated, and emissions in the transport sector have not been falling for years.

In 2011 and 2012 Germany was able to improve its carbon footprint (by 2% and 2.9% respectively). The reasons given were the mild weather and the dynamic expansion of renewable energies. McKinsey & Company , energy scientist Joachim Nitsch (2016) and the German Renewable Energy Association (2016) agree that Germany will miss the climate target for 2020. In the 2015 Climate Protection Index , which compares the climate policies of countries, Germany only ranked 22nd, while previously it was always in the top ten. Germany ranked 27th in the 2019 Climate Protection Index.

After the UN climate conference in Paris , more than 40 civil society organizations called on the federal government to set ambitious climate protection goals into law. For the year 2050, the German climate protection target must be raised to at least 95% fewer greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 in order to meet the requirements of the climate treaty. The national climate protection plan 2050 is intended to show the reduction steps necessary to limit greenhouse gas emissions in this way.

In November 2014, Federal Minister of Economics Sigmar Gabriel announced that it would oblige power plant operators to save a further 22 million tons of CO 2 by 2020 in order to achieve the climate targets. This includes the shutdown of inefficient coal-fired power plants, whereby the operators themselves can decide which power plants should be shut down. The operators reacted cautiously to Gabriel's plans, but committed themselves to achieving the climate targets.

The Federal Association for Renewable Energy emphasizes that Germany must expand renewable energies much faster than planned in the course of the reform of the Renewable Energy Sources Act . If the federal government adheres to the planned annual expansion caps, the CO 2 reduction target would be clearly missed and a reduction of 29% to 32% would only be achieved by 2020. Unanimously, 23 European environmental and development aid associations as well as numerous politicians and scientists such as the former Federal Environment Minister Klaus Töpfer (CDU) appealed to the federal government that Germany must return to its pioneering role in climate protection. According to the appeal, Germany must fight in its own interest to ensure that the EU agrees on more ambitious climate and energy targets than the EU Commission is currently proposing for 2030. Germany can and must now forge a "coalition of states willing to protect the climate" and thereby achieve the EU's agreement on three ambitious goals: renewable energies, energy efficiency and climate protection.

After the World Climate Report was presented in Japan on March 31, 2014, Environment Minister Barbara Hendricks (SPD) reaffirmed the 40% reduction target compared to 1990 and announced an immediate program so that the climate targets can be achieved by 2020.

As early as 1995, at the climate summit in Berlin , Germany committed itself to reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 25% by 2005 compared to 1990 levels. This target was not achieved (2005: minus 15%) and only achieved in 2010. The main cause of the falling emissions was the collapse of the carbon-intensive GDR industry. In addition, improvements in efficiency and the expansion of renewable energies also played a key role.

Essential legal elements of German climate policy are the Renewable Energy Sources Act , which promotes the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources, and the Energy Saving Ordinance , which limits the need for (usually fossil -based) energy in new buildings. Photovoltaic systems and smaller wind energy systems are preferred under construction law due to the low requirements. There are also funding programs for better thermal insulation , thermal solar systems , photovoltaics and the national climate protection initiative . The measures were coordinated in the National Climate Protection Program of the Federal Republic of Germany on October 18, 2000. With the resolution of the federal government of July 13, 2005, the national climate protection program was continued.

In addition to numerous other institutes, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has also developed a "40 percent scenario" according to which 40% of CO 2 emissions in Germany could be reduced. This would mean that the German contribution to the two-degree target would be achieved at a cost of 0.5% of German gross domestic product . The scenario contains the eight most important measures for climate protection. For a long time, climate protection in Germany was perceived as a federal responsibility. But by 2018, nine federal states had already passed their own climate laws or published drafts. Climate policy is establishing itself as a separate policy field at the state level.

The Climate Protection Plan 2050 from November 2016, with which the Federal Government wanted to ensure the implementation of the Paris Agreement , provided for a 40 percent reduction in CO 2 emissions in 2020 compared to 1990. This goal was declared unattainable by the grand coalition, which was renewed in 2018 . In response to the widespread support for the Fridays for Future movement, on September 20, 2019, the federal government decided on a package of measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to cost 54 billion euros by 2023. Unlike the representatives of the Federal Government, however, climate activists and climate researchers do not see this as a suitable means of achieving the reduction targets for climate-damaging emissions in Germany for 2030. Massive criticism also came from the ranks of the opposition party Bündnis90 / Die Grünen, which was involved in the decision-making in the Federal Council .

International climate protection

In addition to national measures, Germany is also committed to climate protection at the international level. Chancellor Angela Merkel has promised that Germany will invest four billion euros annually in measures for international climate protection from 2020 onwards. The relevant measures are mainly carried out by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development , including a. Investments in renewable energies in developing countries, forest protection projects and also adaptation to the consequences of climate change.


Savings targets AT.jpg

In Austria , the Austrian Climate Strategy was passed on March 21, 2007 by the Council of Ministers . This set out how the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol should be achieved by 2012 by promoting renewable energies and climate protection technologies. While around 2/3 of electricity was generated from hydropower in 2007 , electricity generation from renewable energies should reach a rate of 78.1% by 2010. The share of green electricity should be increased to 10% by 2010. The Ministry of Life was responsible for implementation until 2020 with the support of the Federal Environment Agency .

On May 2, 2007, the Austrian Council of Ministers approved the climate protection fund amounting to 500 million euros. The aim of the Climate Protection Fund is to promote the activation of public transport and to provide financial support to innovative companies in the research and market introduction of climate-relevant technologies.

The Federal Ministry for Climate Protection, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation and Technology has been responsible for Austrian climate policy since 2020 .


On December 20, 2019, a ruling by the Supreme Court of the Netherlands ultimately obliged the Dutch government to comply with the climate targets to reduce national emissions by at least 25 percent compared to 1990 levels by the end of 2020 (→ Legal proceedings on climate change # Netherlands ). The High Council confirmed the application of the European Convention on Human Rights in this case.


Russia long delayed ratifying the Kyoto Protocol. It was only on November 4, 2004 that President Putin approved the agreement. On November 18, 2004, Russia officially notified the United Nations of ratification. The Kyoto Protocol came into force 90 days after Russia's ratification on February 16, 2005.

Climate protection projects

Russia does not have an official program to reduce CO 2 emissions. Recently, however, a program to reduce the share of oil and gas in electricity generation was adopted. The share of coal, hydropower and nuclear energy is to be increased in electricity generation . This means that the share of coal will grow to 30 to 35 percent. The share of nuclear energy in electricity generation is to be increased from 16 percent to 25 percent by 2025. Russian companies are currently investing billions in renewable energies in Europe. Because of the low electricity prices, these investments are not profitable in Russia.

International cooperation

On September 8, 2005 the declaration of Germany and Russia for more cooperation in the energy sector was signed. The increased cooperation brings advantages for both sides, especially in the areas of energy efficiency and renewable energies. Germany has extensive experience in the efficient use of energy and renewable energies. Russia has great potential that has not yet been used.

The EU Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas and the Russian Environment Minister Yuri Trutnew signed an agreement on October 10, 2006 in Moscow on further cooperation between the EU and Russia in the environmental field. Then a working group with seven subgroups is to be formed. Two sub-groups deal with “Climate Protection” and “Cleaner Production and Avoidance of Environmental Pollution”.

On December 8, 2006, the Permanent Partnership Council on Energy held its second meeting in Moscow. At this meeting, the EU and Russia agreed on stronger cooperation on improving energy efficiency. This involves energy savings of around 400 million tonnes of oil equivalent by 2020.

Renewable energy

A legislative project for the support of renewable energies in Russia that has been drawn up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy together with RAO EES is to be discussed and passed by the Duma by the end of 2007 . The law aims to increase the share of renewable energies in total production to three to five percent by 2015 and to ten percent by 2020. In terms of renewable energies, wind energy and small hydropower plants have the greatest prospects in Russia .

The use of biomass is funded by the Russian state. The program for the use of biomass is intended to motivate state and private companies to use bioenergy sources and to promote the refinement of biomass. To do this, u. a. for businesses tax breaks granted to biofuels produced.

Russia will soon become an important producer of bioethanol . Several bioethanol production plants are being built in Russia. In the Volgograd Region , for example, a project will be completed by 2008, the cost of which will amount to US $ 500 million.

Alternative fuels

Russian agriculture is being switched from diesel to natural gas . There are already programs in place to use natural gas in trucks and tractors. As a fuel, natural gas has the best prospects for Russian agriculture. For the farmers there are leasing models and state subsidies for financing .


Climate protection index

Savings targets CH.jpg

In the 2019 Climate Protection Index , Switzerland was ranked 9th out of 56 countries examined and the EU, and in 2018 it came 12th.

This means that Switzerland does comparatively well. All the more because the first 3 places in the index have not been awarded since 2009 for symbolic reasons. On the other hand, the index clearly favors Switzerland as a major importer of gray emissions, as it only takes into account domestic emissions .

Development of Swiss climate policy

In 1986, the first parliamentary proposal on man-made climate change was submitted to the Swiss parliament . The National Councilor and doctor Hugo Wick (CVP) wrote: "By burning coal, crude oil and natural gas as well as clearing large forest areas, especially in the tropics, the concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has been increasing exponentially for decades. Many climate researchers fear that that this increase in CO2 can lead to a real climate catastrophe or climate revolution, with unforeseeable consequences for our environment. "

In its statement on the interpellation on December 8, 1986 , the Federal Council confirmed the danger: "Model calculations estimate that if the trend remained the same, the global mean annual temperature could rise by 1.5 to 4.5 ° C by the middle of the next century". As a countermeasure, he referred primarily to global cooperation: "Both in terms of causes and effects, the greenhouse effect is a global problem. The Federal Council is therefore of the opinion that solutions must primarily be sought at international level." At the national level, he campaigns for energy saving and alternative energies, the promotion of public transport and a waiver of the further expansion of the national road network.

Climate protection has been the subject of international conferences since the late 1980s, with the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (Unced) in Rio de Janeiro, at which the climate convention was adopted, played an important role. Switzerland has taken part in the annual climate summits since 1995 and has agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The CO 2 law of October 8, 1999, the core of Swiss climate policy, came into force on May 1, 2000 as the federal law of October 8, 1999 on the reduction of CO 2 emissions .

Switzerland joined the two main international climate agreements:

In order to implement the Kyoto Protocol in Switzerland, the CO 2 law was revised in 2011 and the goal of reducing emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level was anchored in it. A total revision will take place after 2021, taking into account the national reduction contribution that Switzerland promised with the Paris Agreement. A total reduction of 50% compared to 1990 is planned by 2030, with some of the reductions being expected to be achieved abroad.

These goals are to be achieved in particular through environmental, energy , transport and financial policy measures . This is to be supplemented by voluntary measures by companies and private individuals. Switzerland wants to be climate neutral by 2050 .

