Renewable raw material

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Forests are the most important source of renewable raw materials in Germany

Renewable raw materials (abbreviated NawaRo , Nawaro or NR ) are organic raw materials that come from agricultural and forestry production and are specifically used by humans for further purposes outside of the food and feed sector. The opposite is the non-renewable raw material .


The use of raw materials of vegetable origin and biogenic waste products is of greatest importance today . These are used both energetically and materially. The energetic use takes place in liquid form ( biofuel ), in solid form ( biogenic fuel ), as well as gaseous ( biogas ). One speaks of material use in the production of technical oils, textiles , fibers , plastics , basic chemical substances and other products. Plants grown specifically for energetic use are known as energy crops , plants for material use are industrial plants .

With the use of renewable raw materials, humans make use of a synthesis performance of nature, the conversion of solar energy into high-energy, organic compounds. Renewable raw materials are considered recent organic natural products that exist for the sake of technical use or economy.

In the course of the raw materials and energy transition , renewable raw materials should replace other raw materials or fossil fuels ( crude oil , natural gas ) in the long term, if possible through cascading use . Because of the increasing competition for space and use , individual applications are under discussion.

Renewable raw materials can be used to generate electricity in systems such as biomass cogeneration plants or biogas plants . In Germany, the remuneration for electricity can be partially or fully subject to the regulations of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). There may also be a right to the so-called Nawaro bonus . The definition of renewable raw materials according to this law differs in part from the definition in this article.


Historic drinker in Ilulissat , Greenland

Long before the concept of NaWaRo was created , raw materials of animal and vegetable origin were of great importance. Thousands of years ago, leather and animal or vegetable fibers were used as clothing and wood as fuel. Until industrialization in the 19th century, renewable raw materials were the most important source of energy ( firewood , charcoal ) and the most important raw material suppliers for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry ( e.g. Waltran ). With industrialization, coal initially gained dominant importance as an energy source. In the 20th century, petroleum first became an important and, due to the cheap extraction and development of new deposits, it became the dominant energy source and most important raw material for the chemical industry ( petrochemical ) from around 1950 . The striving for national self-sufficiency through technical syntheses and the use of locally available (natural) raw materials already played an important role in the (not only more recent) German history of technology. Self-sufficiency through the replacement of imported raw materials with domestic (such as coal), but above all also renewable raw materials, was a central theme of the National Socialist research policy. The term “renewable raw material” itself was established in the years 1973/74 and 1979/81 as a result of the high oil price during the first and second oil crises in German-speaking countries. International is renewable resource ( English for renewable resource ) more common than the literal correspondence renewable raw material . From the mid-1980s the price of oil was again very low, so that renewable raw materials became less competitive and initially lost their importance.

Due to the increased oil prices in the 2000s and the medium-term expected maximum global oil production (“Peak Oil”) and global warming , renewable raw materials are currently gaining in importance again. Possible shortages of fossil fuels and chemical raw materials make an increasing use of renewable raw materials ( raw material turnaround ) appear necessary. Other factors are greater raw material diversification and greater independence from fossil raw materials and their exporters. The generation of electricity, heat and fuels from renewable raw materials and waste products from agriculture and forestry should also contribute to the economic strengthening of rural areas.

The role of agriculture and forestry is increasing with the worldwide growing demand for food, feed and renewable raw materials.

Categories of renewable raw materials

When using renewable raw materials, a distinction is often made between energetic and higher-quality, material use. In the case of energetic use, the focus is often on the energy content of the biomass used. In the case of material use, on the other hand, the chemical composition and other properties for further use and processing are of great importance. With a cascade use, material and energetic use can be combined with one another, as with the incineration of waste wood. With many material uses, there are also waste or by-products (by- products ) such as sawdust, which can still be used for energy.

Materially used renewable raw materials

The most important categories of renewable raw materials are listed below. Since these are based on different sources, ingredients or use, they partially overlap. Since the energetic use is often closely linked to the material use, this is also partly listed.


