A talk show ( English talk "conversation", show "broadcast") is a discussion broadcast on the radio ( television or radio ) or via online channels. On television, she also is televised debate , on the radio radio debate , radio debate or talk radio , the Internet Webtalkshow .
The discussion takes place similar to an interview between the host and one or more discussion guests, but also between the talk guests themselves. The host is called a moderator or talk master , English host . Typical is the process in which the moderator first asks the discussion guests about a topic, and then a more or less free and / or host-directed conversation develops among the discussion guests. There is no ideal talk show, but different broadcast formats, the only thing in common is the element of conversation.
Talk shows can be roughly divided into three types:
- The personality talk is used in particular for the (self-) presentation of celebrities. A frequent point of criticism is that some programs are less about content-related disputes than about the celebrity guests taking the opportunity to present their new product - book, film or CD.
- The debate show is mainly dedicated to the presentation of political issues that are normally not dealt with in a person-oriented manner (political talk ). Polittalk are all talk shows that focus on controversial political issues.
- The confession show deals with personal and intimate topics, whereby limits of shame and embarrassment can be reached and exceeded. The afternoon shows, in which citizens discuss everyday problems, are called "daytime talk" .
There are talk shows with a predetermined content and formats whose content is only revealed during the discussion (“television talk” without a script ). The audience is hardly or not at all involved in both and is usually only invited as a backdrop. Different talk shows of the same genre often do not differ in their subjects, but rather in their moderators, who often form the only constant human element of the show.
There are similarities between most daily talk formats that create a certain homogeneity:
- The programs are usually broadcast every working day (Monday to Friday) and are therefore of a series.
- The shows are not in prime time , but rather in the low-spectator time between 11:00 and 17:00.
- Daily Talks are predominantly monothematic, which means that only one topic is discussed in each episode.
- There is an audience in the hall who, in most of the programs, has the opportunity to participate in the discussion with questions, contributions to the discussion or statements.
- The talk guests are almost exclusively made up of “ordinary people”, celebrities are rarely invited. The decisive factor for the invitation is the real or alleged professional competence of the guests, i.e. their ability to take an authentic position on the topic of the program as directly or indirectly affected. Usually this is between five and ten people per shipment.
- The shows are cheap and effective, as high market shares can be achieved comparatively inexpensively.
- The audience of many daily talk formats consists to a large extent of women (two thirds of viewers) and older people. Despite the high proportion of older viewers, however, they are primarily aimed at younger audiences who are interesting for advertising .
These afternoon formats often have the names of their hosts as the program title, as the moderator - as a personalized form of television presentation - creates the personal relationship between the program and the audience. For the viewer he becomes an image-defining figure of identification . In the discussions, everyday proximity and uninhibited manners - both by the guests and the moderators - are increasingly practiced and convey the authentic character of the programs to the viewer. This impression is intensified by the presence of the studio audience .
Nevertheless, daily talks contain many elements of everyday interpersonal (face to face) communication , as the conversation between the moderator and his unprominent guest is integrated into a program dramaturgy, but this is neither impaired by show elements in its everyday character, nor their content for the purpose the media distribution.
Topic structure in daily talk shows
Even if the topics of German afternoon talk shows cover all areas of life, the very personal and intimate concerns of the guests are usually in the foreground. With regard to the main topics, four dominant areas emerge:
- Celebrities and entertainment
- Family, love and partnership
- Social , health and working life
- Individual conflicts in private relationships and everyday problems
Topics of public life with relation to politics , economy and justice are represented only subordinately, the importance of such topics, which have a relation to culture , science , research and technology is even less . On the other hand, however, typical categories of the boulevard are also underrepresented: sex and erotic topics receive a little less airtime than topics on politics and society in the broader sense. Crime and disasters play a very minor role . Overall, the range of topics seems to be oriented towards the everyday areas of life of the majority of the population, while the institutional areas of action such as politics and culture are almost meaningless.
With the cultivation of the private, the glamor of celebrities and the institutional public also lose weight; instead, the areas of private everyday life with its problems and conflicts, which lie in the individual's relationships with the outside world on the one hand, and in personal intimate areas on the other, are often presented .
With increasing competition between these broadcast formats, the topics are formulated increasingly provocatively . In addition, their content is geared more towards privately articulated wishes, problems and conflicts, some of which exceed the range of socially accepted norms . Sex and erotic topics attract a lot of public attention, but their actual share only plays a relatively minor role.
