The use of different forms of primary energy for the entire energy supply is referred to as the energy mix . In colloquial terms, the electricity mix is also referred to as the energy mix as the identification of the use of different primary energies in the supply of electrical energy , but is only considered here in terms of the total volume.
The use of a single energy source for heat and power supply is problematic due to the resulting dependence on its price and on its often politically determined availability for larger numbers of people and businesses, so that an energy mix usually results in an energy mix for an entire society comes.
The amounts of available solar , hydro and wind energy are u. a. depending on season and weather (and with solar energy also on the time of day). In principle, however, they are only limited by the solar constant .
In 2018, renewable energies accounted for 37.8% of Germany’s gross electricity consumption. The CO 2 emission factor in 2017 was 486 g CO 2 / kWh. Between 1990 and 2012, this share rose from 3.4% to 24.1%. In the course of rising prices for fossil fuels, the growing ecological sensitivity in society and the state subsidy through the EEG , the share of renewable energies is expected to continue to rise in the future. New wind farms (on land and in coastal waters) are also constantly going into operation and existing wind turbines are being replaced by more efficient systems in the course of so-called “ repowering ” . Renewable energies can already replace nuclear energy by 2020 and in fact take over the entire electricity requirement in 2050.
The energy mix z. For example, in 2020, 2030 or 2040, the focus of public and political interest is also increasing because in the next few years a particularly large number of old power plants will reach the end of their economic life and / or (e.g. due to poor efficiency) only then operated when more efficient power plants are being used. The power plant operators are faced with the question of whether (and if so, with what type, with what capacity and where) they want to replace these power plants with new buildings.
In Germany, the total energy supply in business, industry and transport was based mainly on fossil energy sources until the 2010s . Up to 2013, these had a share of 81.2% of primary energy consumption, including mineral oil (33.7%), natural gas (22.6%), hard coal (13.0%), lignite (11.9%). Renewable energies covered 11.9% and nuclear energy 7.7%, and electricity trading and other energy sources together 0.7% of primary energy consumption. These are the figures for the total energy supply and should not be confused with the proportions of the respective energy sources in the electricity supply.
German energy supplier
In addition to the energy mix of groups of states (e.g. EU), states or federal states, the energy mix of electricity producers (and its development over time) is also of interest.
For example, the energy group E.ON announced the following energy mix for the electricity it generated in 2009: 36% from coal, 24% from nuclear energy, 30% oil / gas, 6% hydropower, 2% wind, 1% waste, 1% other.
Political interests and lobbying
Numerous energy-generating companies demand "planning security" from politicians, often pointing out that their market segment is particularly capital-intensive and / or has a particularly high proportion of fixed costs .
Both meet z. B. to
- on nuclear power plants because the fuel (uranium) only makes up a fraction of the total cost
- on wind turbines , because most of the costs are incurred even when the wind turbine is at a standstill = does not produce electricity
- on photovoltaic systems , because photovoltaic systems used to be profitable only with very high subsidies
- Federal Association for Renewable Energy (BEE)
- International Renewable Energy Organization (IRENA)
- German Atomic Forum eV
- Federal Wind Energy Association
- German Brown Coal Industry Association (DEBRIV)
- Gesamtverband Steinkohle eV (GVSt)
- Association of German Power Plant Operators
- Federal Association of Energy and Water Management (BDEW)
- Association of network operators eV (VDN) - at VDEW
- German Solar Industry Association (BSW)
In 2007 there was an association reform in the energy industry. Lobbying and technical regulation were separated. The energy supervisory authorities had demanded that technical regulations should be set in a neutral manner and independent of corporate political interests. In this context, there were numerous association renaming and mergers.
In addition to industry associations, there are also associations that bundle specific interests and lobby for them. For example, in June 2010 the Association of Coal Importers (VDK) demanded that the federal government should "continue to make up 20 percent of the energy mix in the future."
- Energy mix, sustainable energy supply: News, background, data, statistics, infographics "Agenda 21 meeting point"
- AG Energiebilanzen eV
- Federal Environment Agency: Development of the specific carbon dioxide emissions of the German electricity mix in the years 1990–2016
- Graphic: Energy mix - world regions , from: Facts and figures: Globalization , www.bpb.de
- Graphic: Energy mix - 43 European countries , from: Figures and facts: Europe , www.bpb.de
- Graphic: Energy mix EU - USA - China , from: Figures and facts: Europe , www.bpb.de
- Kraftwerkspark Deutschland interactive map of all power plants in Germany, from the Federal Association of Energy and Water Management eV
- see Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute
- BMU https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/klima-energie/erneuerbare-energien/erneuerbare-energien-in-zahlen#statusquo as of 2018
- AG Energiebilanzen: Gross electricity generation in Germany from 1990 by energy source , as of December 12, 2014, PDF file, 76 KiB, accessed on December 25, 2014.
- Current data and facts - Renewable Energies , accessed on March 9, 2009
- wind-energie.de: Halving the number of turbines, doubling the output and tripling the yield can now become the formula for success of German onshore wind energy in the next few years. ( Memento from March 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Volker Quaschning: Climate protection scenario for Germany
- AG Energiebilanzen: Year 2014 available since December 17, 2014 , Excel file, 37 KiB, accessed on December 25, 2014.
- eon.com ( Memento of the original from July 16, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed July 2010.
- RP of June 24, 2010, page E3