Climate strike in front of the Federal Palace on April 20, 2019

In parliamentary elections, the topic of climate change took a prominent place for the first time in the 2007 National Council elections . In the 2019 elections , there was talk of climate elections because the climate strikes by young people worldwide and in Switzerland sparked wide public discussions.

SwissEnergy program and Energy Strategy 2050

The SwissEnergy program was an important part of Swiss energy and climate policy. It was closely related to other laws such as the Energy Act , the Electricity Supply Act , the CO 2 Act, the CO 2 levy , the climate cent on fuels and the law on mineral oil tax .

This SwissEnergy program pursued the objectives:

  • Reduction of fossil fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions by 10 percent by 2010 compared to 1990.
  • Limitation of electrical energy consumption to a maximum increase of 5 percent by 2010
  • Continuation of hydropower to generate electricity and full use of the production potential of hydropower
  • Increase in the share of new renewable energies by 1 percent in electricity generation and 3 percent in heat generation.

A large number of products at all levels and in all parts of the country helped achieve the goals. There are also many partner activities under the EnergieSchweiz seal of quality .

The SwissEnergy program successfully completed the first stage in 2001–2005. In the second stage, 2006-2010, the effect should be increased by 25 percent. In doing so, efforts should be concentrated on the areas in which the greatest potential for more energy efficiency and renewable energies lies:

The measures implemented were inadequate; emissions in 2010 were 1.4% above those in 1990 and thus almost 13% above the target.

As a follow-up program, the Energy Strategy 2050 was formulated as a package of measures, which was adopted in a Swiss-wide referendum on May 21, 2017. A lively discussion arose about the implementation , with critics pointing out weaknesses in forecasts and planning.

Further measures

The incentive tax aims to steer the behavior of taxpayers in Switzerland in the direction of climate protection. It is levied on fuels, volatile organic compounds as well as heating and fuels with a high sulfur content .

The CO 2 tax on fuels is a new form of tax in Switzerland. It is a market-based steering instrument that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels through price incentives . Large emitters from some sectors of the economy participate in Switzerland's emissions trading system , which will be linked to the EU's emissions trading system from 2020.

The climate cent on fuels is a voluntary measure taken by the Swiss oil industry . The climate cent is a levy on all petrol and diesel imports at a rate of 1.3 to 1.9 cents per liter.

Climate Alliance Cities Switzerland

21 cities in Switzerland have joined forces to form the Platform Climate Alliance Cities Switzerland (KBSS). They want to jointly pursue an active climate policy and support the indigenous peoples of the tropical rainforests with regard to the sustainable use of their habitats.

United Kingdom

Meeting the commitments in the Kyoto Protocol

The United Kingdom signed the Kyoto Protocol on April 29, 1998. It was ratified on May 31, 2002.

The United Kingdom has committed itself in the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5 percent by 2012. In 1990 greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 776.1 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent, in 2004 665.3 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent. This means that greenhouse gas emissions fell by 14.3 percent during this period.

Climate protection index

The United Kingdom is the Climate Change Performance Index 2019 ranked 8th of 56 surveyed countries and the EU and thus at the same place as in the previous year. The high rank is achieved, among other things, by the coal phase-out and the resulting falling per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Experts criticize that other sectors are not receiving enough attention. Emissions in the transport sector have recently increased.

Positions on climate protection

In his foreword to the 2006 Climate Change Program, published in March 2006, UK Prime Minister Tony Blair stated that climate change is probably the greatest long-term challenge facing humanity. That is why he has made this challenge one of the top priorities for his government, both for the UK and internationally.

British Foreign Secretary Margaret Beckett said at the Foreign Relations Council meeting on September 21, 2006 in New York:

Climate change is a global problem with devastating global effects. That is the reason that your ministry is involved in this area. This is also the reason why the United Kingdom has made climate protection one of its ten strategic international priorities.

The UK government claimed in May 2007 that the only way to secure UK electricity supply was with new nuclear power plants . Behind this lies the fear of dependence on Russian gas. The published strategy paper "Energy White Paper" includes a clear commitment to nuclear energy, which results in the construction of new nuclear power plants.

On July 26, 2007, UK Environment Secretary Phil Woolas told Parliament that the climate change agreements would continue to reduce CO 2 emissions in a variety of energy-intensive sectors . The climate change agreements are voluntary agreements with 51 energy-intensive sectors covering approximately 10,000 facilities. The operators of these facilities would pay a reduced rate (20 percent) of the climate change levy in return for achieving ambitious energy efficiency targets.

An influential group of members of the UK legislature stated on August 3, 2007 that the UK's plan to legislate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions does not go far enough. It had been neglected to include the rapidly growing aviation industry. This would undermine the credibility of the proposed laws - which are the first of their kind in the world.


The synthesis of the UK's climate change policy is based on a detailed background analysis . On this basis it will be assessed whether new strategies that have been explored as part of the review process can be incorporated into the new program.

The climate change strategy system outlines the UK's strategy for meeting the ambitious goals. The system shows that the domestic policy part of an international strategy to shape a global CO 2 is low-carbon economy.

The May 2007 Energy White Paper serves as the UK's strategy paper on meeting the challenges of energy.

Energy is needed in almost all situations in life. Energy is required for business to be successful. There are two long-term energy challenges:

  • Braking climate change by reducing CO 2 emissions both within the UK and around the world;
  • Guarantee of safe, environmentally friendly and inexpensive energy in order to become increasingly independent of imported fuels.

Increasing energy efficiency is one of the most important measures to reduce CO 2 emissions. It is reflected in the “UK Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2007”.

Increasing energy efficiency has made a significant contribution to the UK's energy system and the achievement of climate change goals in the past. The energy saving strategies and measures implemented in the UK Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2004 and the Climate Change Program resulted in significant savings. The recently announced measures in the “Energy White Paper” will continue to stimulate energy efficiency in companies, in the public sector and in households.

The UK's waste strategy aims to reduce waste by producing products with fewer natural resources. Most products should be reused or their raw materials recycled . Wherever possible, energy should be obtained from other waste. Landfill sites are required for a small amount of residual material .


The UK's 2006 Climate Change Program includes a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This strategy contains the following chapters:

  • The government's top priority is to achieve the legally binding targets of the Kyoto Protocol. However, it is likely that major emissions reductions will be possible. This is due to the fact that the government and the decentralized administrations have agreed the target of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20 percent by 2010 compared to 1990 levels. In doing so, ensure that the UK continues to lead the way on climate change and begin the transition to a 'low carbon economy'.
  • The recent rise in global energy prices, and in particular its impact on the corresponding coal and gas prices, have recently led to increases in CO 2 emissions in the UK. Some strategies to combat climate change involve upfront costs, but in the long run they can result in significant savings in energy costs. The government has grouped a number of goals for this and negotiated the right balance when decisions are made.
  • The climate change program is based on a number of principles:
    • the need to adopt balanced proposals with all jurisdictions and all parts of the UK;
    • the need to safeguard, and where possible, enhance the UK's competitiveness , encourage technological innovation, promote social inclusion and mitigate health damage;
    • the need to focus on flexible and cost-effective strategy alternatives that work together to develop a holistic package;
    • the need to take a long-term view, to keep the targets in view beyond the first Kyoto commitment period; and
    • the need to watch the programs.
  • Existing strategies ensure that the UK's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is respected. However, more needs to be done to meet the national target. It is expected that the new measures in the program will lead to a further reduction of seven to twelve megatons of CO 2 by 2010. This is to be achieved with an overall reduction of 15 to 18 percent by 2010. The area is identified by the EU Emissions Trading Directive, on the basis of which the current consultation is being started. The final version for the national distribution plan will be decided in the summer, when the plan is to be proposed to the EU Commission .
  • The energy report to the Prime Minister provides information on how to achieve the long-term goals set out in the Energy White Paper, such as reducing CO 2 emissions by 60 percent by 2050. Various ongoing processes such as review of existing buildings, will play an important role. The program also makes some ideas for additional carbon storage its own.
  • The next six chapters of the program outline the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broad sectors: energy supply, industry, transport, housekeeping, agriculture, forestry, land management and government and local government.
  • The “Bringing it all together” chapter brings together all the measures that are part of the climate change program and provides an indication of the progress that the government will make by 2010 towards its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and the domestic CO 2 target expected.
  • The government did not have the last word on the program. The government will keep the strategy under control. A new annual report to Parliament is being introduced. This report provides information on the level of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK and recommends steps that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report will also set out a forward-looking work plan for the following year. The economic overview of climate change is also taken into account in new offers for the introduction of a “carbon budget”. The analysis will provide impetus for the energy report.
  • In developing the measures in the climate change program, the government took into account the principles of better regulation. This means that the program is designed in such a way that its goals can be achieved with a minimum of additional regulatory burdens. Assessments of individual strategies are also considered as options for simplifying the design, as are ideas for reducing administrative burdens.
  • The constant review of the air quality strategy for reducing air pollution has also taken into account the impact of the strategies and measures on greenhouse gases. The critical examination of the climate change program has also led to a similar approach to identify measures that have certain air quality advantages. In the long run, two strategies will work synergistically.
  • A key part of the UK's strategy is to involve all segments of society in the fight against climate change. The government has a duty to raise awareness, to deal with climate change as necessary, to work with organizations such as the energy conservation group and the carbon group to encourage individuals and companies to take action in reducing their greenhouse gas emissions become.

On March 13, 2007, the United Kingdom's Department of the Environment tabled a draft law in which the United Kingdom would be the first country to undertake to comply with a defined phased plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. According to this, CO 2 emissions are to be reduced by 26 to 32 percent by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. In 2008 the “Climate Change Act” was finally passed, which ultimately obliges the country to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent by 2050. An independent climate commission was set up to oversee the law.

Emissions trading

Before the introduction of the EU emissions trading system, UK emissions trading projects were part of the UK's strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These projects should complement the two main pillars of the UK Emissions Trading Scheme, the Climate Change Agreement and Direct Participation.

A new emissions trading scheme is proposed for the UK. The proposed system is a cap and trading system for large non-energy intensive companies that are currently not covered by other key non-household climate strategies, including the EU emissions trading system and the climate change agreement. Those involved are subject to an upper limit on total emissions related to the use of electricity and fuel. In addition, the organizations are allowed to trade in emission rights.

The UK has set up a government emissions trading fund to meet its obligation to offset emissions from business and ministerial air travel. This commitment was made by the Prime Minister as part of a larger sustainable development strategy launched in March 2005.

UK Minister for Climate Change, Biodiversity and Waste, Joan Mary Ruddock , announced on July 13th 2007 a voluntary guide to best practice for the carbon trading industry. The guide is strongly supported by the emissions trading industry, companies, environmental protection organizations and others.