The tendency towards conceptual changes in daily talk shows appears to be more important than this area, whereby the topic loses its importance, but the affect potential and the articulation forms of the actors from peripheral milieus gain new attention and entertainment value. This tendency to de-thematize the talk show goes hand in hand with a different understanding of the role of the actors: Competence in a specific subject area is no longer required in order to defend a position with arguments, but rather new attention impulses in unusual forms of self-presentation to tap into.
Critics complain that in these formats mostly "people from problematic environments or in difficult personal situations, people in mental crises, victims of abuse, people with financial difficulties due to indebtedness, problem families" are on display. Furthermore, the self-renunciation of privacy and intimacy only serves to satisfy the voyeuristic interests of the audience; this often even leads to stronger problems for the protagonist after the broadcast. Some of these talk shows also use paid amateur actors , and audience reactions are manipulated by written or visual instructions.
Media psychologists also speak here of affect television , the characteristics of which are mostly artificially created personalization, authenticity , intimacy or emotionalization. In 1997, media scholars Gary Bente and Bettina Fromm established the term "affect talks" for these talk shows . Angela Keppler distinguishes between narrative reality television and performative reality television . Performative reality television is " entertainment programs that turn themselves into a stage for prominent actions, which nonetheless intervene directly or specifically in the everyday reality of people." In narrative reality television, the "viewers are entertained with the authentic or simulated reproduction of actual catastrophes" .
According to Girnth / Michel (2007), the following characteristics can be mentioned especially for political talk shows:
- Institutionalization : The speech acts are institutionally regulated, which has an impact on, for example, the right to speak, the duration of the speech, etc.
- Discursiveness : Linguistic utterances always refer to previous discourses / texts and subsequent discourses / texts. Politicians must therefore take into account the prior knowledge of their (direct and indirect) interlocutors.
- Representationality : The politicians are representatives of the respective party with which they share the same pattern of interpretation and evaluation standards. An in-group is thus differentiated from an out-group.
- Public and mass media : two levels of interaction can be distinguished with regard to public-political language use. First, the direct interaction between politicians (and parties) and, second, the interaction between politicians and the public who are only indirectly involved. This often manifests the staging character of the first level, which leads to persuasion on the second level.
Some of these political talk formats are particularly criticized, since talk show appearances by politicians are more likely to increase awareness than to enable a serious and thorough discussion of political issues. Furthermore, an increase in the formation of political opinions in the extra-parliamentary area as well as the increasing importance of “professional self-expression” and “staging of problem-solving skills” and a “policy of association representatives and lobbyists” are criticized.
Explanatory models for the reception of TV talk shows
Basic media psychological functions
In the media research to find different explanations why use television viewers entertainment. Most often this is interpreted as a form of escapism in order to escape the monotony of everyday life and to move easily and risk-free into charming and interesting medially conveyed illusory worlds. On the other hand, Ursula Dehm pointed out as early as 1984 that viewers also see information programs as entertaining and supposedly pure entertainment programs as informative. Entertainment offers can be perceived by the audience on two levels - once as pure entertainment and once as a kind of information offering , with the help of which it is possible to satisfy social orientation needs.
Based on the classic functions of the mass media , talk shows address the following basic needs:
- The social orientation or information function, according to which the media provide their users with a variety of information and help them to find their way in a complex environment.
- The recreation function addresses the recipient's need for relaxation and relief. Television makes it possible to escape from everyday life and get to know dream worlds that lie outside of one's own area of experience.
- The integration function, according to which television creates a lack of contact with the environment, compensates for information deficits and uncertainties in the face of an unknown or changing environment.
- The interactive function, in which new suggestions and content are conveyed, which contribute to the establishment of social contacts and to common conversation.
The importance of talk shows for recipients
On the one hand, talk shows can be seen as staged shows that are only for entertainment. Since they are often superficial, striking and staged , they can neither live up to their claim to actually enlighten and inform, nor are they useful for a factual discussion and balanced opinion, ultimately only their show character in the sense of a media staging of concerned communication. Part of the audience finds this show character particularly attractive. Talk shows are judged negatively overall with regard to their claim to provide objective clarification and information, but at the same time they are seen as a kind of “freak show” as entertaining.
