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Mist is in agriculture in livestock in barns resulting mixture of excrement of animals ( manure with solid and liquid constituents. See slurry and manure ) with a binding medium. This traditionally consists of vegetable litter , mostly straw , sometimes also wood shavings or hemp chaff , often mixed with the hay not eaten by the cattle . Mist is a manure and is among the organic fertilizers .

Dung heap


Manure spreader in the Mostviertel in Lower Austria
Unprotected field camp

Until the introduction of the mineral fertilizer , the manure was an existential part of agriculture in self-sufficiency (subsistence farming). The manure removal is labor-intensive. In modern agriculture, manure is spread with manure spreaders , in private gardening it is usually spread by hand with a pitchfork . In particular horse dung manure is often used by gardeners, for example as Kompostverbesserer and for fertilizing roses .

Breeding mushrooms are cultivated in controlled culture rooms on fermented horse manure. For glazing units of fermenting and thus warming crap is highly suitable as a base. Here horse manure is considered to be particularly “hot”, while goat manure, for example, does not release much heat.

Mist may also for biogas to be used generation. In large parts of the world, such as in wood-poor steppe areas, collected manure was (and is) one of the most important heating fuels in the fireplace: it burns with particularly little smoke when it is completely dry and has a high calorific value.


see table .

Comparison of biogas raw materials
material Biogas yield
in m 3 per ton of
fresh mass
Corn silage 202 52%
Grass silage 172 54%
Rye GPS 163 52%
Pressed sugar beet
125 52%
Fodder beet 111 51%
Biowaste 100 61%
Chicken litter 80 60%
Pig manure 60 60%
Cattle manure 45 60%
Grain Meat 40 61%
Pig manure 28 65%
Cattle manure 25th 60%

Storage: The dung heap (dung stick)

In the manure heap, before the time for fertilizing is reached, the manure is fermented and further digested and the more aggressive substances are washed out. A large, well-built dung heap on a farm , also known as a dung stick in Swiss, was a valuable resource , literally “the pride of every farmer”.

Traditionally, dung heaps were laid out differently from region to region in relation to the farm: partly in front of the farm (e.g. in Hesse ), partly behind it (e.g. in Pomerania , in Bavaria ), in the inner courtyard (e.g. in the Upper Austrian Vierkanter ) or at Berghöfe simply up the slope. In modern, v. a. On large farms, the system usually follows economic considerations and differs less in the country typical than in the type of farm (animal species, farm size, internal or external use, etc.).

Legal Regulations

The open dung heaps, on which the manure is stored until it is spread on the fields , are still widespread, especially in rural areas, and are the cause of legal disputes in some places due to the constant emission of smells ( mainly through ammonia volatilization ), especially when new residential areas are in direct contact Close to existing farms are to be built.

When storing and spreading manure, legal regulations and safety guidelines must be observed in many countries , among other things to avoid spontaneous ignition during the heat-intensive rotting ( fermentation ) of large amounts of manure with insufficient ventilation.

Above all, groundwater protection plays a major role, as the unregulated discharge ( infiltration ) of nutrients and sometimes pollutants (e.g. drug residues in the urine of intensive fattening) into soil and water can seriously endanger them. In Europe, manure therefore usually has to be stored on paved and water-impermeable subsoil - on so-called manure or dung plates , often with downstream cesspools to collect liquid components. As an exception to this basic rule, well-deposited and sufficiently dry manure may then be temporarily stored in the field without protection, if the weather allows (no rain to be expected). The definitions of “short-term” (a few days to weeks) are very different in the different countries.

The application options are also limited in terms of areas, quantities, seasons and weather conditions.

In Germany, the Fertilizer Ordinance and the Water Management Act ( Section 62 "Facilities for handling substances hazardous to water") serve as the essential legal basis for more detailed provisions at state level.

Use of language

Sometimes the word manure is also used for pure excrement . Colloquially , the term is used for nonsense and chaos . "Crap!" And "Damned crap!" Are used as interjection . In addition, manure is an Eastern Austrian name for garbage .

See also


Web links

Wiktionary: Crap  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Crap  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e. V. (FNR): Biogas basic data Germany. (PDF; as of October 2008). Source for all information except for pressed pulp.
  2. Biogas yields of different substrates, division potatoes / beets lfl.bayern.de, see pressed pulp ensiled .