On July 23, 2007, a UK Parliament Environment Committee declared that emissions trading had to play an important role in the fight against climate change, and that procedural rules were urgently needed.

Voluntary emissions trading requires that individuals and societies have to be paid differently for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This is not regulated and so different from an obligatory international system under the Kyoto Protocol.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI)

The Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is the UK's Designated National Authority (DNA) for CDM. The DNA works as a simple process for issuing admission to voluntary participation to future project participants.

The Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is the UK's Designated Focal Point (DFP) for JI. The government does not currently approve the UK JI projects. It can, however, issue permits to UK firms wishing to participate in overseas JI projects.

The DNA publishes the list of projects that have received UK approval to participate in the CDM.

In an effort to share experiences and strengthen the partnership between Egypt and UK businesses in the field of CDM, the UK-Egyptian Climate Change Seminar focused on financial structures, technology and advisory services for local CDM projects.

Egyptian Minister for Environment, Maged George, said the seminar, organized by the British Embassy in Cairo, was a great opportunity to achieve a successful partnership and cooperation with the UK. He also said the UK is seen as one of the largest countries to successfully launch and support CDM projects.

The Capacity Building on Implementation CDM project in Guizhou, China, has strong support from related politicians. National leaders of China and the UK Consul General have also helped to promote the project and link the project activities with other related UK Consul General activities. A market potential for developing CDM projects has been established in Guizhou .

In many countries the government is promoting the development of climate change companies. In the UK, the initiative is taken by the private sector, but supported by the government. As part of this support, the Climate Change Projects Office (CCPO) organizes commercial agencies for key states that can host CDM projects under the Kyoto Protocol.

The last mission was to South America with events in Chile , Argentina and Brazil . Because of their size and the profile of their economies, China and India have the greatest interests in CDM. In the UK, however, there is a growing interest among climate change investors in Latin America in general, and South America in particular.

Environment Minister Phil Woolas called on the City of London in July 2007 to work with the government to make more fair investments in environmentally compatible development technologies in developing countries, especially in Africa .

In an address at a major city conference on CDM and the global emissions market, Woolas said that London is the undisputed center of the CO 2 market. He stressed that the city must play a leading role at a critical stage in the market.

International cooperation

The UK and Germany want to expand cooperation on climate research . That was decided in November 2004 at the German-British climate conference on the occasion of the Queen's visit to Berlin. Important topics of the future are an improved adaptation to current climate trends and extreme weather events.

The priorities of international cooperation are:

  • Building on the progress made at the G8 climate change conferences in Gleneagles, Montreal and Heiligendamm to strengthen the international system to combat climate change.
  • To strengthen partnership with the EU in its efforts to help India, China and other developing countries move towards low-carbon economies.
  • Building an international consensus on a global scale to stabilize the climate and avert dangerous climate change.
  • Working with the other EU partners to promote certain agreements in the EU, in particular the strengthening of the EU emissions trading system after 2012, and to make it the center of the global carbon market.
  • Support international cooperation and coordination to ensure the successful expansion of new technologies through effectiveness in key areas such as product standards and research and development.

In July 2005, the importance of strengthening the cooperation between technology was at the G8 summit in Gleneagles industrialized countries and developing countries highlighted to CO 2 to develop low-carbon energy options. Many industrialized countries are calling for new solutions for international cooperation in the field of renewable energy technologies. As a result a result, the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of India have decided, in a study to assess the obstacles to the transfer of CO 2 co-poor energy technologies between developed and developing countries.

The United Kingdom and California decided on July 31, 2006 to join forces to fight climate change. The California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger opposes the climate policy of the US President Bush . Schwarzenegger said California wouldn't wait for the US government to take effective action against climate change. British Prime Minister Blair said climate change was the most important long-term problem to be addressed. A cooperation and joint research agreement in the fields of environmentally friendly technologies and fuels has been concluded. In addition, emissions trading with greenhouse gases should be considered.

On July 20, 2007, France and the UK announced that they would call on the EU to lower VAT on environmentally friendly products such as energy-efficient refrigerators and fuel-efficient cars to set an example in the fight against climate change.

French President Nicolas Sarkozy and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown want to instruct their finance ministers to deliver the request to the EU.

Sarkozy said the Franco-British initiative will allow them to make an example.

Energy efficiency

The most cost-effective way to reduce emissions is to use energy efficiently. This can also improve productivity . It can help increase the security of energy supplies through less reliance on imported energy. This ensures that the highest level of use is made of our own and global energy resources. Equally important, improving household energy efficiency can lead to lower energy bills. Improving energy efficiency can help ensure that most low-income households can afford to heat their homes.

There is no single strategy that can improve efficiency across all areas in the UK. That is why the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has designed a number of strategies that include energy efficiency solutions:

  • In the household sector, the efficiency of the buildings themselves as well as the products and services in them are to be improved. Information should be provided for people. They should receive tips on how they can improve energy efficiency.
  • In companies and public areas, incentives are supported and goals are set for the organizations. Information and instructions should also be provided.
  • In the transport sector, the efficiency of vehicles is to be improved in cooperation with industry and other areas. Innovation and design should be encouraged.
  • Internationally, there is cooperation with the EU in the direction of a 20 percent reduction in EU energy consumption by 2020. The cooperation with the G8 states as well as with the other states is carried out through the Renewable Energy And Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) [Renewable Energy -and-energy efficiency partnership].

The UK's 2007 Energy Efficiency Action Plan states:

  • In accordance with Article 4 of the Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, the United Kingdom is aiming to send out an all-encompassing signal for energy savings of nine percent for the period from 2008 to the end of 2016.
  • The goal is expressed in absolute terms, i.e. TWh or an equivalent. The directive prescribes a methodology that must be used to achieve the goal.
  • The target of nine percent on an annual average relates to the annual domestic energy consumption of all energy users within the scope of this directive. The directive is based on the most recent five-year period, which is older than the directive's enactment.
  • The directive allows savings to be made from energy efficiency improvement measures that were initiated in a previous year, not earlier than 1995. You must have taken into account a sustainable effect in the calculation of the annual energy savings. It has been determined that in the UK only actions since the UK's 2000 Climate Change Program will be considered.
  • The national energy saving target for the United Kingdom by the end of 2016 is 136.5 TWh.

In the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC) , electricity and gas suppliers are required to achieve certain goals to improve energy efficiency in households. The EEC contributes to the fulfillment of the climate change program by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

At least 50 percent of energy savings must focus on the priority of low-income consumers, recipients of certain benefits and tax rebates, and pension credits. It is expected that the EEC will also help address the fuel shortage.

Renewable energy

On February 5, 2007, UK Environment Secretary Ed Miliband stated that renewable energies accounted for only around five percent of total UK electricity generation. Great efforts would have to be made in order to achieve the goal of increasing this proportion to 20 percent by 2020.

The “Energy White Paper” calls for the level of use of renewable energies to be increased in annual steps from 7.9 percent in 2007/2008 and to 15.4 percent by 2015. The level then reached is to be maintained until the measure expires in 2027. Generators receive a certificate for every MWh of renewable energy generated. These are paid for by the energy suppliers. The energy suppliers are allowed to show how much renewable energy they have drawn.

Due to the growing importance of renewable energies, which they are to play in the UK's energy mix in the future , the British government passed the “Climate Change Bill” at the beginning of March 2007. The increased interest in renewable energies in the United Kingdom is also reflected in the nation's largest trade fair for the energy industry, "All Energy 2007". The number of visitors increased by 40 percent compared to the previous year. The number of exhibitors rose from 220 to 350 in the previous year.

In May 2007 the UK government cut subsidies for the installation of photovoltaic systems. Households now only receive a grant of £ 2,500 for installation compared to £ 15,000 previously. The cost of installing a 3.5 kW photovoltaic system for an average type of home is £ 20,000. The wind turbine subsidy has also been cut in half to £ 2,500, although the solar heating and heat pump subsidy has not changed.

The UK wind turbine market grew tremendously in 2006. A new record was set with newly installed 634 MW. The total installed capacity has increased by 47%. This means that the United Kingdom has reached the 2,000 MW threshold as one of the windiest countries in Europe.

The opportunities for expanding wind energy are significantly greater in the United Kingdom than in Germany. This is particularly true in the offshore sector. However, significantly fewer wind turbines have been installed in the UK than in Germany.

The UK government announced on July 26, 2007 that it was looking for ways to connect renewable energy sources to electricity companies much faster in order to meet the CO 2 reduction targets.

Dozens of wind farms have been held up by the planning obstacles. Others waited for connections to be made to the main network, given the very long delays. This makes it increasingly difficult for the UK to generate the 20 percent target for energy from renewable sources by 2020.

The UK Biomass Strategy is in line with the commitments made in the 2006 Energy Report and the Government's Response to the 2005 Biomass Working Group Report. The Biomass Strategy brings together the UK Government's policies on biomass for energy, transport and industry.

The companies BP , ABF ( Associated British Foods ) and DuPont have announced that they will be investing approximately $ 400 million in the construction of a large-scale bioethanol plant, including a high-tech demonstration plant. These plants are intended to accelerate the development work for the next generation of biofuels. Bioethanol is initially produced. As soon as the appropriate technology is available, it will be converted into biobutanol.


UK industry has been recognized by the Department of the Environment for its climate change efforts. The majority of sectors achieved more CO 2 savings in 2004 than the government had specified. In 2004, industry reduced CO 2 emissions by 14.4 million tons. That is 8.9 million tons more than the 2001 climate change agreement.

In July 2007, the annual report on the climate change program was published to Parliament.

The main results are:

  • The report describes the final estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for 2005, preliminary estimates for 2006 and for the period from January 1, 2006 to May 31, 2007, and the steps taken to reduce emissions.
  • Much of the funding to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has been transferred to the Scottish Parliament , the National Assembly for Wales and the Northern Irish Assembly. The report includes the actions taken by the UK Government in Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland .
  • The final estimates for 2005 emissions, released in January 2007, show that greenhouse gas emissions fell by 15.6 percent between the base year and 2005. That means a decrease from 775.2 to 654.1 million tons of CO 2 equivalent.
  • The preliminary estimates indicate that CO 2 emissions in 2006 were 560.6 million tons. At 5.25 percent, they are around 5.25 percent below the 1990 level. This is around 1.25 percent above the value in 2005. The increase is mainly due to the switch in fuels from natural gas to coal for generating electricity.
  • The final estimates for 2005 and the preliminary estimates for 2006 do not take into account the results of the EU emissions trading system. The UK facility credits of 27.1 (2005) and 33.8 (2006) million tonnes of CO 2 are higher than the total national allocations in 2005 and 2006. Taking this into account, greenhouse gas emissions in 2005 were 19.1 percent below the level of the base year 1990, and CO 2 emissions in 2006 were around 11 percent below the level of 1990. The national target by 2010 is to reduce CO 2 - Emissions 20 percent below 1990 levels, including the result of the EU emissions trading system.