On the other hand, viewers appreciate talk shows because of their perceived authenticity: There are "normal" people - and not experts - to be seen who have something to say about an everyday topic or problem, with the talk guests acting as representatives who are similar to themselves are. Finally, there is the possibility of interfering (even if not directly) in the discussion and comparing one's own opinion with that expressed on television. The use of talk shows is therefore primarily linked to motives that relate to social comparison with other people in order to check the appropriateness of one's own lifestyle or interpersonal behavior. The (supposed) normality of the presented topics and people supports such comparison processes, which can consist of identifying with as well as differentiating them from the people appearing. At the same time, talk show recipients want to be emotionally involved, which happens through emotional ties to the moderators and the candidates.
Access ways to talk show content
A distinction must be made between three dimensions as ways of accessing talk shows, depending on the audience's ideas and expectations:
- One can naively consider the staging to be true and the arguments credible and thus classify the show as a serious problem discussion. Or you can look at the show in reflection, which requires a certain amount of background knowledge, and think about the character of the staging, the dramaturgy and the motives of the participants.
- You can follow the broadcast with involvement, i.e. you can be affected by a topic yourself or be fascinated or touched by a person. Or have a distant relationship with it.
- The program can be followed in a more entertainment-oriented manner, or to be able to gain orientation in specific questions.
Emotional participation in the reception of talk shows
With regard to television reception, three modalities of emotional participation can be distinguished, each characterized by the type of relationship between recipient and actor:
- Empathy : In the case of empathic participation, the viewer is in the position of the eyewitness and feels sympathy with the protagonist on the basis of perceived sympathy . The viewer of affect TV offers could feel sorry for a studio guest who reports on a stressful experience that is alien to the recipient.
- Identification : Identification, on the other hand, conveys the feeling of being the protagonist, whereby the viewer sees what is happening through the eyes of the actor and experiences, for example, threats, sadness and joy . He would feel burdened himself if a guest describes a fate similar to the viewer and bursts into tears in front of the camera.
- Parasocial interaction : The concept of parasocial interaction or parasocial relationship ultimately assumes that there can be interactions between the screen player and the viewer, on the basis of which long-term emotional bonds can develop.
Talk shows from a cultivation theory perspective
The cultivation thesis (also known as cultivation analysis) is based on long-term interaction processes between the omnipresent medium of television and the recipients' perception of reality . In analogy to this, a connection between certain forms of presentation and content of talk shows and the recipients' perception of reality can be assumed. The daily broadcast rhythm of the individual shows, the widespread presence of these formats in the afternoon program of the programs with the greatest number of viewers, the topics that are often repeated within individual formats, the stereotypical representations of topics across different formats and programs, conflicts between non-prominent guests and the problems they bring up Everyday life, which enables viewers to relate the programs to their own reality, as well as the stable, ritualized forms of staging - all of this makes a connection between talk show content, talk show use and perception of reality seem conceivable.
The following three characteristics could lead to certain distortions of the perception of reality:
- Talk shows make dysfunctional relationships and bizarre problems appear as normal and distinctive features of society .
- They desensitize viewers to human suffering by devoting themselves exclusively to sensational events.
- They also induce viewers to trivialize complex social relationships.
In addition, there is probably a mechanism of action that relates to the emergence of social categories and in which the striking aspect of the portrayed plays a special role: the recipient is hardly or not at all confronted with many topics that are dealt with in talk shows. The encounter with people who represent such little-known or unknown realities of life therefore shapes the perception of this group much more than general (e.g. statistical) information. One reason for this may be that the drastic, lively and emotionalizing presentations on talk shows have a greater influence on the opinion of the viewer than a sober, balanced and objective treatment of a topic.
Immediately after the new beginning of German television in both the Federal Republic and the GDR, conversational broadcasting was a frequent form of broadcast because the television pioneers lacked technical and financial resources. Here, too, there was cooperation with radio, and events such as panel discussions with audience participation were also included in the program. In the first few years of the ZDF and later when the commercial channels in West Germany started broadcasting, the programs were equipped with conversation programs to a considerable extent for reasons of cost. On January 6, 1952, the international morning pint began in Germany in the FM program of the NWDR - also like the American model on Sundays - and after the NWDR split up in 1956 it was transferred to the WDR . From August 30, 1953, television broadcast the television series, and the first German TV talk show was created. By December 20, 1987, 1,874 episodes of those involved in drinking white wine were running. The first talk show according to today's understanding started on March 18, 1973 in the third program of the WDR with Dietmar Schönherr under the title The later the evening , was shown from December 31, 1973 in the first program and ran until July 29, 1978. She was the Prototype of the talk show, which was followed by broadcast 3 after 9 on NDR television from November 19, 1974. Also in the third program, namely on West German television , the Kölner Treff was broadcast from the Cologne cabaret and cabaret theater Senftöpfchen from January 25, 1976 .
