The Yugur (also Yugurs , actually Sarı Yoğur "Yellow Uighurs"; Chinese 裕固族 , Pinyin Yùgùzú ) are one of the smallest of the 55 officially recognized ethnic minorities of the People's Republic of China . According to the last census in 2010, they counted 14,378 people. Most of them live in the Yugur Sunan Autonomous County (Sun 裕固族 自治县), which is part of the administrative area of Zhangye City in Gansu Province .
Three languages are spoken among the Yugur: About a third of the population speaks East Yugur , also called Engger (a Mongolian language ), another third speaks West Yugur , also called Yohur (a Turkic language ). The remaining third only speak Chinese , which also serves as the lingua franca between East and West Yugur, as only a few, individual Yugurs speak both Yugur languages. Higher lamas and a few educated Yugurs also have a command of the Tibetan language .
The Buddhism was the Turks already at the time of the first Turkish empire known (552-585 / 630) and later, in the Uyghur in the time of the Uighur city-states from the 9th century to be a flower. After the extensive Islamization of Turkestan and Xinjiang in the 15th century, Buddhism only survived among the Turkish peoples in Tuwa and Gansu until the 18th century . The West Yugur, the Altai , the Tuvins and the Kyrgyz (only in Dorbiljin and Fuyu ) are the last four Turkish peoples who have remained loyal to Buddhism to this day. In addition, the Yugur had shamans until the 1970s . The knowledge of the shamanic practices was largely lost with the last shaman. Nevertheless, some shamanistic customs and traditions within indigenous Buddhism have been preserved to this day.
After the destruction of the Uyghur Kaganat around 840, many Uyghurs moved southwest to the city-states of Turpan , Qočo , Beshbalik and Kuqa ; others - the Yellow Yugurs - moved to the cities of the Gansu Corridor and received help from Guiyijun.
- Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp The Early Turks in Central Asia , p. 2
- Minglang Zhou, Ann Maxwell Hill: Affirmative Action in China and the US: A Dialogue on Inequality and Minority Education. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. p. 200.
- Presentation on studyBuddhism, accessed on June 29, 2020
- The Yugur ethnic minority (Chinese government side)
- Buddhism among the Turkic peoples ( Alexander Berzin )
- Bôlqûlûû (保 朝 鲁Baochaolu ) u. a. [Ed.]: Jegun Yûgûr helen u uges / 东部 裕 固 语 词汇Dongbu Yuguyu cihui (Eastern Yugurian vocabulary). 内蒙古 人民出版社Nei Menggu renmin chubanshe (Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House ). 呼和浩特 Hohhot 1984/1985. 13 + 160 pages. [bilingual Mongolian-Chinese, East-Yugurian in IPA].
- Bôlqûlûû (保 朝 鲁Baochaolu ) u. Jalsan (贾拉森Jialasen ) [ed.]: Jegun Yûgûr helen u uge helelge yin materiyal / 东部 裕 固 语 话语 材料Dongbu Yuguyu huayu cailiao (language material of East Yugurian). 内蒙古 人民出版社Nei Menggu renmin chubanshe (Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House ). 呼和浩特 Hohhot 1988. ISBN 7-204-00437-X . 17 + 352 pages. [bilingual Mongolian-Chinese, East-Yugurian in IPA].
- Bôlqûlûû (保 朝 鲁Baochaolu ) u. Jalsan (贾拉森Jialasen ): Jegun Yûgûr hele be Mônggôl hele / 东部 裕 固 语 和 蒙古语Dongbu Yuguyu he Mengguyu (Eastern Yugurian and Mongolian). 内蒙古 人民出版社Nei Menggu renmin chubanshe (Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House ). 呼和浩特 Hohhot 1990/1991/1992. ISBN 7-204-01401-4 . 8 + 13 + 389 pages. [bilingual Mongolian-Chinese, East-Yugurian in IPA].
- Lei, Xuanchun雷 选 春 [Author] u. Chen, Zongzhen陈宗振 [Corr.]: 西部 裕 固 汉 词典Xibu Yugu Han cidian (West Yugur Chinese Dictionary). 四川 民族 出版社Sichuan minzu chubanshe (Sichuan Nationalities Publishing House ). 成都 Chengdu 1992. ISBN 7-5409-0457-7 . 2 + 2 + 12 + 377 pages. [West Yugur in IPA].
- Yuguzu de wenhua xingtai裕固族 的 文化 形态 (The Yugur Cultural Formation). In: Hao, Sumin 郝苏民 u. Wenhua 文化 u. He, Weiguang 贺卫光 [ed.], 甘 青 特有 民族文化 形态 研究Gan Qing teyou minzu wenhua xingtai yanjiu (research on the cultural formation of the nationalities that only live in Gansu and Qinghai). 民族 出版社Minzu chubanshe (nationality publisher). 北京 Beijing 1999/2000. ISBN 7-105-03420-3 . Pp. 313-368.
- Zhong, Jinwen钟进文 [ed.]: 中国 裕固族 研究 集成Zhongguo Yuguzu yanjiu jicheng (Comprehensive collection of researches on the Yugur of China). 民族 出版社Minzu chubanshe (nationality publisher). 北京 Beijing 2002. ISBN 7-105-04704-6 . 4 + 2 + 24 + 714 pages.