Failure to meet commitments in the Kyoto Protocol

Canada signed the Kyoto Protocol on April 29, 1998. The ratification took place on December 17, 2002. In December 2011, however , Canada's Environment Minister Peter Kent announced the early withdrawal from the protocol. Kent referred to the in his view insufficient international support for the protocol. This decision met with massive criticism from politics and from environmental and climate associations around the world. The WWF described the exit as "state-organized irresponsibility" and the reasons as "hypocrisy". Greenpeace spoke of “irresponsible and selfish behavior”. and Federal Environment Minister Röttgen of "completely unacceptable behavior".

With the exit from the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's government is avoiding fines to the UN due to the clearly missed targets: Canada had committed itself in the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 percent by 2012. In 1990 greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 598.9 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent, in 2004 758.1 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent. This means that greenhouse gas emissions rose by 26.6 percent during this period. The increase in CO 2 emissions during this period is even more dramatic . In 1990 CO 2 emissions amounted to 460 million tons, in 2004 593 million tons. This means that CO 2 emissions rose by 28.9 percent during this period.

The total amount of greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 and 2005 was 747 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent, which is a slight increase compared to the 2003 level. The long-term trend shows emissions in 2005 that were 25.3 percent above the revised value of 1990 for a total of 596 million tons and represents a level of 32.7 percent compared to the Kyoto target.

Climate protection index

In the 2019 Climate Protection Index , Canada ranks 54th out of 56 countries examined and the EU, and thus ranks three ranks lower than the 2018 Climate Protection Index. Experts criticize that not enough climate policy measures are being implemented at the federal level.

Positions on climate protection

Canada wants to oblige its industry to significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The climate protection plan calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent by 2020 on the basis of 2006. Heavy industry with the oil and gas sector is to reduce its emissions by 18 percent as early as 2010. The Canadian Environment Minister John Baird reiterated that Canada could not achieve the climate protection goals of the Kyoto Protocol. Compliance with this would lead to unreasonable economic losses.

The “National Round Table for Environment and Economy” declared that by 2050 greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced by 65 percent compared to 2003. The companies that fail to do so will have to pay from 270 Canadian dollars for every ton of CO 2 beyond that.

A government plan passed in April 2007 said that one tonne of CO 2 would cost 20 Canadian dollars in 2013. This price would then increase in corresponding rates from year to year. Canada's environment minister said his plan was to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 60 to 70 percent by 2050 from 2006 levels.

The Canadian government asked the "Round Table," made up of environmentalists and industry leaders, for advice on reducing emissions. The “Round Table” wants to publish a final report after 2007.

On April 28, 2007, ex-US Vice President Al Gore described the Canadian government's emissions targets as "fraud". Gore pointed out that the Canadian government has adopted the concept of "de-intensifying" think tanks in Texas. This concept would be funded by the big energy companies like Exxon .

The example of Canada could set an example and induce other countries to refrain from their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. The Canadian environmental protection associations consider the Canadian government's new emission targets to be completely inadequate.

The chairman of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Glenn Murray, stated on June 22, 2006 that more nuclear energy was necessary to achieve the goal of reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent by 2050 from current levels to reach. This could happen despite the doubling of both the population and economic activity. This includes the sharp increase in energy exports, mainly Alberta's oil sands .


On September 28, 2006, the Commissioner for Environment and Sustainable Development published the 2006 Report on Climate Change. The report notes that although the federal government has invested trillions of dollars since 1992 to meet its greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 were 26.6 percent above 1990 levels. The plenipotentiary called on the Canadian government to develop a credible plan to address the consequences of climate change. The plan should include commitments to specific actions, including a timeframe.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI)

Canada's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) & Joint Implementation (JI) Office was established in 1998 to maximize Canada's ability to leverage the Kyoto Mechanisms. The aim is to help Canada meet its emissions commitments in a cost-effective manner. The office acts as an interface for CDM and JI and has the task of promoting the participation of the Canadian private sector in the projects. Loans may be made available for these projects.

Under the "Action Plan 2000", the CDM & JI Office has raised over $ 25 million in funding for the period February 2001 to June 2006 to advance the three following objectives:

  • Increase Canada's performance to get the most benefit from the Kyoto Mechanisms. This includes: CDM, JI and emissions trading.
  • Assisting and benefiting Canada in participating in the Kyoto Mechanism by raising awareness, promoting cost-effective opportunities, and reducing business costs. Linked to this is the commitment to developing and emerging countries .
  • Assisting Canada in obtaining emission reduction credits for CDM and JI projects in accordance with international rules and guidelines that can help Canada achieve its Kyoto target.

The CDM & JI Office operates under the main leadership of a steering committee (consisting of representatives from Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada, Industry Canada, Canadian International Development Agency, Agriculture Canada and the Climate Change Secretariat) which consults on decisions regarding significant expenditures, program notices and project approvals becomes.

Canada's greenhouse gas reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol will be excluded by the conservative minority government in the upcoming legislative planning for climate change, Environment Minister Baird said on April 23, 2007.

Regardless of this, Canadian companies can use the Kyoto CDM to offset environmental pollution through the use of CERs . Baird said this should help Canada meet the reduction targets that would be announced within days.

Emissions trading

The Canadian government has banned local companies from participating in emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol.

The government allows emitters to trade within its economy to help the nation reduce its emissions. The Canadian government intends to develop a national emissions trading system as part of a “made in Canada” climate policy. This emissions trading system could be published within a few weeks. Unlike in Europe, Canada will not be included in the system for the Kyoto commitments from 2008 to 2012.

Environment Minister Baird said that participation in the international emissions trading market was prohibited. Such participation would allow Canadian companies to buy emission allowances from overseas participants to supplement their domestic emission allocations or to sell unneeded surplus allowances for a profit.

While Baird has banned international trading in Kyoto emission allowances, he has given an opportunity to allow Canadian companies to trade CERs under the Kyoto CDM.

Domestic emissions trading is an important part of the government's market-driven approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants. The emissions trading system for greenhouse gases, which is part of the regulatory system, consists of the following components:

  • An inter-company trading system through which the companies included in the scheme can buy and sell emission credits among themselves. This is the central component.
  • A domestic set-off system that allows the companies included in the regulation to invest in verified emission reductions outside the regulatory system.
  • In addition, Canadian companies have access to certain Kyoto CDM loans in accordance with regulations.


On April 26, 2007, Canada's Environment Minister announced a plan of action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, which, for the first time ever, will force industry to cut greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.

The goals for industry, combined with other actions, are intended to curb climate change. Under the previous government, greenhouse gas emissions have increased year on year. The new government of Canada wants to reduce emissions by 150 megatons by 2020.

In addition to measures to reduce emissions from industry, the government feels compelled to address emissions from transport. This is to be achieved by regulating the fuel efficiency of cars and vans for the first time. This should start in the 2011 model year.

The government reiterates that it will also introduce energy efficiency standards for a range of energy-using products, including light bulbs . For the first time ever, the government has committed to taking much-needed steps to improve indoor air quality. It has undertaken to take the appropriate measures.

The objectives are set out in detail in the regulatory system for industrial air emissions of May 2, 2007.

Available funds:

  • 6 percent improvement in each year from 2007 to 2010, enforceability of an 18 percent reduction in emissions intensity from 2006 to 2010.
  • thereafter a 2 percent improvement annually.

New funds:

  • 3 years limited grace period;
  • Alternative Fuels Standard ;
  • a 2 percent improvement annually.

The government of Canada has signaled that it will ban the sale of incandescent lamps by 2012. This is intended to increase energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Canada's Energy Secretary Gary Lunn said that using energy-saving lamps could reduce CO 2 emissions by 6 million tons. Another advantage is that energy costs per household would decrease by 50 Canadian dollars a year.

International cooperation

The EU and Canada essentially agree on their climate protection goals. This is what German Chancellor Angela Merkel declared as EU Council President on June 4, 2007 at a meeting with Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper . Canada, like the EU and Germany, stands for binding targets such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 50 percent by 2050. Canada also agrees to recognize the UN's leadership in international climate protection.

Renewable energy

On January 19, 2007, Prime Minister Stephan Harper announced more than $ 1.5 trillion in funding the ecoEnergy Renewable Initiative to increase Canada's supply of renewable energy.

The first component of the initiative, ecoEnergy for renewable power sources, will invest $ 1.48 trillion to provide Canada with alternative electricity from renewable sources such as wind, biomass, small hydropower, and ocean power. A 10-year funding program will be set up to fund suitable projects that will be set up for the next four years.

The second component, the “ecoEnergy” for renewable heat, provides more than $ 35 million. This is to fund stimulation and support for industry to encourage growth in the adoption of renewable heating technologies for water and space heating such as solar and hot water heating. In addition, projects for living space-related solar heating technologies are being researched with partners such as service companies and public organizations.

This investment will generate 4,000 megawatts of renewable energy, resulting in the same reduction in greenhouse gas emissions as taking a million cars off the road. Significant reductions in other air pollutants are also achieved. The “ecoEnergy” initiatives to increase the supply of alternative energies are intended to help use Canada's energy more efficiently and to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from conventional energy sources.

In Canada, the share of wind energy in total energy generation is to be increased tenfold by 2012. In September 2004 the total installed capacity was 439 megawatts. The total installed capacity is to be increased to 4,500 to 5,000 megawatts by 2012. The total output of 4,500 megawatts from wind energy would correspond to an investment of almost 7 billion Canadian dollars.

After wind energy, solar energy is now also gaining momentum. The industry is now hoping for a commercial breakthrough with the first major solar projects in southern Ontario .

The support program of the Province of Ontario for renewable energies is based on the German model. The so-called "Standard Offer Program" grants the operators of photovoltaic projects a purchase price of 42 Canadian cents per kWh for a term of 20 years.

At the central government level, the Canadian government is helping financially in the construction of commercial thermoelectric plants with a 25 percent discount up to a maximum of 80,000 Canadian dollars. When homes are converted to be more energy efficient, owners will receive a grant of 500 Canadian dollars to use solar water heating.

Canada's Prime Minister announced on July 5, 2007 a major investment to increase Canada's biofuel production. The government plans to provide $ 1.5 trillion for this. This is to take place in the form of subsidies for a period of 9 years for the producers of renewable alternatives for gasoline and diesel fuels.

United States

Climate Protection Index 2006/2007/2008

Savings Targets US.jpg

The USA is the nation with the second highest absolute CO 2 emissions in the world. In the 2006 Climate Protection Index, the United States was second to last, 52nd out of 53 countries examined, and 53rd in 2007 out of 56 countries examined. The 2008 Climate Protection Index places the USA 55th out of 56 places.