With the advent of private broadcasters, the number of talk shows also increased. With Karl Dall in Dall-As from January 19, 1985, RTL Television relied on the quick-wittedness of this presenter, Explosiv - The hot seat with Ulrich Meyer since January 15, 1989 on a confrontation. After the ARD had already made initial attempts in this direction every day with Talk , with the takeover of the American program structure by the broadcaster RTL in 1992, the concept of afternoon talk shows also established itself on the German television market. From September 14, 1992, Hans Meiser presented the first daily talk show under his name. After the RTL pioneer was quickly established, Ilona Christen (RTL) followed a year later , whereupon several daily talks started on many programs: Arabella ( ProSieben ), Fliege ( Das Erste ), Bärbel Schäfer (RTL), Vera am Mittag ( Sat. 1 ), Kerner (Sat.1) and others. In 1996, Focus magazine counted over 80 talk shows per week on German television. “The protectionist pastorality of Jürgen Fliege stands next to the moral dismay of a Vera Int-Veen , the shrill Arabella Kiesbauer next to the emotional dismay of an Ilona Christen, the (mock) naivety of Juliane & Andrea next to the understanding friend Johannes B. Kerner , who between (mock) uncertainty and provocation fluctuating Bärbel Schäfer next to equipped with a touch of irony Hans Meiser . "with a glut of shipments and the increasing loss of substance this program form but lost time in importance and was first through the form and content related court shows and then replaced by so-called scripted reality formats.
Conventional talk show formats on politics, culture, sport and society
Currently on air
- Anne Will with Anne Will ( The First )
- Hard but fair with Frank Plasberg (Das Erste / WDR )
- Maischberger (formerly Menschen bei Maischberger ) with Sandra Maischberger (Das Erste)
- Press club with Monika Piel , Volker Herres or Jörg Schönenborn (Das Erste / WDR )
- Maybrit Illner with Maybrit Illner ( ZDF )
- Markus Lanz with Markus Lanz (ZDF)
- Munich round with Ursula Heller or Sigmund Gottlieb ( Bavarian television )
- Sunday get-together with Helmut Markwort (Bavarian TV)
- Daily talk ( ARD-alpha )
- Riverboat ( MDR )
- NDR Talk Show ( NDR )
- Tietjen and Bommes with Bettina Tietjen and Alexander Bommes (NDR)
- 3 to 9 with Giovanni di Lorenzo and Judith Rakers ( Radio Bremen )
- Thadeusz and the observers with Jörg Thadeusz ( RBB )
- Night Café ( SWR )
- Cologne Meeting ( WDR )
- Phoenix round with Anke Plättner / Alexander Kähler ( Phoenix )
- Unter den Linden with Michaela Kolster and Michael Hirz (Phoenix)
- By Brender! with Nikolaus Brender ( n-tv )
- The duel at n-tv with Heiner Bremer (n-tv)
- Studio Friedman with Michel Friedman ( WeLT )
- One-two pass ( Sport1 )
- One against one with Claus Strunz ( Sat.1 )
Former / canceled talk shows
- Absolute majority with Stefan Raab and Peter Limbourg ( ProSieben )
- Beckmann with Reinhold Beckmann ( Das Erste )
- Blond am Friday with Ralph Morgenstern ( ZDF , 2001–2007)
- Boulevard Bio with Alfred Biolek (Das Erste)
- The international morning pint with Werner Höfer ( German TV / ARD )
- Günther Jauch with Günther Jauch (Das Erste)
- The later the evening ( West German television / German television )
- Johannes B. Kerner with Johannes B. Kerner (ZDF)
- Kerner with Johannes B. Kerner (Sat.1, 2009-2011)
- Night studio with Volker Panzer (ZDF, 1997–2012)
- Sabine Christiansen with Sabine Christiansen (Das Erste)
- Attention! Friedman with Michel Friedman
- People ( SFB , 1983–1989) with Henryk M. Broder , Elke Heidenreich , Gisela Marx , Wolfgang Menge transferred from the Café Kranzler in Berlin
- Thick B ( RBB )