Wooden house
Beech firewood processed in the forest

The most important and most frequently used renewable raw material is wood . It has been detectable as a human raw material since prehistoric times and is still one of the most important and versatile raw materials in industrialized countries. In Germany, forests made up 11.1 million hectares in 2002, almost a third of the country's area, while other renewable raw materials were cultivated in Germany in 2008 on around 17 percent of arable land (around 2 million hectares ). According to the association of forest owners, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Waldbesitzerverband (AGDW), there are more than one million employees with an annual turnover of more than 100 billion euros in the entire wood industry .

Wood is used materially, for example for construction timber and furniture , for wood-based materials and for the pulp and paper industry , as well as energetically as fuel .

In some cases, multiple use ( cascade use ) is possible, for example by recycling waste wood in the manufacture of chipboard or through the energetic use of waste wood.

Wood Similar materials such as bamboo , thatch and straw are used for roofing . From rattan , rattan and wicker are basketry and furniture manufactured.

Natural fibers

Cotton ( Gossypium spec. )

Natural fibers are obtained through complex processing of the raw material plants - the so-called fiber plants. The most important fiber raw material worldwide is cotton , which is mainly grown in tropical and subtropical areas. Cotton is mainly used to make clothing and other textiles . Other shares are used to manufacture nonwovens or yarns . A similar use of spectrum also has the wool , which for the most part by the Virgin of sheep but also other animals such as llamas , alpacas and angora rabbits is obtained. Another fiber material of animal origin is silk , which is also used for textiles.

Important fiber plants in temperate zones are above all common flax ( flax fiber ) and industrial hemp ( hemp fiber ). Their bast fibers can be used for the production of clothing textiles and is currently the main use for flax long and short fibers. Flax short fibers are also used to a significant extent for the production of special papers and for composite materials ( natural fiber-reinforced plastics ). The main production area for hemp fibers is specialty papers, including a significant proportion of cigarette paper . Further applications are the production of insulating materials and composite materials.

Fibers of tropical origin such as jute , abacá , coconut fibers , copra , sisal and kenaf are used in similar products, depending on the fiber quality. Thanks to its water resistance, Abacá can also be used for ropes and ropes on ships or for tea bags . Bamboo and wood fibers are also used in composite materials.

Vegetable oils

Rapeseed as an energy crop

Vegetable oils are mainly used energetically, but also materially. The largest part is used in Germany for the production of biofuels such as vegetable oil fuel and especially biodiesel . Biodiesel is also the most widely used biofuel worldwide, with the importance of bioethanol made from sugar and starch increasing rapidly. In Europe, biodiesel is mainly made from rapeseed oil , while internationally mainly palm and soybean oil are used. In the European Union (EU), the set-aside of part of the arable land was compulsory until 2007 and was offset with a premium. Since the cultivation of renewable raw materials was permitted on these areas, oil plants such as rapeseed and sunflower were cultivated on a large scale for biofuel production. After the abolition of the obligation to set aside, the area under cultivation of winter rape in Germany decreased by 11% in 2008.

In oleochemicals, vegetable oils are used as raw materials for a wide variety of products. For example, coconut and palm oil are used for surfactants ( e.g. sugar surfactants ) that are used in the detergent industry , but also in the field of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products . For paints , printing inks and lacquers , vegetable oils are mainly used as additives and binders . A historically significant area of ​​application, which has been occupied by crude oil since the 19th century, are biogenic lubricants , which include hydraulic , engine , saw chain , formwork and metalworking oils . Other products include linoleum flooring , for which linseed oil is mainly used, and factice as a rubber additive and plasticizer for plastics. With modern technologies it is also possible today to produce polyols for the production of the plastics polyurethane and polyester on the basis of vegetable oils.

Sugar and starch

Harvested sugar cane

The world's most important sugar crop is sugar cane , while sugar beet dominates in temperate climates . Starch is obtained from various grain crops (such as wheat , triticale , corn , rice ) and other crops (such as cassava , potatoes ). Since starch is a polysaccharide made from monomeric sugar , both sugar and starch can be used in many applications .