According to the 2006 Climate Protection Index, the share of global CO 2 emissions was 22.9 percent. According to the Climate Protection Index 2007 (as of November 13, 2006) the proportion is 21.82 percent. The USA has come under strong international criticism for its negative attitude towards the Kyoto Protocol, which is binding under international law. So far, emissions have risen significantly every year since the Framework Convention on Climate Change came into force. Compared to the reference year 1990 of the Kyoto Protocol, the USA emitted 15.6 percent more greenhouse gases in 2004. (See sources: Climate Protection Index 2007)

At the federal level, US climate policy focuses primarily on unsuccessful voluntary measures and research funding. Some states (especially California) enforce stricter regional regulations for certain areas. The most important environmental agency is the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) . This is criticized by environmentalists as inactive. In 2005, the state of Massachusetts sued the EPA for action against carbon dioxide emissions. With its final judgment of April 2, 2007, the Supreme Court surprisingly sided with the climate protection activists in these proceedings. The judges blame the EPA, and thus the United States government, for serious failures in nearly all areas of climate protection. The verdict is a comprehensive critique of national climate policy and the populist debates about it; it establishes the legal-causal connection between humans and the frequently denied climate change. This judgment, which can be described as historical, opens up the possibility and obliges a fundamental change in American climate policy.

National goal of US climate policy

In February 2002 the US government published a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the US economy by 18 percent over the 10-year period from 2002 to 2012. Compliance with this commitment is expected to reduce CO 2 emissions by 160 million tons until 2012.

2006-2011 EPA Strategic Plan

To achieve this goal, the 2006–2011 EPA Strategic Plan was adopted. The first of the five goals of this plan includes targets for clean air and stopping global warming.

The sub-target "Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions" contains sub-targets for three areas (each compared to the 2002 level):

  • Sub-objective 1: By 2012, CO 2 emissions in the building sector are to be reduced by 46 million tons.
  • Sub-target 2: By 2012, CO 2 emissions in the industrial sector are to be reduced by 99 million tons.
  • Sub-target 3: By 2012, CO 2 emissions in the transport sector are to be reduced by 15 million tons.

The EPA works with the other ministries and agencies on climate protection programs. For example, the EPA and the Department of Energy (DOE) are jointly implementing the Energy Star program to increase energy efficiency.

Climate change technology program

The US aims to achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by investing in better energy technologies. The Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) is led by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is organized into five technology areas for which working groups have been set up. The EPA participates in all working groups and chairs the working group that focuses on the emission reduction of non-CO 2 greenhouse gases.

Climate Change Science Program

The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is an integral part of the US climate protection program. The main goal of the CCSP is to improve the scientific understanding of global warming and its consequences.

International cooperation

The US participates in international measures to stop global warming. The EPA participates in multilateral and bilateral activities. She partnerships in which she claims leadership and provides technical expertise. In accordance with its share of the UN membership fees , the USA is the largest donor of the activities of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

The USA has signed the Kyoto Protocol but has not ratified it , so the USA does not recognize it as binding. The US government justified this by saying that it feared economic disadvantages vis-à-vis China and India because these countries, as emerging countries, were not obliged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Renewable energy

The share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the USA is currently (2006) 6 percent.

The USA has an almost unused high potential for renewable energies. On 25% of the surface of the USA, the wind is so strong that it can be used to generate electricity, the cost of which is no higher than that of coal and natural gas. California ranks first in the US when it comes to using renewable energies. It gets 31% of its electricity from renewable energies. The amount of ethanol produced in Iowa is enough to meet 50% of the state's gasoline needs. In 2006, after Germany (20 GW nominal output ) , the USA and Spain (12 GW each) took second place among the countries that used wind energy.

The import dependency of oil is viewed critically, particularly under aspects of international security. The American Security Project therefore promotes greater efforts for biofuels made from renewable raw materials.

Climate Policy under George W. Bush

President George W. Bush's environmental advisor, James Connaughton, has rejected parts of the UN's proposals to combat climate change as too expensive. He fears a global economic crisis . The UN climate report contains measures that are too expensive because the necessary technology is not available to the required extent.

US President Bush responded to criticism from the US Supreme Court, which had accused the US government of inadequate action on climate protection. Bush has directed the administration to tackle gasoline and emissions regulation . In the next 10 years, gasoline consumption is to be reduced by 20 percent. This is to be achieved through stricter requirements for car manufacturers and the increased promotion of alternative fuels such as ethanol. Bush continued to oppose setting national caps on greenhouse gas emissions.

According to media reports, the mayor of New York City , Michael Bloomberg , working all taxis in the city by 2012 through hybrid vehicles to replace. This is part of his plan to reduce CO 2 emissions in the city. Gradually, around 20% per year, the approximately 13,000 taxis are to be replaced, thus reducing emissions by 200,000 tons of CO 2 annually.

Climate policy under Barack Obama

In the 2012 US election campaign, the devastating Hurricane Sandy put climate protection on the political agenda. Even the former Republican Mayor of New York Michael Bloomberg reminded after “Sandy” of the responsibility of politics in the fight against climate change: “Our climate is changing. And while the escalation of extreme weather conditions we have witnessed in New York and around the world may or may not be a consequence of it, the risk it may be - given the destruction this week - should compel all elected leaders to act immediately ”. After the re-election, President Obama, who was confirmed in office, raised the issue in his acceptance speech; he hopes that "our children live in an America (...) that is not threatened by the destructive forces of a warming planet."

In a personal letter to Barack Obama , with an accompanying letter to John Holdren , NASA scientist James E. Hansen urgently pointed out that US policy was not moving at the height of the global challenge. Approaches to emissions trading that have been pursued to date (such as the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative ) would in no way be sufficient and, above all, would take too long before they would take effect. In the USA, climate change is discussed primarily from the perspective of international security.

In the USA, the share of renewable energies is increasing slightly. As can be seen in the 2012 annual report on the global situation in renewable energies ( REN21 ), the share of renewable energies in primary energy consumption in the United States increased by almost one percentage point in 2011 compared to the previous year to 11.8%. The share of renewable energies in the power supply is now 4.7% without taking hydropower into account, after 3.7% in 2009.

Barack Obama has announced a change of course in climate policy. In December 2012 he declared the fight against climate change to be one of the three most important topics for the new term of office. In his inauguration speech in January 2013, he highlighted the fight against climate change and the expansion of renewable energies as a priority for the coming years. Failure to combat climate change would be a betrayal of “our children” and future generations, said the President. In connection with the fight against climate change, he announced that he would like to focus more on renewable energies. The US could no longer afford to leave the related technological development and the associated economic opportunities to other nations alone. The USA should not ignore the global transformation of the energy industry towards renewable energies and should not only establish the connection, but also become a leader in the transition. He emphasized the benefits for the environment in the USA, but also worldwide. Obama also turned to the climate skeptics and warned not to ignore the increased occurrence of strong storms, droughts and forest fires.

In July 2013, Obama presented his climate protection plan in a speech at George Washington University. He stated that climate change exists and is already ubiquitous today. For this reason, annual CO 2 emissions are to be halved by 2030 , including stricter limit values ​​for coal-fired power plants. In addition, state guarantees in the amount of six billion euros are to be provided for “emission-free technologies”. In addition to renewable energies, these could also include nuclear power plants or efficient coal and gas power plants. In addition, over six million households are to be supplied with renewable energies by 2020 and energy efficiency in buildings is to be increased by 20%. In 2014 alone, 2.7 billion US dollars are expected to flow into climate research. It is noteworthy that President Obama wants to completely abolish tax subsidies for fossil fuels from 2014 in order to achieve the goal of the G-20 summit in Pittsburgh of reducing global subsidies for fuels. So that the plan does not remain just a plan, Obama wants to enforce the measures with regulations so that they cannot be blocked by climate skeptics in Congress. Obama is the first US president to present a far-reaching plan for climate protection. In particular, Obama is pushing to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants as this does not require approval from Congress.

Although the plan does not affect the expansion of nuclear, coal and fracking, it is a turning point in climate policy for the US political landscape. Germanwatch comments : “To avoid misunderstandings: Of course we ask and need more. But what has been announced goes to the limits of what is currently possible in view of the blockade of the Republicans in the USA. "

In preparation for the UN climate summit in Paris in 2015, Barack Obama announced that he would make the USA a pioneer in climate protection. To this end, the US environmental protection agency (EPA) developed a package of measures in June 2014. A central proposal is the project that emissions from power plants for electricity generation should be reduced by 30 percent by 2030. Furthermore, Obama intends to no longer financially support coal-fired power plants outside the United States. At the APEC summit in Beijing in November 2014, Obama announced that CO 2 emissions in the US should decrease by 26 to 28 percent by 2025 - compared to 2005.

In August 2015, Obama presented his Clean Power Plan. For the first time, nationwide limits on emissions from US power plants are provided for. The power plants must reduce their pollutant emissions by 32 percent by 2030 compared to 2005.


People's Republic of China

On November 12, 2014, during negotiations with the United States in Beijing, the Chinese government announced that it would reduce the proportion of CO 2 emissions for the first time from 2030 . Until then, the proportion will continue to increase.

Climate Protection Index 2006/2007

The People's Republic of China is the nation with the highest CO 2 emissions in the world. In the 2006 Climate Protection Index , it was ranked 29th out of 53 countries examined. In the 2007 Climate Protection Index, it ranks 54th out of 56 countries examined.

According to the 2006 Climate Protection Index, the share of global CO 2 emissions was 14.9%. According to the Climate Protection Index 2007 (as of November 13, 2006) the proportion is 17.94%. (See sources: Climate Protection Index 2007)

The People's Republic of China has not achieved the target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2% in 2006. As a result, the Chinese government will extensively control 6,066 companies suspected of seriously polluting the environment.

In 2010, China overtook the USA as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. The reason for this is the country's rapid economic growth .

The People's Republic of China has signed the Kyoto Protocol . As an emerging country , however, there are no restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions. In a report published in April 2007, the Chinese government said it would focus primarily on economic growth and only secondarily on climate protection.

A few days after the United States announced appropriate strategies, the People's Republic of China presented its own program at the beginning of June 2007 to curb climate-damaging greenhouse gases. The country wants to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by expanding hydropower and nuclear power as well as more efficient coal-fired power plants. However, the plan still does not provide for binding upper limits for (CO 2 ) emissions. China covers two thirds of its energy needs with coal. According to the head of the national development commission, Ma Kai, there are also plans to plant more trees and to improve the infrastructure of agriculture and water management.

Measures of the five-year plan from 2006 to 2010

In the five-year plan from 2006 to 2010, the specific energy consumption (consumption per unit of economic output) is to be reduced by 20 percent. Greenhouse gas emissions are to be reduced by 10 percent. Numerous older small coal-fired power plants ( capacity 50 gigawatts ) are to be shut down by 2010 . Obsolete steel works and iron foundries , which have a high energy consumption, are to be closed. Various taxation and pricing measures are planned to create incentives and compulsions to use energy sparingly.