- People on Thursday
- Thursday talk ( GDR television / DFF )
- Portrait by phone ( DFF / television of the GDR )
- Klönsnack from Rostock (DFF / TV of the GDR)
- Cross-polled on SWR television
- Busch @ n-tv with Leo Busch (n-tv)
- Coffee chat with Ralph Morgenstern ( ZDF )
- Roche & Böhmermann with Charlotte Roche and Jan Böhmermann ( ZDFkultur )
- Talk op Platt with Ewald Christophers and Gerlind Rosenbusch ( NDR , 1982-2006)
- Between us - stories from life ( MDR ) with Griseldis Wenner and Axel Bulthaupt
- Rooms vacant! with Christine Westermann and Götz Alsmann ( WDR )
- 2 + Leif with Thomas Leif ( SWR )
ARD / ZDF
- Dieter Speck with Dieter Speck (Das Erste, 2003)
- Fliege - the talk show with Jürgen Fliege (Das Erste, 1994-2005)
- Inca! with Inka Bause (ZDF, 2013)
- Man, Ohrner! with Thomas Ohrner (ZDF, 1998–1999)
|Ilona Christians||The Oliver Geissen Show|
The first daily talk show was Hans Meiser with Hans Meiser , which went on air on September 14, 1992 and was broadcast on weekdays at 4 p.m. A year later, Ilona Christen with Ilona Christen followed on the 3 p.m. slot , followed in 1995 by Bärbel Schäfer with Bärbel Schäfer at 2 p.m.
From September 1998, Birte Karalus and Birte Karalus were joined by a fourth talk show that was broadcast at 2 p.m. and for which Bärbel Schäfer was brought up to the broadcast slot at 1 p.m. In January 1999, Sabrina and Sabrina Staubitz were also included in the program as the station's fifth talk show and the only one in the morning . At the beginning of 1999, the broadcasting slots for Bärbel Schäfer (from then at 3 p.m.) and Ilona Christen (from then at 1 p.m.) were swapped. In August, Oliver goats with Oliver goats show Christen's successor on the time slot at 13.00.
Due to decreasing audience numbers, the two most short-lived programs of the station were first removed from the program: Birte Karalus in September and Sabrina in October 2000. From then on, Bärbel Schäfer was shown on the 2:00 pm slot , and Hans Meiser was also one hour from this point earlier to see at 3 p.m. After a good six months on this slot, however, Meiser's talk show was also taken out of the program in March 2001 after around 1,700 episodes. Schäfer's broadcast continued for about a year and a half and was finally canceled in August 2002.
The only broadcast that was retained was the Oliver Geissen Show , which was moved to 2 p.m. in October 2007 following the extension of the magazine Punkt 12 . In May 2008, Natascha Zuraw and Natascha Zuraw even started a second talk show at 3 p.m., but after only 19 episodes it was removed from the program. In August 2009, RTL said goodbye to the genre of daily talk shows with the cancellation of the Oliver Geissen Show after exactly ten years.
After more than 10 years without a talk show on RTL, RTL will try a talk show again from February 10, 2020. Marco Schreyl then moderates the talk show of the same name on weekdays at 4 p.m.
|Vera at noon|
|Kerner||Jörg Pilawa||Franklin - your chance at 11|
|Sonja||Britt - The talk at one|
The first daily talk show on the private broadcaster Sat.1 was the half-hour program Herrmann - Die Talkshow für Sie , moderated by Wolf-Dieter Herrmann , which was broadcast from January to March 1993 at noon at noon. After the end of the program, it took almost three years until the show Kerner , moderated by Johannes B. Kerner , was included in the program again in January 1996. The program shown at 11 a.m. was supplemented two weeks later by a second talk show Vera at noon with Vera Int-Veen , which was then broadcast at 12 p.m. A year later came up with the following its presenter Sonja Zietlow designated broadcast Sonja at 13.00 the third talk show added.