Most of the technical starch is used in the paper industry as paper starch . As a raw material in the chemical industry, starch is used, for example, in the manufacture of detergents and cleaning agents, organic acids , pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Starch is also used directly as a raw material for the production of bioplastics such as thermoplastic starch . Even indirectly, after fermentative ( biotechnical ) conversion of starch or sugar, bioplastics such as polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) can be produced from the intermediate products. Sugar is also in the building chemistry as a retarder and Einschalungsmittel used.

Large quantities of sugar and starch are fermented into bioethanol , which is an important biofuel alongside biodiesel and vegetable oil. Important producer countries are Brazil and the United States with the raw materials sugar cane and corn starch. In the sugar industry in Brazil , almost half of the sugar cane harvested is processed into bioethanol. Today in many countries the use of a proportion of biofuel, or specifically bioethanol, is mandatory in fuels. The grain price, which rose sharply at times in 2007, made bioethanol production temporarily uneconomical, so that, for example, the Zörbig ethanol factory (Germany) temporarily stopped producing.

Growing importance is expected for the use of starch, sugar (and other renewable raw materials) in white biotechnology (industrial biotechnology). Starch and sugar (also in the form of molasses ) are already used today for fermentative and biocatalytic processes, for example for the production of bioethanol (see above), but also higher-quality compounds such as basic chemicals or pharmaceutical products.

Chemical and pharmacological raw materials

2007 opium harvest
Latex production 1984

Ingredients and materials with special properties can be extracted from some plants and animals. These substances mainly include rubber , resins and waxes , tannins , various dyes and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry. Also stimulants and drugs are assigned to this group. Rubber is a natural elastomer that is obtained primarily from the sap of the South American rubber tree ( Hevea brasiliensis ). Dye plants provide dyes for dyeing textiles, paints and other uses. They played an important role as renewable raw materials before dyes could be produced synthetically in the 19th century. In the Middle Ages, dyeing plants began to be grown in Europe, such as woad for blue, madder for red and dyer's ressead for yellow. Indigo, in particular, from the Indian indigo plant was used industrially to dye jeans until the late 20th century . In painting, color varnishes were mainly used, in which the vegetable pigment was applied to a substrate such as chalk or white lead so that it could then be painted like a pigment . Vegetable colors can also be applied like a glaze without a substrate. A number of active plant substances ( phytopharmaceuticals ) can be obtained from medicinal plants , which up to now could not be produced synthetically or economically. Therefore, a large number of medicinal plants are grown and used in order to be able to use their ingredients for medicines , luxury goods and drugs, such as tobacco and hops or illegal drugs such as cannabis , coca and opium .

Raw materials of animal origin

Leather and modern leather processing

Renewable raw materials of animal origin are less present today than vegetable ones, but they are both historically and currently of great importance.

In ancient times, the dye purple was extracted from large quantities of purple snails and was reserved for the highest dignitaries only. Another color is carmine , which is extracted from the cochineal scale insect . These dyes and other raw materials such as ivory , leather , fish leather , hides , beeswax and horn were important commodities . The use of animal intestines and hair for weapons, measuring and musical instruments was also historically important. The commercial from 18th to early 20th century very significant whaling supplied raw materials such as whalebone , ambergris , spermaceti , Tran and glycerine , which, fuel, lubricants, precursor of various plastics and raw material for the manufacture of explosives (as a chemical raw material nitroglycerin / dynamite ) were used. In the 19th century they formed the basis for the development of today's petrochemical industry.

The most important raw materials of animal origin are animal fats , oils, waxes and binders, leather, skins from various types of fur and animal fibers such as wool , silk and bristles . Sheep wool is also increasingly used as a building material (insulation). The use of sheep's wool as a long-term fertilizer is less well known. For this purpose, the untreated raw sheep wool is pressed into fertilizer pellets (sheep wool pellets), for example.

