The Portuguese are the citizens of Portugal and their descendants, who define themselves as a separate ethnic group in other countries. They mostly speak the Portuguese language , by a small minority in the villages of Miranda do Douro but one which is Asturleonesischen assigned dialect ( Mirandes ) spoken, which is recognized as a minority language. The majority of the Portuguese are Catholics . Culturally and linguistically close to the Portuguese are the Galicians who live in north-west Spain .
Despite good economic development, Portugal is home to the smallest people in Europe on average. These tendencies have been evident since the 1840s and have become increasingly pronounced since then. The moderate development of real wages was one of the driving factors behind the size differences in view of the late industrialization of Portugal and the economic output compared to the European core.
History of the population
see also: History of Portugal
The territory of present-day Portugal was in antiquity speaking before the Roman conquest of the an Indo-European language in their precise linguistic assignment but controversial Lusitanians , of Celtic groups and in the south of the linguistically and culturally with the civilization of Tartessos related Cynetes or Conii inhabited.
After the conquest by the Romans and the incorporation into the Roman Empire , most of the area belonged to the province of Lusitania , but the north belonged to the province of Tarraconensis or, since the late 3rd century, to Gallaecia . The area was colonized by settlers from other parts of the empire and linguistically largely Romanized. At the time of the Great Migration , the Germanic Visigoths and Suebi settled here.
From the 8th to the first half of the 13th century, a large part of the country was under Moorish rule. The Moorish influence was stronger in Portugal than in other European countries, they played a large part in the flourishing of crafts and agriculture in the early Middle Ages . After the Reconquista , some of the Moors were driven out, but most of them were enslaved . The Jews , who made up a significant proportion of the population in the Middle Ages, were forced, like the remaining Muslim population, to embrace Christianity .
Due to the poverty in the mother country, Portugal was a country of emigration for centuries. The main destination was Brazil, but the Portuguese also settled in the African colonies until they became independent. Other destinations were the classic immigrant countries of the USA, Canada and Argentina, and from the second half of the 20th century also several Western European countries.
Portuguese in Europe
In 2013 there were around 644,000 Portuguese citizens and a total of 1.25 million people of Portuguese origin in France . Statistical figures from other European countries are: Andorra (10.2% of the resident population), the United Kingdom (around 500,000 Portuguese citizens and people of Portuguese origin ), Luxembourg (92,100 Portuguese citizens, the largest group of foreigners with 16.3% of the total population), Switzerland (159,700 Portuguese citizens) and Spain (141,000 Portuguese citizens).
Almost 117,000 Portuguese citizens lived in Germany in 2004 and 114,552 in 2007. On March 17, 1964, the Erhard I cabinet signed the recruitment agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and Portugal . The Portuguese Armando Rodrigues de Sá was officially welcomed in 1964 as the millionth “ guest worker ” in Germany and was given a moped for the occasion.
Portuguese in the former colonies of the 20th century
A large number of Portuguese emigrated to the former colonies of Portugal. In the former colonies, the Portuguese are national minorities. In some, mixed populations with the original population form large proportions of today's inhabitants:
- Angola : 40,000, 100,000 Mestiços
- Goa / India : small minority
- Guinea-Bissau : small minority
- Cape Verde Islands : 1%, 71% Mestiços
- Macau : 24.9% Macaense (mixed population with Chinese ), 3% Portuguese
- Mozambique : 20,000
- East Timor : Mestiços , 700 inhabitants name Portuguese as their mother tongue.
- São Tomé and Príncipe : Mulatto and small Portuguese minority.
Portuguese in the rest of the world
In the former colony of Brazil , the Portuguese mostly mixed with other Europeans , Indians and Africans. Out of around 35 million Brazilians, at least one of the grandparents was Portuguese. But traces of the Portuguese population can also be found in other old colonial areas. Likewise in many of the classic immigration countries.
- Argentina : 30,000 Portuguese citizens
- Aruba and Curacao
- Australia : 55,000 Portuguese citizens
- Canada : 0.7% of the population speak Portuguese
- Malaysia : around 1000 speak Malay-Portuguese Creole
- Sri Lanka : 30,000
- South Africa : 400,000
- United Arab Emirates ( Dubai )
- United States : so called Luso Americans
- Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries
- Portuguese colonial history
- Portuguese in Germany
- Portuguese in Switzerland
- Portugal: emigration. (English)
- Yvonne Stolz, Joerg Baten, Jaime Reis: Portuguese living standards, 1720-1980, in European comparison: heights, income, and human capital 1: Portuguese Living Standards . In: The Economic History Review . tape 66 , no. 2 , May 2013, p. 545-578 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.2012.00658.x .
- Diercke country dictionary . Augsburg 1989, ISBN 3-89350-211-4
- Observatório da Emigração ( Memento of the original of March 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (Portuguese)
- UK-Portuguese Newspaper Launched in Thetford Norfolk . NewswireToday. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
- Luxembourg. In: Foreign Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016 .
- Foreign population on December 31, 2007 by the most frequent citizenships . Federal Office of Statistics
- Der Fischer Weltalmanach 2008, ISBN 978-3-596-72008-8 .