End In 1997 Johannes B. Kerner on ZDF , so from the beginning of 1998 Jörg Pilawa with the same mission Jörg Pilawa the time slot at 11:00 am took over. From August 1999, Ricky Harris and his show Ricky! A fourth talk show was added to the program at 2 p.m., but it was replaced by Peter Imhof with Peter Imhof in March 2000 .
Further staff changes occurred when Pilawa took over the quiz show in the evening program of Sat.1 and Zietlow switched to RTL . Pilawa's successor in August 2000 was the show Franklin - your chance at 11 with Franklin , Britt Hagedorn took over Zietlow's slot in January 2001 with Britt - The Talk at One .
In November 2001 Peter Imhof fell victim to the waning audience interest , and in August 2004 the Franklin talk show, which was briefly moved to the broadcast slot at 10 o'clock, in August 2004. After ten years of running, Vera am Mittag was also taken off the program in January 2006 . Only Britt - The talk at one was the only talk show that lasted a few more years. With 2,112 episodes, it was also canceled as the last remaining and longest running daily talk show on German television on March 28, 2013.
After the success of the talk shows on RTL, ProSieben also started its first talk show in April 1994, which was supposed to be moderated by Arabella Kiesbauer . However, this was due to an inflammation of the vocal cords for the planned start of the broadcast, so that on April 5, 1994 at 3 p.m. the journalist Michael Lindenau first went on air with the Lindenau program. After only one month, however, its broadcast was postponed to the slot at 9 a.m. due to poor ratings, where it was stopped again after another month.
Kiesbauer finally started with the show Arabella immediately afterwards on June 6, 1994 at 2 p.m., much more successfully. Between February 1996 and March 1997, Arabella Night , a late-night version of Arabella, was also broadcast. In 1998, ProSieben took Andreas Türck , moderated by Andreas Türck , a second talk show into its program, which was broadcast from February 25, 1998 on the slot at 3 p.m. A year later, on March 4, 1999, the broadcaster's third talk show followed with Nicole - Decision in the afternoon and Nicole Noevers at 4 p.m.
On December 7, 2001, Nicole was initially set again - decision in the afternoon . Shortly afterwards on 15 January 2002, Andreas Tuerk , as repetition in lunches and morning program survived the mission by mid 2003. Türcks time slot in the afternoon took Tobias Schlegl with absolute Schlegl before the show was set in late 2002 after nearly a year, . After the ratings continued to decline , the last talk show, Arabella, was removed from the station's program on June 4, 2004 after ten years.
European forerunners of the talk show were political, social or religious-philosophical discussion groups on the radio. The BBC recognized six years after the beginning of broadcasting in Europe the importance of talks on the radio and dedicated in her BBC Handbook of 1929 the subject of a separate chapter "How to Conduct a Wirelss Discussion Group" and issued a brochure for those interested . The talk show, which was not called that at the time, was not hosted by permanent moderators in the Funkhaus in London, but by volunteer experts in the respective associations, clubs etc. on site.
The television forerunner of the talk shows was Meet the Press on American private television: The show started on NBC on November 6, 1947 and is considered the longest running television series ever. In 1951 the first talk show as it is today took place, The Joe Franklin Show , which ran for 42 years until April 6, 1993. Small World with Edward R. Murrow also ran on Sundays from October 12, 1958 to May 29, 1960 . On April 2, 1962, the late night show The Tonight Show started . She hosted Johnny Carson for 30 years .
With regard to the historical development of the US talk show scene, four strands of development can be traced:
- The US talk shows had their origins in the early 1950s with a concept that essentially focused on entertaining conversations with celebrities .
- With the moderators Dick Cavett and Phil Donahue , a second phase began in the late 1960s, in which the factual interview and audience participation established themselves as new elements of the talk show.
- In the wake of a popularity crisis in the mid-1970s, informative talk shows were largely pushed into the background, only entertaining talk programs, such as Johnny Carson's Tonight Show , were able to keep their regular audience.
- It was not until the 1980s that two new talk show genres developed from Phil Donahue's role model: On the one hand, the “Confessional Talk Show” (also includes the “Daily Talk Show”), in which non-prominent guests talk about taboo subjects in society . On the other hand, there is the “Confro Talk”, in which a controversial topic is argued in an artificially heated wrestling atmosphere.
The most successful daytime show was the Oprah Winfrey Show , which ran from September 8, 1986 to May 25, 2011 .