Manure and manure are used as fertilizers around the world. Guano represents a borderline case to mineral raw materials. Whole classes of active ingredients, including those of animal origin, come from the poisons of snakes, bees and frogs. Before they were genetically engineered, insulins and hormones such as estrogen could only be obtained from animal sources such as the pancreas of pigs.

Animal meal and bone meal produced in the context of animal carcass utilization have not been fed to ruminants for some years , but are often incinerated. The previously essential production of bone glue is now reserved for niche applications. Tallow, on the other hand, is still used as a basic chemical material in organic chemistry and industry to produce biogenic lubricants , surfactants , fats for cosmetics, cleaning agents and soaps .

Springs , which in large quantities in the poultry incurred processing, are mainly used as filling materials for pillows and blankets - in future they could also as keratin source for the production of bioplastics used. Also chitin shells of crabs , which as a waste product in the crustacean incurred processing, and in perspective even of insects can be used as chitosan , are used for various applications, including the Biokunststoffproduktion.

Today, in addition to the medical use and processing of blood and blood products, human hair from human sources is of certain economic importance for wigs or fashionable hair extensions .

Renewable raw materials used for energy

Biogas plant

In addition to the wood already mentioned and the raw materials for biofuel production, other renewable raw materials can also be used as so-called biogenic fuels for energy purposes. This type of use is usually less valuable than the material use, so that mainly organic waste and residues (as well as by- products ) such as straw are used. There is also a cascade use , for example when burning waste wood . Rising energy prices and the political promotion of renewable energies , including bioenergies, for example in Germany through the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), have led and continue to lead to a strong expansion. Increased remuneration for the electricity generated and further subsidies make previously unused biomass fractions economically viable. This results in some synergy effects between waste disposal and energy generation. The background to the funding is, among other things, efforts to protect the environment , protect the climate , conserve resources, reduce dependence on energy exporters and promote rural regions. In the case of biogenic solid fuels, there is an increased use of waste from forestry (such as tailings ) and the wood industry (such as sawdust, offcuts, rind ). Waste wood is also used to a greater extent in biomass heating plants or biomass heating power plants. In addition, there is the targeted production of wood chips from forest or short rotation wood . The production of biogenic liquid fuels such as biomass to liquid (BtL) from solid biomass is also being developed and tested. The production of biogenic fuel gases ( biogas , biomethane ) in biogas plants is becoming increasingly important . The main substrate used is moist biomass, which cannot be used in combustion. Waste, among other things from the food industry, or unused plant residues from agriculture such as liquid manure, manure, beet leaves and others are used. In Germany, renewable raw materials, such as maize in particular, are increasingly being grown specifically for use in biogas plants.


The use of renewable raw materials is currently being pushed for the reasons mentioned above (see history ). Ultimately, the use of primarily crude oil, but also natural gas and coal, as energy sources and as raw materials in the chemical industry, should be reduced. The material use of crude oil, for example for the production of plastics, only accounts for a very small proportion. The biomass potential is limited, however, so that complete substitution is not possible. Increased use of renewable raw materials leads to higher land requirements and is therefore increasingly in competition with environmental protection issues (e.g. conservation of biodiversity ) and the production of food (competition for land and use). The use of biofuels and biomass to generate electricity and heat is currently being greatly expanded. Since sustainability was questionable due to the competition for land and use, this should be ensured in the EU by the Renewable Energy Directive (EC) . With the Biofuel Sustainability Ordinance and the Biomass Electricity Sustainability Ordinance, these aspects of the EU Directive have been implemented in German law.

The biofuel industry in Germany is still dependent on subsidies. In view of the planned reductions in the proportion of biofuels in fuels, it was about to end. However, the Renewable Energy Sources Directive (EC) decided to significantly expand the proportion of biofuels in the EU to 10% by 2020. The needs of the EU, and in particular Germany, are partly covered by cheaper exports of oilseeds and oil.