The expansion of renewable energies is also planned. By 2010 45.6 billion yuan (about 4.5 billion euros) are to be invested in the expansion of wind energy. Over the next 15 years, the government plans to invest around 10 billion euros annually in renewable energies. This also includes fuels made from renewable raw materials .

National plan for climate protection

The government of the People's Republic of China is currently preparing a national plan for climate protection. This plan is to be adopted in the first half of 2007. It should be the basis for effective climate protection measures. This plan is the first official document to take a stand on climate change in China.

Ambitious goals in renewable energies

The Chinese Renewable Energy Sources Act provides for strong growth in these energy sources until 2020:

  • Expansion of small hydropower from 31 GW to 70 to 80 GW;
  • Expansion of wind power from 560 MW to 20 GW;
  • Expansion of the biomass power plants from 2 GW to 20 GW.

This will increase the total to around 120 GW by 2020. That's about 12 percent of the total capacity.

In 2013, China invested more in renewable energies than in coal-fired power plants for the first time. The state nuclear group CGN announced investments in renewable energies and was able to generate unplanned high income on the stock exchange.

Decline in coal consumption

China's coal consumption fell for the first time in 2014. "In 2015, the demand for coal will continue to fall, due to the slower growth of the Chinese real economy, the tighter national controls on energy consumption and the faster structural changes in national energy consumption," according to the forecast of the Chinese energy supplier Shenhua Energy, the world's largest coal company. According to analysts, China will reverse the trend in coal consumption before 2020; in the future, coal consumption will tend to decrease. From 2020, the use of coal will be banned in Beijing. By 2020 at the latest, coal may no longer be used as fuel. Existing coal power plants will be closed. In 2016 over 1000 coal mines will be closed. This will shut down production capacities of 60 million tons. The government gave the drop in prices as well as air pollution control and climate protection as reasons. A total of 500 million tons of capacities are to be shut down by 2020.

Biomass as a raw material

The People's Republic of China intends to cover its fuel requirements with a larger proportion of biofuels in the future. The high-energy plant Jatropha , which is to be grown on at least 13 million hectares by 2010 and thus on around 10 percent of the country's green space, plays a major role . Currently (2007) Jatropha is already being grown on around two million hectares. The government expects around 6 million tons of biodiesel annually from the massive cultivation . On the one hand, this project will increase the green area and, on the other hand, cover the increasing energy demand. Most importantly, it is generating clean energy that the People's Republic of China can use to meet its sustainability goals.

People's Republic of China does not rely on nuclear energy in the long term

The People's Republic of China is not relying on nuclear energy in the long term, but rather wants to generate electricity by other means. The justification is that the supplies of uranium and other radioactive minerals are limited. The government is so reliant on nuclear power now because it is a temporary substitute for coal and oil.


Climate Protection Index 2006/2007

India is the nation with the fifth largest CO 2 emissions in the world. In the 2006 Climate Protection Index, India was ranked 10th out of 53 countries examined. In the 2007 Climate Protection Index, India ranks 9th out of 56 countries examined.

According to the 2006 Climate Protection Index, the share of global CO 2 emissions was 4.2 percent. According to the Climate Protection Index 2007 (as of November 13, 2006) the proportion is 4.15 percent. In the G8 + 5 climate protection index (13 countries participating in the G8 summit in 2007), India ranks 6th with a score of 6.18. (See sources: Climate Protection Index 2007)

Positions on climate protection

In India, economic growth has priority over climate protection. India sees itself primarily as a developing country. It has decoupled economic growth from energy consumption. Economic growth has been 8 percent in recent years. Energy consumption only grew by 3.7 percent.

The fight against climate change is not seen as particularly urgent in India. India sees the responsibility for the pollution of the earth's atmosphere with the industrial nations , which have consumed enormous amounts of fossil fuels since the industrialization . This is why, from the Indian perspective, the industrialized nations have a responsibility to curb climate change. From this, India derives the right to emit more greenhouse gases despite climate change.

At the EU-ASEM summit in Hamburg from May 28 to 29, 2007, the Indian Foreign Minister rejected uniform climate protection targets. He demanded that “national circumstances” should be taken into account. The minister promised "a constructive contribution" to the successor regulation of the Kyoto Protocol.

India does not accept binding commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. That would damage India's economic growth. It would also have a significant impact on India's poverty reduction program .

India is not responsible for climate change, said the Indian Foreign Secretary Shivshankar Menon . Nevertheless, they want to participate in climate protection measures if the costs are distributed fairly. India only causes four percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

At the G8 summit in Heiligendamm in 2007, Chancellor Merkel tried in vain to get India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to make binding commitments on greenhouse gas emissions. India sees the wasteful consumption behavior of the industrialized countries as the cause of climate change . If economic growth were slowed in India, millions of people would remain in poverty.

India is increasingly turning to coal because it is the only energy resource that is sufficiently available in the country. In the future, more than 70 percent of electricity needs will be covered by coal, five percent by natural gas and oil, five percent by nuclear energy and six percent by renewable energies. The high proportion of fossil fuels will lead to high environmental pollution.

India aims to participate in the international fusion device ITER . The country wants to work with its previous partners Europe, Japan, Russia, USA, China and South Korea . India wants to take part in the ongoing negotiations as well as in the construction and operation of the research facility.

India demands technical cooperation for climate protection from western countries. The country wants access to the technology system of western countries. Europe's stance on the technological partnership with India is crucial for its behavior at the UN climate summit in Bali .

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

The national CDM authority receives projects for assessment and approval. These projects must comply with the procedural rules of the CDM Executive Board. The evaluation of the processes of the CDM projects includes an assessment of the probability of a successful implementation of the projects. An assessment is also made of the extent to which the projects are in line with sustainable development, and it is necessary to find out how the projects should be classified according to their importance, in accordance with national priorities.

CDM India has a website that shows the status of CDM projects. You can search for CDM projects on another website.

So far (as of April 13, 2007) 171 CDM projects have been registered in India. Three times the number is designed for the future. Projects in the field of renewable energies are particularly supported by the Indian government. The projects focus primarily on hydropower, biogas , biomass, wind and solar energy. Since the demand for energy is growing rapidly due to the booming economy, the share of renewable energies must be increased significantly.

SGS (Deutschland) GmbH and Gujarat Fluorochemicals Ltd / GmbH (India) completed the registration of the largest CDM project to date on February 25, 2005. The project aims to destroy the strong greenhouse gas HCFC23, which is released into the atmosphere as a waste product from the production of the coolant HCFC22. The registration paves the way for the implementation of the project and the generation of certified emission reductions.

The “Bagepalli CDM Biogas Program” project improves the living conditions of 5,500 families in the Kolar District region. On the basis of the project, every household will receive a simple biogas plant. The biogas plants are operated with the dung from the animals kept by the families. The biogas plants generate biogas that can be used in the household as an energy source for cooking and water heating. This will replace the previous use of firewood and kerosene and at the same time make a contribution to climate protection.


The following measures to reduce air pollution are planned in the "National Environment Policy 2006":

  • Development of renewable energies, including hydropower. Improve energy efficiency. Use of research and development to improve renewable energy technologies. Removing all obstacles to the decentralized generation and distribution of electricity and other forms of secondary energy based on primary energy sources .
  • Accelerate national programs to disseminate improved wood stoves and solar cookers .
  • Strengthening the monitoring and enforcement of standards for emissions.
  • Preparation and implementation of action plans for large cities and statements about sources of air pollution.
  • Formulate a national urban transport strategy to ensure sufficient public and private investment in low-pollution transport systems.
  • Promotion of the reclamation of the wasteland by cultivating plants for energy production.
  • Increased efforts to partially replace fossil fuels with biofuels. Promote this measure through the cultivation of crops suitable for the production of biofuels.

According to a report by the state planning commission, the Indian government has approved around 300 projects to reduce greenhouse gases. With the help of these projects, CO 2 emissions are to be reduced by 237 million tons by 2012. The majority of the projects are energy efficiency and renewable energies.

The state planning commission expects that the CO 2 emissions of India with heavy coal use could rise from now one billion tons by 2032 to 5.5 billion tons per year. With weaker coal use it could be up to 3.6 billion tons.

International cooperation

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) of the Government of India signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on January 16, 2002 , which concerns cooperation in the field of environmental protection and a system for Provides policy and technical cooperation between the EPA and the MOEF. The cooperation takes place on the basis of the common interests for the protection of the climate as well as for sustainable development. The participants intend to establish a long-term partnership in order to carry out appropriate cooperative activities. A variety of cooperative activities in the field of environmental protection and sustainable development are expected under the MOU.

On June 29, 2005, the first India-EU Energy Panel took place in Brussels. The topics of common interest included a. clean coal technologies, renewable energies and energy efficiency. Cooperation was agreed for the areas of integrated energy markets, gas, oil and energy forecasting. One of the most important points of cooperation is the development of environmentally friendly coal technologies. The EU also declares its readiness to make its experience in the areas of organizing internal gas and electricity markets, energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies available to the Indian partners.

At a meeting between the Indian Minister for Renewable Energies, Vitas Muttemwar and Federal Environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel on June 16, 2006 in Berlin, a stronger cooperation in renewable energies was agreed. India is an interesting market for German companies. India has set itself great goals in expanding renewable energies. In the expansion of renewable energies, the country is concentrating on decentralized energy supply based on wind energy, photovoltaics, biomass and hydropower both in the industrial sector and in remote regions. Over the next few years it is planned to supply 250,000 villages with renewable energies.

On August 9, 2006, India and KfW Development Bank signed the financing agreement for an “Energy efficiency program for rural areas in India”. The energy efficiency program is designed to help ensure that environmentally friendly and efficient technologies for energy generation , transmission and consumption spread across India. As a result of this project, around 65,000 tonnes of CO 2 emissions will be reduced each year .

Renewable energy

India has enormous potential for renewable energies. This is especially true for solar energy, biomass and wind energy. The currently installed capacity of renewable energies (as of 2006) is 7,100 megawatts. The Indian government has set itself the goal of increasing the capacity of renewable energies. The focus is on wind energy and small hydropower plants.

India recognized the importance of renewable energies early on and created its own ministry for it. Renewable energies are to be expanded to 12,000 megawatts by 2012, which means six percent of the total output. By 2012, one million households are to use solar thermal energy to heat the water. 4,500 villages are to be supplied with electricity from renewable energies. Five million solar-powered street lights and two million solar home systems for cooking with solar energy are also planned. In addition, 30 million households are to receive optimized wood stoves and three million households a small biogas plant. By 2012, wind energy is expected to have an output of 6,000 megawatts.

