Animal fats and oils are divided into milk fats ( spreadable fats ) and body fats from land and sea animals . Milk fats are dairy products . Other animal fats are obtained from by-products of the slaughterhouse by pressing and melting them out .
Body fats are mostly poultry fat , pork lard , tallow , kidney fat → beef kidney fat , fish fat and fish oil . But there are also other fats such. B. horse fat or wild animal fats such as marmot fat, badger fat, etc. used.
A special group is formed by marine animal fats, marine animal oils , these are fats and oils from marine animals, they are divided into fish fats, mammalian fats and other marine animal fats; like turtle and crab oil.
The mammalian and fish fats are unpurified as Tran , referred to as the proportion of them in unsaturated fatty acid residues in the triglycerides predominates. This lowers their melting point and pure oil liquefies at room temperature . They are divided into body oils , fats and liver oil ( cod liver oil ), depending on the part of the body used when melting out. When whaling both raw materials were obtained and with the decline took the proliferation of body oils from. Liver oils are also made from the organs of cod , haddock , cod , halibut, and small cetaceans .
"Animal oils" (Oleum animale, Oleum animale foetidum crudum ) are also liquids obtained by pyrolysis and distillation from bones and animal waste products (claws, hooves, cartilage, hair and skin). Dippels animal oil is hardly available today. It has a dark color, a thick consistency and an intense unpleasant odor. It is soluble in alcohol and lighter than water, and repeated rectification produces a colorless oil. Under the old name you can usually get a petroleum distillate, a liquid paraffin Paraffinum liquidum DAB , in pharmacies. The low viscosity variant (Paraffinum perliquidum) is also known as sewing machine oil.
A distinction is also made between bone oil , which is obtained from shredded tubular bones and from bone fat. It was used as a lubricant . Part of the bone fat can be used in this way, the rest is obtained from the remaining, crushed bones, either by boiling or by means of solvent extraction. Also neat's foot oil or foot oil was produced.
Animal fats (in contrast to mineral oils and fats) can be saponified by alkalis and thus made water-soluble. They can also thicken, dry or decompose ( become rancid ) through oxidation ( lipid peroxidation ) and polymerization .
In addition to the food industry, animal fats are also used in the oleochemical industry. The amount of fats of animal origin is around 350,000 tons per year, which run into different product chains. A large proportion of animal fats is processed into surfactants for the detergent industry or into biogenic lubricants . Another part is processed as fuel and consumed in specially converted commercial vehicles.
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