The biorefinery concept is expected to grow in importance in the future . Biomass as well as renewable raw materials are to be put to a more complete and higher quality use in these plants. This is how basic chemicals, fuels, biopolymers and other things are to be extracted.

Interest and industry associations

Headquarters of the FNR in Gülzow

In Germany , the Agency for Renewable Raw Materials (FNR) was set up as a state project management agency at federal level at what was then the Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), now the Federal Ministry for Food and Agriculture (BMEL), to carry out research, development and market introduction in the Support the area of ​​renewable raw materials. Another focus of the FNR is the comprehensive range of advice and information in the areas of renewable raw materials and bioenergy. At the state level, contact persons for renewable raw materials can be found at the respective forest and agriculture ministries, the rural development directorates and, in some cases, the local chambers of industry and commerce . In Bavaria, among others, the KoNaRo - Competence Center for Renewable Raw Materials and the Central Agricultural Raw Material Marketing and Energy Network CARMEN eV are active. There are numerous interest groups that advocate greater use of renewable raw materials of various types and for various purposes. The Working Group of German Forest Owners' Associations (AGDW) and the German Forestry Council (DFWR) advocate primarily the material, but also energetic use of forest wood. The Bundesverband BioEnergie eV (BBE) is committed to the use of renewable raw materials as energy sources. The chairman of the Eurosolar interest group , Hermann Scheer , and the book author Franz Alt have long been advocates of the energetic use of renewable raw materials. Old claims that renewable raw materials would be able to avoid raw material conflicts and armed conflicts in the future. In view of the historical experience with cotton and natural latex rubber, this thesis is being questioned .

History and current situation in Germany

Efforts to increase the use of renewable raw materials were already being made in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. The background was self-sufficiency efforts and embargoes against the German Reich after the attack on Poland triggered the Second World War .

Research on and the use of renewable raw materials is currently being intensified , primarily for reasons of ecology and sustainability .

Renewable raw materials in the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich

While research on plant breeding prior to 1918 focused in particular on economically viable plant species in the German colonies , after the First World War, with the loss of the colonies, the focus shifted to domestic crops and Germany's self-sufficiency in agriculture. One of the pioneers was Erwin Baur , who as head of the Institute for Hereditary Science in Berlin had systematically used genetic knowledge for agricultural purposes as early as 1914. During the Weimar period, Baur, originally a doctor, publicly called for the autarky of foreign raw materials and welcomed the takeover of power by the National Socialists . He became known, among other things, for breeding the bitter- reduced sweet lupins , in which great hopes were placed as soy of the north . After Baur's death in 1933, breeding research was supported with extensive funding in line with Nazi self-sufficiency efforts.

Konrad Meyer , agricultural scientist, SS-Oberführer, author of the Generalplan Ost and founder of the subject of spatial planning in Germany, as Vice President of the German Research Foundation, decisively determined the agricultural science courses such as the organization of agricultural research in Germany between 1933 and 1945 . Meyer managed to concentrate almost a third of the research funds of the Reich Research Council in the field of agricultural science and general biology . Institutionally, the establishment and expansion of many of today's research facilities go back to the activities of that time. In the Reichsnährstand as well as in the four-year plan , closing the protein, oil and fiber gaps (see also fat gap ) was viewed as a strategic challenge, which among other things resulted in futile research projects for hardy olives and soybean cultivation in Germany. They were more successful in the field of rapeseed , flax , industrial hemp , rape and protein-containing forage crops, especially legumes . During the war, researchers from Germany used resources, collections and research results in the occupied territories.

A central research project, personally driven by Heinrich Himmler, was the attempted production of rubber from rubber dandelion ( Taraxacum bicorne ). After the SS captured the plant's seeds in the Soviet Union in 1942 , experiments were carried out on a farm and sub-camp of the Auschwitz concentration camp under the direction of Joachim Caesar . At the beginning of 1945, the associated plant cultivation command comprised over 150 female prisoners who had been transferred from the Ravensbrück concentration camp . Russian scientists were also interned there.

