Blood product

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Blood products (also hemoproducts ) are cellular or plasmatic blood components or whole blood obtained from human blood , which have been prepared for transmission (transfusion) to a recipient.

In Germany, the " Law for the Regulation of the Transfusion System (TFG) " and its implementation provisions, the guidelines for hemotherapy are applied, which are published by the German Medical Association as the "Guidelines for the extraction of blood and blood components and for the use of blood products (hemotherapy) (RiliBÄK- Blood) "in agreement with the Paul Ehrlich Institute and published by it as well as through the" Cross-sectional guidelines (BÄK) for therapy with blood components and plasma derivatives (QLL BÄK) ": Furthermore, the votes of the Blood Working Group (RKI) considered.

In the early days of transfusion medicine , the donated blood was transferred from hospitals to patients as so-called whole blood . Nowadays, several blood products are usually made from a donation in order to give the patient only those blood components that he specifically needs. On the one hand, this greatly reduces the risk of side effects and intolerance, and on the other hand, by separating the blood into its components, optimal conditions for durability and effectiveness can be achieved.

Manufacturing and storage

As soon as the blood is donated, the blood is directed into a closed system of bags containing an anticoagulant and a nutrient solution for the cells. The bag system is designed in such a way that the individual blood components can be transferred into separate, firmly connected bags without the system having to be opened. In this way, reactions with the air and contamination with germs or dust particles can be avoided.

The next step takes place at a blood donation center. There, the blood donation is separated into its components by centrifugation : the cells and blood components are separated into layers due to their different weights. The erythrocytes (red blood cells) are found in the bottom layer, above the leukocytes (white blood cells), then the thrombocytes (blood platelets) and on top the cell-free blood plasma . The individual components are now in the corresponding bag areas and are then divided into an erythrocyte concentrate , a fresh plasma preparation and the intermediate layer ( buffy coat ), which contains the white blood cells and platelets, by means of light sensor-controlled pressing . The red cell concentrate can be stored at +4 ° C for 42 days. Alternatively, the red cell concentrate can also be mixed with glycerine and z. B. frozen at minus 196 ° C, so that it can be kept for years. Before a transfusion, the glycerine must then be washed out of the mixture again, so that this process is very expensive and complex. The fresh plasma is frozen and can be kept for over two years in this condition. In order to produce a platelet concentrate large enough for a transfusion, four suitable "buffy coat" preparations must be combined. The leukocytes are separated from the resulting preparation through a filter. The removal of the leukocytes increases the tolerance of the platelet concentrate, as these can cause side effects such as fever or the formation of antibodies. The platelet concentrate can be stored at +22 ° C for five days.

Use of the blood plasma

In the manufacture of blood products from whole blood, the focus is on obtaining the cellular components. The blood plasma is initially frozen and can be used as fresh frozen plasma (GFP). In the event of overcapacity of this "by-product", it is further processed on an industrial scale by plasma fractionation . There are then plasma proteins (mainly albumin , immune and preparations) clotting factors produced therefrom. At the end of the process, these are in a pure, concentrated and durable form. Because of their origin, these product groups actually belong to the blood products, but are generally referred to as plasma products . Due to the preservation (mostly freeze-drying), they can be used longer than GFP and are easier to store (mostly room temperature or refrigerator), transport and handling. Virus inactivation steps in the process minimize the risk of infectious disease transmission, but cannot completely rule it out. Since the plasma products are highly concentrated, much higher doses can be given in a smaller volume in a shorter time.


Blood products generally carry the risk of infectious diseases being transmitted through them. In the 1980s in particular, infections caused by HIV-contaminated blood products occurred worldwide . That is why blood products are only transmitted if there is a strict corresponding indication (need). This indication is usually given when there is a deficiency in the blood component concerned.

List of blood products

The main blood products are:

Cellular blood products

Non-cellular blood products


  • Confusion-proof documentation through uniform identification code for blood components in Germany. At the 65th meeting of the Blood Working Group on October 1, 2007, the following vote (V36) was passed. Springer Verlag, Federal Health Gazette - Health Research - Health Protection 2007, 50: 1591, doi : 10.1007 / s00103-007-0410-8

Web links

Wiktionary: blood product  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Law on the regulation of the transfusion system (TFG)
  2. Guidelines for the collection of blood and blood components and for the use of blood products (haemotherapy). Set up according to §§ 12a u. 18 Transfusion Act by the German Medical Association in agreement with the Paul Ehrlich Institute. Second amendment of the guidelines in 2010 in the version approved by the Board of Directors of the German Medical Association on April 16, 2010. The agreement of the Paul Ehrlich Institute was made on May 4, 2010.
  3. Cross-sectional guidelines (BÄK) for therapy with blood components and plasma derivatives 4th revised and updated edition 2014 Published by the board of the German Medical Association on the recommendation of the scientific advisory board
  4. "Guidelines for the collection of blood and blood components and for the use of blood products of the German Medical Association" ( Memento from September 6, 2012 on WebCite )
  5. Votes by the blood group
  6. Blood cell processing system: .