- The Phil Donahue Show (1967-1996) with Phil Donahue , one of the first talk shows to be broadcast nationwide
- The Sally Raphael Show , later Sally (1986–2002) with Sally Jessy Raphael
- The Oprah Winfrey Show (1986-2011) with Oprah Winfrey
- El Show de Christina (since 1989), Spanish-speaking talk show with Christina Saralegui
- The Christina Show (1990), English version of El Show de Christina with Christina Saralegui
- The Montel Williams Show (1991-2008) with Montel Williams
- The Jerry Springer Show (since 1991) with Jerry Springer
- The Maury Povich Show , later Maury (since 1991) with Maury Povich
- The Jenny Jones Show (1991-2003) with Jenny Jones
- The Ricki Show (1993-2005) with Ricki Lake
- The Howard Stern Show (1994-2005) with Howard Stern
- The Klingbling Show (1995-2003) with Morry Jackson
- The Tyra Banks Show (since 2005), with Tyra Banks
- The Steve Wilkos Show (since 2007) with Steve Wilkos
- The Ellen Show with Ellen DeGeneres
List of TV talk shows in other countries
- Good evening on Saturday with Heinz Conrads (ORF, 1957–1986)
- Club 2 with Günther Nenning , Franz Kreuzer u. a. ( ORF 2 , 1976-1995)
- Phettbergs Nette Leit Show with Hermes Phettberg (ORF satire talk, 1995–1996)
- Schiejok Daily with Walter Schiejok (ORF, 1995–1999)
- Vera with Vera Russwurm (ORF 2, 1995-2005)
- Life artist biographical talk show with Helmut Zilk (since 1995 public holidays on ORF 2)
- The Barbara Karlich Show with Barbara Karlich (since 1999, afternoon talk on ORF 2)
- Speed with Hadschi Bankhofer ( ATV , 2000–2002)
- Talk to Me with Eva Pölzl (ATV, 2000 -?)
- At Stöckl evening talk with Barbara Stöckl (ORF 2, 2003-2005)
- Frankly, previously to the point (political talk on Sunday evening, ORF 2)
- Natascha Kampusch meets with Natascha Kampusch ( pulse 4 , since 2008)
- up close with Christine Walli (tirol tv since 2010)
- Gansterer at the witching hour with Helmut A. Gansterer (midnight talk, in Schau TV since 2013)
- In the center with Ingrid Thurnher ( ORF2 , since 2007)
- Talk in Hangar-7 , ( Servus TV )
- Aeschbacher with Kurt Aeschbacher ( SRF 1 )
- Arena (SRF 1)
- Club (SRF 1)
- football talk ( SRF two )
- TalkTaily and SonnTalk ( TeleZüri )
- Fohrler live with Dani Fohrler ( TV3 ) (1999-2001)
- In conversation with Michel von Tell
List of mixed radio and television talk shows
- Domian with Jürgen Domian (Radio 1 Live and WDR TV , 1995-2016), with conversations on the phone
- Nachtwach with Barbara Bürer ( Radio SRF 3 and SRF 1 TV , 2007-2018), with conversations on the phone
- Lateline with Jan Böhmermann (seven of the nine youth radio stations of ARD and EinsPlus , since 2012), with conversations on the phone. The radio show was broadcast in parallel on television in several seasons.
List of radio talk shows
Radio talk shows currently on the air
Talk shows mainly with guests on the phone (call-in)
- Blue Moon (youth channel Fritz des rbb )
- Çılgın , German-Turkish (WDR Funkhaus Europa )
- Lateline (seven of the nine youth radio stations on ARD), once a month talk with studio guests
- Nightlounge - iconic night talk on bigFM and RPR1
- Ask the whole country - the Ö3 community show with Hiller & Hansa | Hitradio Austria 3
Talk shows mainly with guests in the studio
- One to One - The Talk ( Bayern 2 )
- People ( SWR )
- The radio brunch (on the local radio stations of The Radio Group )
Former / canceled radio talk shows
- 911 - Your talk show on Energy ( Energy , from 2006 to 2009), a call-in talk show
- Hallo OB-Wagen ( WDR Radio , from 1974 to 2010), a talk show on the go
- 2254 - Night calls on the phone ( Deutschlandradio Kultur )
- Gary Bente, Bettina Fromm: Affektfernsehen. Motives, modes of offer and effects (= series of media research publications by the State Broadcasting Corporation of North Rhine-Westphalia, Volume 24). Leske and Budrich, Opladen 1997.