Renewable raw materials in the Federal Republic of Germany

Cultivation of renewable raw materials in Germany (2009, preliminary data)
Cultivated area
in 1,000 hectares
Energetic use 1,701.5
Rapeseed for biodiesel / vegetable oil 942
Starch / sugar for bioethanol 226
Plants for biogas 530
Permanent crops for solid fuels 3.5
Material use 294
Industrial strength 130
Industrial sugar 22nd
technical rapeseed oil 120
technical sunflower oil 8.5
technical linseed oil 2.5
Vegetable fibers 1
Medicines and dyes 10

The most important renewable raw material in Germany is wood. The forest area was around 11.1 million hectares in 2002. In the second Federal Forest Inventory (BWI) it was found that in the old federal states, 8.3 storage cubic meters (Vfm) per hectare per year, which is less than 70% of the increase in 12 Vfm / ha was used. A much more intensive use would therefore be possible. This happens, for example, through so-called wood mobilization . In 2008, 54.7 million cubic meters ( cubic meters ) of wood were used for energy. Almost half of this was used in private households as well as in biomass heating plants and biomass heating power plants. In the sawmill and wood industry , 25.1 million m 3 of sawn timber are produced annually , 2/3 of which is used in the construction industry . For the production of cellulose and wood pulp or paper , 10 million m 3 of weak forest wood and sawing residues are used annually . 20 million m 3 of wood are used annually for the production of wood-based materials , including waste wood. A large proportion of the raw material is burned to provide electricity and process heat . 8.1 million m 3 of chipboard , 5 million m 3 of medium-density fibreboard (MDF), 1.1 million m 3 of oriented strand boards (OSB), 175,000 m 3 of plywood and other products are produced. It must be taken into account that the import and export of wood and the recycling and energetic use of waste wood ( cascade use ) mean that the wood harvest and the amount of wood processed differ from one another.

The second most important resource for renewable raw materials in Germany is agriculture . In 2009, the area under cultivation for renewable raw materials stagnated at around 17% of the arable land (almost 2.0 million hectares), after having increased continuously from 500,000 to over 2 million hectares from 1997 to 2007. Raw materials for energetic use ( energy crops ) were grown on around 85% of this area and raw materials for material use ( industrial plants ) were grown on 15% of the area .

The media prize for renewable raw materials is awarded in Bavaria .

See also

Portal: Renewable raw materials  - overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of renewable raw materials