India has 2,300 to 3,200 hours of sunshine a year (Germany 1,000 to 2,000) and thus has the best conditions for using solar energy. Wind energy could generate up to 45,000 megawatts of electrical energy, especially at coastal locations, if all potentials were used. The rural population could be supplied with 10,000 megawatts of electrical energy from small hydropower plants. Modern biomass power plants could provide 20,000 megawatts of electrical energy.

In India, solar energy is used for cooking. Concentrating mirrors focus the sunlight on a heat exchanger that generates steam . The steam is conducted to the kitchen in insulated tubes. With such solar thermal systems, 500 to 15,000 people in temples, schools, hospitals and canteens are supplied with hot meals. Concentrating solar mirrors can also be used for seawater desalination and waste incineration plants.

On the basis of a joint venture , the German IndiaVest Windpower I GmbH + Co. KG participates in the Indian wind energy company J Wind Power Limited, New Delhi. The project will start with 24 wind turbines with a total nominal output of 39.6 megawatts. The total nominal output is to be increased to 165 megawatts in the future.

The VaniVilasSagar wind energy project feeds additional electricity into the supply network. The project includes rural areas where wind energy is most efficient. Wind energy in a rural region contributes to the sustainable development of this region.

The Indian government is preparing a national initiative to make the jatropha plant a major source of fuel across India. At least 400,000 hectares are to be cultivated in 22 of the 28 Indian states. When the jatropha seed is squeezed, it creates a large amount of oil that can easily be converted into diesel fuel. One hectare of Jatropha can produce 1,892 liters of diesel fuel, more than rapeseed and considerably more than soybeans and maize.

The project “Utilization of superfluous agricultural waste to produce electricity and heat” is the first of its kind in India. A technical innovation makes it possible to use biomass with a low calorific value as a valuable fuel. Compared to the previous practice of uncontrolled incineration of agricultural waste, this project leads to a considerable improvement in air quality and, included in this, a reduction in health risks. After incineration, the ashes are used as fertilizer for agriculture to close the agricultural nutrient cycle.


Meeting the commitments in the Kyoto Protocol

Japan signed the Kyoto Protocol on April 28, 1998. It was confirmed by the government on June 4, 2002.

Japan has committed itself in the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 percent by 2012. In 1990 greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 1,272.1 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent, in 2004 1,355.2 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent. That means a 6.5 percent increase in greenhouse gas emissions during this period. The increase in CO 2 emissions during this period is even more dramatic . In 1990 CO 2 emissions totaled 1,144 million tons, in 2004 1,286 million tons. This means that CO 2 emissions rose by 12.4 percent during this period.

Climate Protection Index 2006/2007

Japan is the nation with the fourth largest CO 2 emissions in the world. In the 2006 Climate Protection Index, Japan was ranked 34th out of 53 countries examined. In the 2007 Climate Protection Index, Japan ranks 26th out of 56 countries examined.

According to the 2006 Climate Protection Index, the share of global CO 2 emissions was 4.8 percent. According to the Climate Protection Index 2007 (as of November 13, 2006) the proportion is 4.57 percent. In the G8 + 5 climate protection index (13 countries participating in the G8 summit in 2007), Japan ranks 7th with a score of 5.80. (See sources: Climate Protection Index 2007)

Positions on climate protection

On April 11, 2007, Japan and China committed themselves to participating in a new international framework agreement on climate protection. Both states declared their political will to cooperate with the international community on climate protection. Japan wants to support China in developing technologies for efficient energy use.

Japan's finance minister spoke out in Kyoto on May 6, 2007 in favor of a general overhaul of the Kyoto Protocol. Japan wants to take on a pioneering role in climate protection. 100 million dollars have already been made available for climate protection measures. Further funds are to be made available.

In contrast to Germany, Japan does not believe that the negotiations for a follow-up agreement on climate protection should be concluded by 2009. On May 29, 2007, the Japanese Foreign Minister Mitsiu Sakaba declared at the meeting of foreign ministers of the EU-Asem states, before any targets are set, that states that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol, such as the USA, China and India, should cooperate be included. Setting goals should be done much later.

On May 30, 2007, Japan renewed its promise to meet its Kyoto Protocol targets and stated that it would be able to take a leadership role in the fight against climate change. The Director General for Global Issues at the Japanese Foreign Ministry Koji Tsuruoka said that, as always in the past, Japan will fulfill what has been set.

Japan wants to help developing countries reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The focus is to be on the introduction of new technologies to reduce the volume of traffic. Another measure is the installation of facilities to process waste and animal manure, which could be converted into fuel and fertilizers. Japan wants to encourage developing countries to join the successor agreement on climate protection from 2013.

At the G8 summit in Heiligendamm, the EU and Japan set out common goals for climate protection. The key goal is to cut global greenhouse gas emissions by half by 2050. The Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said that the current global emissions are the reference point. Abe demanded that the USA, China and India should be involved in a new deal from 2013.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI)

Japan is moving forward in the implementation of CDM / JI projects. CDM / JI policy reached a climax on February 16, 2005 with the official launch of the national registration system.

Because the use of the Kyoto mechanisms requires additional national measures, Japan wants to go such a path. So Japan will contribute to sustainable development in other countries. In order for these countries to achieve their Kyoto commitments cost-effectively, the Japanese government has initiated a far-reaching support system for CDM / JI activities: JKAP (Japan Kyoto-Mechanism Acceleration Program 2005).

Pressure on Japan to meet its Kyoto targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions has led national companies to implement CDM projects in selected countries. They concentrate on three of the four major economies, known under the collective term BRIC: Brazil, Russia, India and China. This is why most CDM projects go to China, India and Brazil.

All relevant activities are summarized on the website "Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) / Joint Implementation (JI)". The website contains the background, the summary of the Japanese programs for “Activities Implemented Jointly”, the first phase of the authorized projects and future measures.

The Kyoto Mechanism Information Platform has a list of CDM / JI projects approved by the government of Japan. There are 181 projects. As of June 8, 2007.

Emissions trading

In 1998, the Japanese industrial association Keidanren introduced a voluntary emissions trading system for testing purposes. 34 companies take part, covering 76 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector and industry. There is a good chance that direct cooperation with international emissions trading systems will develop in the future.

Japan's government and companies want to do climate protection cost-effectively by acquiring emission credits through climate protection activities in Asian and South American countries. The strategy of the Japanese government is primarily based on the transfer of technologies to developing countries (Clean Development Mechanism). Secondly, there is the joint implementation of climate protection projects in the industrialized countries (Joint Implementation). Emissions trading comes in last. Japan has not yet implemented a system comparable to that of the EU or the US.

Some projects, including Japan's Voluntary Emissions Trading Scheme, J-VETS, have already been launched. The aim is to enable Japanese companies to trade in emissions among themselves. It is also intended to promote the development of know-how in this area.

The national registration system and the database , in which the CO 2 emissions of all Japanese companies are stored, started working in April 2007. For 2008, many companies want to reduce their emissions through their own voluntary measures.

The Tokyo Prefecture government introduced the first mandatory emissions trading system for companies in fiscal 2010.


The “Basic Environment Plan” defines the goals of the “Action Program to Combat Global Warming”. The government has set itself the following goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Japan:

  • The CO 2 emissions are to be stabilized at the 1990 level.
  • Methane emissions should not exceed the current level. The level of nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions should not be increased.

The "Action Program to Combat Global Warming" covers the period from 1991 to 2010. In the action program, the reduction of CO 2 emissions should be differentiated for the individual systems:

  • Measures for the systems of urban and regional structures;
  • Measures for transport systems;
  • Measures for production structures;
  • Measures for the energy supply structure;
  • Measures for realizing the lifestyle .

Measures to reduce methane emissions in landfills, in agriculture, in energy generation and use are to be supported. The development of appropriate technologies and new measures should be promoted at the same time. Nitrous oxide emissions should be controlled and control measures should be considered. The contribution to global warming caused by other substances should be estimated.

Japan wants to set differentiated climate protection targets for the individual industrial sectors. This is intended to achieve a more efficient use of energy. An advisory committee of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry will propose appropriate target values ​​for the individual industrial sectors, which will then be reflected in a corresponding amendment to the law on energy conservation.

International cooperation

Japan and China want to work more closely together on climate protection and renewable energies. This applies above all to the follow-up agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. The cooperation relates in particular to the use of natural gas reserves in a marine area.

Japan wants to support China with climate protection. The main focus is on energy-saving measures. Among other things, water purification projects are planned.

The USA, Japan, China, India and South Korea want to jointly develop a coal-fired power plant that does not emit any CO 2 into the air. This power plant uses a technology that significantly reduces CO 2 emissions. The resulting gas is liquefied and stored in underground storage facilities.

The Japanese industry wants to export energy-saving technologies. Companies from the chemical, steel and cement industries want to export such technologies, especially to the emerging Asian countries. As of September 2007, the Association of the Chemical Industry will publish an information service for emerging countries in which the member companies' energy-saving methods are presented.

Renewable energy

Japan's electricity demand has increased by around 300 percent over the past 35 years. Only around 20 percent of the total energy requirement can be covered by own resources . Due to the changes in the legal framework in 2003 (Electricity Law, Renewable Portfolio Standard), public interest in renewable energies has increased. The Japanese government promotes the use of renewable energies.

The Japanese energy policy is increasingly focusing on renewable energies. The Japanese government has set itself the goal of increasing the share of renewable energies from the current (March 2007) 0.4 percent (excluding hydropower) to 3 percent. In wind power, the market potential for foreign companies is particularly great.

The efforts of the government of Japan to increase the share of renewable energies in electricity generation are being held back by opposition from utilities who are unwilling to invest heavily in what they believe to be immature technologies. In January 2007 the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry launched a new initiative to intensify the use of renewable energies. In accordance with the Renewable Portfolio Standard, energy supply companies must increase their share of renewable energies by 1.63 percent in the fiscal years 2011 to 2014. This should increase the generation of electricity from renewable energies to 16 billion kWh by the end of the 2014 fiscal year. In fiscal year 2005, 5.6 billion kWh of electricity was generated from renewable energies.

When it comes to solar energy systems, Japan dominates not only the domestic but also the international market. As the largest market for solar energy systems, Japan has installed a capacity of 219 megawatts (as of April 2005). By 2010, 4.8 gigawatts of electricity are to be generated using these technologies. The market for wind turbines is dominated by foreign suppliers. Of the approximately 500 systems installed by 2003 with a capacity of over 10 megawatts, 80 percent came from abroad.

See also


Web links

Wiktionary: Climate policy  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

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  63. Cooperation in the energy sector .
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  65. Russia and the EU will work together to promote energy efficiency .
  66. Law for Renewable Energies .
  67. Bioenergy in Russia .
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  69. Alternative fuels .
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  87. Climate Change The UK Program 2006 p. Iii (English) ( Memento of May 24, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  88. "Climate change is a problem of today, not of tomorrow" ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  89. Blair government relies on new nuclear power .
  90. ^ Government and business working together to cut emissions: Woolas (English) ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  91. ^ British Climate Law Should Go Further, Lawmakers Say .
  92. Synthesis of Climate Change Policy - Appraisals ( Memento of February 5, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF, English).
  93. Climate Change Strategic Framework (English) ( Memento from June 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  94. ^ Meeting the Energy Challenge - A White Paper on Energy ( Memento of September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF).
  95. UK Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2007 (English) ( Memento of 27 September 2007 at the Internet Archive )
  96. Waste Strategy for England 2007 (English) ( Memento from June 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  97. Climate Change - The UK Program 2006. pp. 30–31 ( Memento of May 24, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF, English)
  98. Climate protection: Great Britain wants to be a pioneer in environmental protection , FAZ , March 13, 2007.
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  101. Options for the Implementation of a New Mandatory UK Emissions Trading Scheme p. 1 ( Memento from September 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  102. UK Developing Government Carbon Offsetting Fund (English) ( Memento of 26 September 2007 at the Internet Archive ).
  103. Code of Best Practice for the carbon offsetting industry (English) ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  104. Carbon Offsetting Needs Code of Practice - UK Report (PDF, English).
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  106. Kyoto Mechanisms: Joint Implementation (English) ( Memento from September 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  107. List of Projects with UK Approval of Participation (English) ( Memento of 5 August 2007 at the Internet Archive ).
  108. CDM projects face to reduce harmful emissions (English)  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  109. Key Achievements of the CCE projects in China (English) .
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  112. ^ German-British climate conference on the occasion of the Queen's visit to Berlin .
  113. Climate Change The UK Program 2006, p. 15 ( Memento of May 24, 2006 in the Internet Archive ).
  114. UK – India collaboration to identify the barriers to the transfer of low carbon energy technology (English) ( Memento from August 5, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  115. California and Great Britain agree on climate protection initiative  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  116. France, UK Propose VAT cut on Green Goods (English) .
  117. Energy and climate change- Energy efficiency (English) ( Memento from August 24, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  118. UK Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2007, p. 12 ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  119. Energy Efficiency Commitment (English) ( Memento from July 7, 2008 in the Internet Archive ).
  120. David Miliband: Let's step on the gas! ( Memento of October 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  121. ^ Meeting the Energy Challenge A White Paper on Energy p. 147 ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  122. British government formulates climate goals: Climate protection with renewable energies - and nuclear power ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  123. ^ The Sun not Shining for the Solar Panel Industry (English) ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  124. The European wind turbine market grew by 23 percent in 2006 (PDF; 121 kB).
  125. Wind energy in Great Britain - Displeasure with the quota model is growing  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /
  126. UK Government Targets Green Power Gridlock (English) .
  127. UK Biomass Strategy (English) ( Memento of 10 October 2008 at the Internet Archive ).
  128. BP, ABF and DuPont are investing $ 400 million in biofuels .
  129. British industry successful in climate protection ( Memento from February 5, 2008 in the Internet Archive ).
  130. UK Climate Change Program Annual Report to Parliament, July 2007 p. 7 ( Memento from February 19, 2009 in the Internet Archive ).
  131. a b Kyoto Protocol status of ratification (English) (PDF; 74 kB).
  132. Statement by Minister Kent ( January 18, 2012 memento in the Internet Archive ), Environment Canada, Government of Canada, December 12, 2011.
  133. Canada Overturns Kyoto , TAZ, December 13, 2011.
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  136. ^ Durban - a success for global climate protection ( Memento of November 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ),, December 16, 2011.
  137. Canada's 2005 Greenhouse Gas Inventory A Summary of Trends (English)  ( Page no longer available , searching web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
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  139. Canada misses the emission targets of the Kyoto Protocol ( Memento of September 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  140. Canada Must Charge Firms a Lot for Emissions - Panel (English).
  141. Al Gore accuses Canada of “fraud” .
  142. Canada Nuclear Update (English) .
  143. 2006 CANADA'S FOURTH NATIONAL REPORT ON CLIMATE CHANGE (English) ( Memento of July 14, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  144. AUDIT OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR CANADA'S CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM AND JOINT IMPLEMENTATION OFFICE (CDM & JI) (English)  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  145. Canada's new climate plan excludes Kyoto targets, includes CDM: report .
  146. Canada bans Kyoto emissions trade (English) ( Memento from August 31, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  147. Domestic Emissions Trading for Greenhouse gas (English) ( Memento of 18 January 2012 at the Internet Archive ).
  148. Canada's New Government Announces Mandatory Industrial Targets to Tackle Climate Change and Reduce Air Pollution ( Memento of July 11, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  149. Clean Air Regulatory Agenda -Regulatory Framework for Industrial Air Emissions (English) ( Memento of 14 July 2007 at the Internet Archive ).
  150. ↑ Lightbulb ban in Canada .
  151. Agreement on goals for climate protection  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  152. ^ Press release ecoEnergy Renewable Initiative (English) ( Memento of July 13, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  153. Canada wants to increase the share of wind power tenfold by 2012 ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  154. ^ Sunrise for Canada's Solar Energy ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  155. Government's new biofuels plan a double win: Good for the environment and farmers (English) ( Memento of 7 September 2007 at the Internet Archive ).
  156. China now no. 1 in CO2 emissions; USA in second position. Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, archived from the original on July 3, 2007 ; accessed on November 29, 2015 .
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  159. Renewable energies competitive in USA .
  160. New Dynamics in Climate Diplomacy by John Kerry? KlimaKompakt analysis .
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  162. Climate protection too expensive for the USA .
  163. Bush announces measures for climate protection .
  164. "New York's taxi fleet will be converted to hybrid drive" .
  165. ^ A Vote for a President to Lead on Climate Change,, November 1, 2012.
  166. tagesschau aktuell ( Memento from December 27, 2012 in the web archive )
  167. James Randerson: Climate change policies failing, Nasa scientist warns Obama. Manchester Guardian January 1st 2009.
  168. New Dynamics in Climate Diplomacy by John Kerry? .
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  170. ^ Richard Stengel, Michael Scherer, Radhika Jones: Setting the Stage for a Second Term .
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  173. Sustainability Council: "Coal is a thing of the past in the USA". 5th June 2014
  174. US President Barack Obama on Climate Change, June 25, 2013 .
  175. Fritz Vorholz: A nudge as an opportunity. ZEIT Online, June 5, 2014; Benjamin Reuter: Obama: This is how he wants to make the USA a pioneer. Wirtschaftswoche, June 3, 2014.
  176. ^ A b Markus Becker: US-Chinese climate initiative: Die Gut-Wetter-Macher . November 12, 2014.
  177. Presentation of the climate protection plan: Obama declares war on coal power ( Memento from August 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  178. China was still the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in 2007 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  179. WORLD: Environment: China presents its own strategy against climate change . June 4, 2007.
  180. China is steaming up .
  181. ^ Rolf Hug, Solarserver editorial team. Heindl - Server GmbH: Solar power, solar heat and solar construction: Technical articles and news in the solar archive .
  182. China and global climate change ( Memento from August 4, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 987 kB)
  183. AEE: Renewable energies are an important pillar of global climate protection from September 22, 2014.
  184. Chinese state nuclear firm raises US $ 227 million for renewables .
  185. China's coal consumption is falling, but the climate policy signal from April 9, 2015 is still missing .
  186. Beijing Bans Coal Power Plants,, August 5, 2014
  187. Reuters Editorial: China to close more than 1,000 coal mines in 2016: energy bureau .
  188. ^ Raw material biomass ( Memento from February 5, 2008 in the Internet Archive ).
  189. Verivox : China is not relying on nuclear energy in the long term .
  190. Development has priority over climate protection ( Memento of October 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  191. India wants to emit more greenhouse gases despite climate change .
  192. EU Asem summit fails because of climate protection ( Memento from September 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  193. India slows down on climate protection  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  194. India wants to make a contribution to climate protection .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  195. India and China continue to reject climate requirements ( memento of September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  196. ^ Energy in India .
  197. India aims to participate in the international ITER fusion facility .
  198. India wants western technology for climate protection  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  199. National CDM Authority (English) ( Memento of 30 June 2007 at the Internet Archive ).
  200. CDM Projects Status (English) ( Memento from June 3, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  201. India wants to further increase its attractiveness as a CDM country .
  202. Worldwide largest CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) project registered  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  203. Climate protection project “Bagepalli CDM Biogas Program in India” ( Memento from July 2, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  204. National Environment Policy page 37 (English) ( Memento of 15 December 2011 at the Internet Archive ) (PDF, 1.7 MB).
  205. Background: Contracts and projects on climate protection  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  206. ^ Memorandum of Understanding (English) .
  207. EU and India start cooperation in the energy sector .
  208. India and Germany for stronger cooperation on renewable energies .
  209. Financing contract signed to improve power supply in India .
  210. Renewable Industry in India page 16 (English) ( Memento of September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  211. a b India - in search of the right energy mix ( Memento of March 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  212. Solar thermal in India: Cooking with the power of the sun ( Memento from June 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  213. First fund relies on Indian wind energy .
  214. Home - ClimatePartner . Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  215. India's great biodiesel plans .
  216. ^ Electricity and heat from biomass in India .
  217. China and Japan commit to climate protection .
  218. Japan relies on a pioneering role in climate protection .
  219. Japan Rejects 2009 Deadline in Post-Kyoto Talks (English) .
  220. Japan Renews Vow to Reach Kyoto Emissions Targets (English) .
  221. Japan wants to help developing countries with greenhouse gas emissions .
  222. EU and Japan at the G8 summit with common climate targets  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  223. Japan's approach towards CDM / JI implementation (English) ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 354 ​​kB).
  224. CDM / JI Supporting Programs by Government of Japan (English) ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  225. Japan's CDM Rush to BRIC Countries (English) .
  226. GISPRI - Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute .
  227. List of CDM / JI Project Approved by the Government of Japan (as of 8 June 2007) (English) ( Memento of 28 September 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  228. ^ German-Japanese climate protection dialogue ( Memento from October 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  229. Japan is lagging behind climate protection targets ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  230. JAPANMARKT May 2007 ( Memento from September 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  231. Tokyo launches Asia's first carbon trade scheme. In: Agence France-Presse . April 1, 2010, accessed April 2, 2010 .
  232. ^ The Basic Environment Plan (English) .
  233. Japan is planning climate protection targets for individual industries ( Memento from September 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  234. China and Japan want to work together on climate protection  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  235. Japan wants to help “Middle Kingdom”  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  236. USA and Japan plan emission-free coal-fired power plant .
  237. Japanese companies want to export energy-saving technologies .
  238. Renewable Energy ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  239. Country profile Japan (brief info) .
  240. Japan's electricity companies increase investments ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  241. Future technologies: Renewable energies ( Memento of September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).