- Birgit van Eimeren, Heinz Gerhard: Talk shows - formats and audience structures. Overview of the development and use of an everyday program format. In: Media Perspektiven. 12/1998, ARD-Werbung Sales & Services GmbH, Frankfurt / Main, pp. 600–607.
- Heiko Girnth, Sascha Michel: From discursive speech acts to studio decorations. Political talk shows as multimodal communication spaces . In: The Language Service. 3/2007, pp. 85-99.
- Uli Gleich: Talk shows on television - content and effects, viewer and candidate motifs . In: Media Perspektiven. 12/1998, ARD-Werbung Sales & Services GmbH, Frankfurt / Main, pp. 625–632 (PDF; 97 kB).
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- Harald Keller: The history of the talk show in Germany. S. Fischer, Frankfurt / Main 2009
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- "... and give us our daily talk today!" , Study by the Otto Brenner Foundation 2011 ( PDF 2.8 MB )
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- Index of talk show topics from the last few years compiled by Heribert Batzen
- "Let them talk" , portrait of a regular talk show audience, taz
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- Jö Krieger: The popularization of the medium television. 2002, p. 23 ( digitized version )
- Andreas Weiß: Who just looks at it? On the trail of the Daily Talks viewers. A recipient survey (= Applied Media Research , Volume 10). Reinhard Fischer, Munich 1999, p. 21f.
- Weiß 1999: p. 37.
- Uli Gleich: Talk shows on television - content and effects, viewer and candidate motifs . In: Media Perspektiven. 12/1998, ARD-Werbung Sales & Services GmbH, Frankfurt / Main, p. 524.
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- cf. Keppler, Angela (1994): More Real than Reality? The new reality principle of television entertainment. Frankfurt / M .: Fischer, p. 8f
- cf. Keppler, Angela (1994): More Real than Reality? The new reality principle of television entertainment. Frankfurt / M .: Fischer, p. 8
- Heiko Girnth, Sascha Michel: From discursive speech acts to studio decorations. Political talk shows as multimodal communication spaces . In: The Language Service. 3/2007, pp. 87-88
- Barbara Supp: Seconds of Power . In: Der Spiegel . No. 51 , 2007 ( online ).
- Lammert: Talk show break for politicians ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) on RP-Online
- Future of Democracy: 2. Talk Show Politics - Democracy as Mediocracy at hr-online
- Ursula Dehm: TV entertainment - pastime, flight or compulsion? Hase & Koehler, Mainz 1984
- Gleich 2001: pp. 524f.
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- Gleich 2001: p. 527f.
- Bente / Fromm 1997: p. 44
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- Gleich 1998: p. 626f
- Harald Keller: The history of the talk show in Germany. 2009, p. 111 ff.
- Harald Keller: The history of the talk show in Germany. 2009, p. 224 ff.
- Harald Keller: The history of the talk show in Germany. S. Fischer, Frankfurt / Main 2009, p. 332ff. For the US models, see p. 48ff.
- Foot and Chatting Disease. In: Focus . 4/1996 of January 22, 1996, p. 160
- Lothar Mikos: Playground of Affliction - The daily talk shows in the afternoon program. In: Agenda. 26/1996, p. 13
- Harald Keller: The history of the talk show in Germany. S. Fischer, Frankfurt / Main 2009, p. 344ff. and p. 359f.
- Glenn Riedmeier: Geissen, Schreyl and Henssler: RTL calls Showtime in daytime. Retrieved February 6, 2020 .
- imfernsehen GmbH & Co KG: Marco Schreyl. Retrieved February 6, 2020 .
- imfernsehen GmbH & Co KG: Detlef Soost. Retrieved February 6, 2020 .
- DWDL de GmbH: Out for formats with Katzenberger and Soost on RTL II. Accessed on February 6, 2020 .
- No surprise: RTL II ends two formats. January 12, 2018, accessed on February 6, 2020 (German).
- Michael Steinbrecher and Martin Weiske: The talk show: 20 years between gossip and news. Tips and backgrounds. In: Series of practical journalism. Volume 19, 1992, p. 109