  • F. Begemann, S. Schröder (Hrsg.): Product diversity through resource diversity - Potential of genetic resources - proceedings of a symposium from 24. – 25. September 2003 at the Gustav Stresemann Institute in Bonn, ZADI, Bonn 2004, ISSN  0948-8332 .
  • Astrid Jahreiß; A. & U. Längenfelder; M. Müller; Publisher: Agency for Renewable Raw Materials (FNR): Learning package for renewable raw materials - teaching material for secondary levels I and II, Hydrogeit Verlag, Oberkrämer, Sept. 2010, ISBN 978-3-937863-23-8
  • Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Ed.): Biomass production - the great change in use in nature and landscape , conference documentation , Bonn 2007.
  • UR Fritsche, K. Hüneke, K. Wiegmann: Criteria for the evaluation of plant cultivation for the production of biofuels in developing countries under ecological, social and economic aspects . Öko-Institut , Darmstadt 2004.
  • Martin Kaltschmitt , Hans Hartmann, Hermann Hofbauer (Hrsg.): Energy from biomass. Basics, techniques and processes , 2nd edition, Berlin / Heidelberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-85094-6 .
  • Stefan Mann: Renewable raw materials Ulmer , Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-8001-4126-4 .
  • Sonja Maria Simon: Scenarios of sustainable bioenergy potentials up to 2030 - modeling for Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary, dissertation at the Technical University of Munich 2006.
  • Oliver Türk: Material use of renewable raw materials: Basics - Materials - Applications , Springer-Vieweg, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-8348-1763-1 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b Markus Kaup: Development and success factors for products made from renewable raw materials in Germany and the EU in the field of tension between economy and ecology. Cologne Research on Economic and Social Geography Volume 52, Economic and Social Geography Institute of the University of Cologne 2002.
  2. Günter Altner / Heike Leitschuh / Gerd Michelsen / Udo E. Simonis / Ernst U. von Weizsäcker (eds.), Ecology Yearbook: 2008 , 2007, p. 102
  3. a b c Federal Forest Inventory 2002 , Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), accessed on January 17, 2010.
  4. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe eV, development of the cultivated area .
  5. In 2005: 37.2%; Source: Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e. V. (Ed.): Data and facts on renewable raw materials. Gülzow 2006; Page 57 ( PDF download ).
  6. Data and facts on biofuels , on , information page of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e. V. (FNR), accessed on November 1, 2012.
  7. Cultivation 2008: Set-aside areas halved - increase in grain , report on , August 1, 2008, accessed on January 18, 2010.
  8. Natural Oil Polyols open up rigid polyurethane foam applications , report on , May 5, 2008, accessed on January 18, 2010.
  9. Bayerische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft (LfL) Renewable Raw Materials ( Memento of the original from January 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 343 kB), chapter from the annual report on the world agricultural markets, report 2008 from March 2009, accessed on January 26, 2010. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  10. Verbio only produces bio-fuel manufacturers in Schwedt  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  11. VERBIO resumes bioethanol production in Zörbig .
  12. Archived copy ( memento of the original from January 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Renewable raw materials of animal origin. By Michael Grunert. In specialist material, Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft February 2005. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. ^ [1] NGZ interview with Bio Ester boss biodiesel in the crisis, NGZ March 2, 2009.
  14. [2] Bundestag wants to increase the petroleum quota at the pump / BEE and VDB warn of the end of the biofuel industry Contrary to all [sic!] Efforts for more climate protection and to reduce the dependence on increasingly scarce petroleum, the Bundestag wants to decide tomorrow to lower the biofuel quota. VDB press release of March 26, 2009.
  15. Bayerische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft (LfL) Oilseeds and Protein Plants ( Memento of the original dated January 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 329 kB), chapter from the annual report on the world agricultural markets, report 2008 from March 2009, accessed on January 26, 2010. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  16. Kamm, B., Gruber, P., Kamm, M .: Biorefineries - Industrial Processes and Products , Wiley-VCH, 2006, ISBN 978-3-527-31027-2 , comprehensive, two-volume work on the status quo and the future Developments in the biorefinery concept .
  17. Today's Max Planck Institute for Breeding Research in Cologne is the direct successor to an institute initiated by Baur in 1928.
  18. Among other things, Baur was an assistant doctor in the state insane asylum (today the Center for Psychiatry) in Emmendingen and co-editor of the journals Archive for Race and Social Biology and People and Race .
  19. a b c d e Autarky and Eastern Expansion: Plant Breeding and Agricultural Research under National Socialism, Susanne Heim, Wallstein Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-89244-496-X .
  20. Michael Flitner , collector, robber and scholar. The political interests in plant genetic resources 1895-1995, Frankfurt / Main 1995.
  21. a b Agency for Renewable Raw Materials e. V. (FNR), info graphic: Cultivation of renewable raw materials in Germany (2009) ( Memento of the original from June 23, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  22. Bioenergy - Basic data Germany , information brochure of the FNR, status August 2012, 27 pages, available as a pdf.
  23. The industry , information on the website of the Federal Association of Sawing and Wood Industry Germany (BSHD), accessed on January 20, 2010.
  24. Cultivation of renewable raw materials in Germany 1997 to 2007 ( Memento of the original of June 21, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Graphic of the specialist agency for renewable raw materials e. V. (FNR), preliminary estimate, accessed January 20, 2010. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /