World Trade Center

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World Trade Center
World Trade Center
View from the southwest of the World Trade Center in spring 2001
Basic data
Place: New York City , USA
Construction time : WTC 1: 1968 to 1972
WTC 2: 1969 to 1973
WTC 3: 1979 to 1981
WTC 4: 1970 to 1975
WTC 5: 1970 to 1973
WTC 6: 1970 to 1973
WTC 7: 1984 to 1987
Opening: April 4th 1973
Status : All buildings were destroyed on September 11, 2001.
Architect : Minoru Yamasaki
Emery Roth & Sons
Coordinates : 40 ° 42 '42 "  N , 74 ° 0' 49"  W Coordinates: 40 ° 42 '42 "  N , 74 ° 0' 49"  W.
World Trade Center (New York)
World Trade Center
Use / legal
Owner : From 1966 to July 2001:
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Since July 2001:
Silverstein Properties
Westfield Group
Technical specifications
Height : WTC 1: 417 m (with antenna: 526.7 m)
WTC 2: 415 m
WTC 3: 72 m
WTC 4: 36 m
WTC 5: 36 m
WTC 6: 32 m
WTC 7: 186 m
Floors : up to 110
Elevators : 256 + 72 escalators
Usable area : 1,240,000 m²
Building material : Steel, concrete, marble
Construction: Tishman Construction
Building-costs: 900 million US dollars

The World Trade Center [ wɝːldtɹeɪdˌsɛntɚ ] ( German  World Trade Center , abbreviated WTC ) was an office complex in the Financial District at the southern tip of Lower Manhattan in New York City , which consisted of seven buildings and opened the 1,973th Its centerpiece was the world-famous twin towers ( Twin Towers , WTC 1 and 2). With 110 floors each, 417 and 415 meters high, they were among the tallest buildings in New York and shaped the city's skyline until 2001 .

As a result of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 , the twin towers and WTC 7 collapsed completely. 2,753 people died. The 72-meter-high WTC 3 , which serves as a hotel , was completely destroyed by falling debris from the collapsing twin towers. The WTC 4 , located the world's largest commodity futures exchange, the WTC 5 and WTC 6 were so badly damaged that they were later demolished.

A new world trade center was built on the site known as Ground Zero from 2006 , consisting of six skyscrapers, an underground shopping mall and the National September 11 Memorial and Museum .


The idea of ​​a world trade center in New York arose in 1939 at the start of World War II as the US economy and international trade were growing. At the 1939 New York World's Fair , a World Trade Center was set up under the motto " World Peace Through Trade".

On the initiative of the banker Winthrop W. Aldrich , New York State passed a law in 1946 that allowed the construction of a WTC. In the same year the World Trade Corporation was founded. The New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey convened a working group to plan the WTC. Architects John and Drew Eberson designed a plan for 21 buildings over a ten block area. The cost of this was estimated at $ 150 million. In 1949, the New York State Legislature dissolved the World Trade Corporation and the WTC plans were postponed.

In the post-war period, Lower Manhattan missed the economic boom. There was no longer room for modern large ships in the southern docks. Container ships carried more and more cargo that was unloaded in the newly built Elizabeth Port in New Jersey . The buildings of southern Manhattan were no longer functional and in many cases neglected. At the end of the 1950s, banker and entrepreneur David Rockefeller , a nephew of Aldridge, worked hard to restore this district. With the construction of the One Chase Manhattan Plaza in the Financial District , he revived its development and continued this with his commitment to the WTC.

In 1958, Rockefeller founded the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (DLMA). This commissioned the architecture firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) with the planning. In 1960, SOM publicly presented the plans: Then a WTC was to be built for $ 250 million on 13 acres (53,000 square meters) of land along the East River, from Old Slip to Fulton Street and between Water Street and South Street. The complex was to have a 900-foot (275 m) long hall and a 70-story office-hotel building, an international trade market for the display of goods, a stock exchange, an arcade retail outlet, and a theater, shops integrated into the conventional street network and restaurants included. Rockefeller proposed New York Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr. , his brother and then Governor of New York State Nelson A. Rockefeller, and New Jersey Governor Robert B. Meyner, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey as sponsors of the project because Together with the DLMA and SOM, they have sufficient credit capacities, proven professional competence and experience. He claimed that the WTC would help increase international trade through the port of New York.

The design was expanded and now saw a total floor area of ​​over 1 million square meters in a 72-story World Trade Mart with a hotel, a World Trade Institute , an exhibition building, a 30-story World Commerce Exchange building with offices and agencies, and a 20-story trade center gateway building with international banks and other company-related service providers. As chairman of the board of directors of Chase Manhattan Bank , David Rockefeller wanted to fund the construction of the twin towers. The director of the port authority Austin J. Tobin was aiming for the world's most important WTC. On March 11, 1961, the port authority approved the project, the total cost of which has now been estimated at $ 335 million.

However, Governor Robert B. Meyner refused the project the necessary approval because he feared economic disadvantages for New Jersey and the further decline of the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. After unsuccessful negotiations with Meyners, Tobin proposed to his successor Richard J. Hughes in December 1961 that the WTC project be relocated to the Hudson Terminal on the west side of Manhattan in order to ensure transport links to New Jersey. On January 22nd, 1962, the states of New York and New Jersey came to an agreement and allowed the Port Authority to rebuild southern Manhattan on the condition that it take over the ailing Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. The skyscrapers above the underground Hudson Terminal and about 164 other buildings were to be torn down for the construction of the WTC. The numerous companies and retailers of the New York electronics industry ( "Radio Row" ) settled in this area were to be forced to relocate and receive financial compensation.

Minoru Yamasaki was hired as executive architect and Emery Roth & Sons as partner (associates) . The chief structural engineer was Leslie E. Robertson .

In 1962, the Port Authority bought the WTC building site from New York State. In June 1962, around 1,325 business owners and small business owners who were affected took legal action against the expropriation and tried to stop the forced relocation with protest actions. The legal dispute between the port authority and local entrepreneurs went through all court instances. In April 1963 the New York State Court of Appeals upheld the judgments of the lower courts and granted the port authorities the right of expropriation, as the construction of the WTC served a public purpose. On November 12, 1963, the United States Supreme Court declined to appeal, stating that the Port Authority must financially compensate the entrepreneurs under state law and help with the relocation.

Private urban redevelopers and members of the Real Estate Board of New York feared that the construction of the WTC would increase the existing oversupply of free office space, force too many subsidies and thus put the private sector at a disadvantage. The “Reasonable World Trade Center” committee called for less WTC office space and thus significantly lower twin towers. The organizer Lawrence A. Wien wanted to keep the title of "tallest building in the world" for his Empire State Building . In January 1964, the Port Authority agreed with New York State to also rent WTC offices to state authorities. From the spring of 1964, she signed leases with private companies and banks for the WTC, followed by a lease with the United States Customs Service in 1965 . As of March 21, 1966, more than 300 consumer electronics stores were demolished on the construction site. On August 3, 1966, the Port Authority agreed with the City of New York to make an annual payment to the city instead of taxes for the privately rented part of the WTC. Because an increase in this annual flat rate due to a property tax increase was foreseeable, the New York mayor ultimately approved the contract.


Concrete tub, subway shell and base construction of WTC 1 (1969)

The foundation stone for the WTC was laid on August 5, 1966. The building site was not given by nature, but the result of backfills from previous generations. Solid ground was only found on the damp ground at a depth of 21 meters. The entire site therefore had to be protected against the ingress of water from the Hudson River with a 90 cm thick and 21 m high concrete tub poured within 14 months . With the one million cubic meters of excavation for the six-storey base zone - equivalent to 100,000 truckloads - the port area to the west of the World Trade Center property was filled in. This expanded its construction area by 9.2 hectares, so that from 1982 the four towers of the World Financial Center could be erected at the foot of the World Trade Center .

Typical of the controversial designs of the architect Yamasaki, who suffered from fear of heights, were the only 46 cm narrow windows, which made the twin towers appear windowless and only made up 30 percent of the facade area. A total of 43,600 windows were installed in the twin towers. The outer skin of the towers consisted primarily of a stable network of 59 steel pillars on each side of the building. In contrast to the usual high-rise buildings, the facade of which was hung from the inner supporting structure like a curtain , the outer skeleton of the twin towers, each made of 236 steel pillars, had an actual supporting function. The steel pillars of the facade were clad with aluminum profiles. The inner core of the twin towers consisted of 47 steel pillars each. 200,000 tons of steel and 325,000 m³ of concrete were used in the construction of the Twin Towers. The construction should withstand hurricanes with wind speeds of 300 km / h as well as the worst earthquakes.

As part of the construction of the World Trade Center , the New York-based World Trade Center Association (WTCA) was founded in 1969 to spread the message "Peace through trade and prosperity" worldwide. The naming rights, which are subject to licensing, have now been granted to 320 World Trade Centers around the world .

Since opening
The completed World Trade Center as seen from the west

There are various dates for the completion date of the twin towers built by Tishman Construction Corporation in cooperation with the Karl Koch Erecting Company . While the last girder of the north tower ( WTC 1 ) was hoisted up on December 23, 1970 , the first tenants had already moved in the week before. The construction of the shell of the south tower ( WTC 2 ) was completed on July 19, 1971 , and the first companies also moved into their offices here in September. The twin towers were officially inaugurated on April 4, 1973. The complete completion took until 1977. Between 1972 and 1975 the World Trade Center Buildings 4, 5 and 6 were also completed.

When it was completed in 1972, the 417-meter-high north tower replaced the 381-meter-high Empire State Building as the tallest building on earth, which was able to claim this title for 41 years. As early as 1974, the prestigious attribute had to be assigned to the Sears Tower in Chicago . Until the year 2000, when the height of the Sears Tower was increased from 520 meters to 527 meters by extending the antennas, the north tower with the antenna mast rising 526.7 meters was the tallest structure in the world. The twin towers were the most prominent and best-known buildings in the office complex and shaped the New York skyline until they collapsed on September 11, 2001.

About 50,000 people worked in 430 companies from 28 countries in New York's World Trade Center . In addition, up to 200,000 visitors came every day, mainly due to the view options and the restaurants in the twin towers. The to 4.5 ha standing World Trade Center complex the twin towers (comprised WTC 1 and WTC 2 ), five additional building ( WTC 3 to WTC 7 ) and under large parts of the WTC 4 , WTC 5 and Plaza one of six basement mall with shopping arcade and restaurants. The Mall was the largest mall in Lower Manhattan. In addition, it was possible to transfer between the various New York subway lines here without getting wet. The World Trade Center subway station and a PATH line to New Jersey were the focal points of local public transport. An underground car park for 2000 vehicles was located under WTC 3 and parts of the twin towers. The World Trade Center complex had its own address with zip code 10048 .

In the mid-1980s, real estate entrepreneur Larry Silverstein leased a piece of land opposite the World Trade Center complex and built WTC 7 , which opened in 1987, on it . In November 1995, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey leased WTC 3, known as The Hotel, to the hotel operator Marriott International for US $ 141.5 million .

In 1998, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, as the owner of the World Trade Center, also decided to privatize the twin towers ( WTC 1 and WTC 2 ), WTC 4 , WTC 5 and 40,000 m² of retail space in the basement mall in order to re- privatize To be able to concentrate more on the core business for infrastructural improvements. At this point the World Trade Center was fully occupied, generating annual rental income of $ 200 million, and was one of the world's most profitable real estate properties. After a massive bidding competition, a consortium of Larry Silverstein, Joseph Cayre and Lloyd Goldman in cooperation with the shopping center operator Westfield America won the tender in 2000 . The 99-year lease with a volume of 3.2 billion US dollars was the largest real estate transaction in American history and was signed on July 24, 2001.


The World Trade Center was in the Financial District , the center of the financial world of New York City, at the southwest tip of the Downtown Manhattan district .

World Trade Center map

The World Trade Center square was enclosed by Vesey Street to the north , Church Street to the east, Liberty Street to the south, and West Street Avenue to the west. In the middle of the western front stood the north tower ( WTC 1 or 1 World Trade ) with the car entrance from West Street Avenue. A footbridge went over it from WTC 6 to the striking buildings of the World Financial Center (WFC) opposite with its winter garden . In the southwest corner of the World Trade Center square was the WTC 3, known as the Marriott World Trade Center . With its relatively narrow-looking, slightly angled floor plan, the hotel obscured the view of the lower floors of the south tower from the west. Near WTC 3, another pedestrian bridge crossed West Street Avenue towards St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church . Along with the Deutsche Bank Building and WTC 7, the church was one of the three buildings outside the World Trade Center square that were destroyed in the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 or subsequently demolished.

The WTC 7 stood outside the actual World Trade Center square north of Vesey Street, but was connected at the level of the 3rd floor by a promenade and a pedestrian bridge with the outer space named after Austin J. Tobin , the World Trade Center Plaza . On the plaza was the bronze sculpture The Sphere by the German sculptor Fritz Koenig , which was still preserved after September 11, 2001 and is dedicated to the original World Trade Center motto "World peace through trade" . The nine-story WTC 4 and WTC 5 closed off the World Trade Center square to the east.

The individual buildings


The twin towers in July 2001
The North Tower Lobby (2000)

The 1972 as part of the Twin Towers, completed North Tower ( German  mostly WTC 1 , english North Tower , or One World Trade Center , abbreviated 1WTC ) was 417 meters high and was made possible with an installed in 1978 on the roof and 109.7 meter high antenna mast to a Total height of 526.7 meters.

When it was completed in 1972, the 417-meter-high north tower replaced the 381-meter-high Empire State Building as the tallest building on earth, which was able to claim this title for 41 years. As early as 1974, the prestigious attribute had to be assigned to the Sears Tower in Chicago . However, the north tower with the antenna mast towering 526.7 meters was still the tallest building in the world. The Sears Tower was only able to claim this title in 2000, when the height of the Sears Tower was increased from 520 meters to 527 meters by extending the antennas.

Like its twin tower, WTC 1 had basic dimensions of 63.4 × 63.4 meters, stood on 21 meters deep foundations and had lettable office space of over 418,000 m², which was spread over the 110 floors. Each floor was 3.65 meters high and had an area of ​​4000 m².

Design concept of the twin towers

The north and south towers each had 99 elevators, 23 of which reached speeds of up to 8 m / s (28.8 km / h) as a shuttle express . The feeder elevators went non-stop to the sky lobbies on the 44th and 78th floors so that they could transfer to a local elevator from here. In addition, the express elevators guaranteed fast transport to the “Windows on the World” restaurant and the associated Greatest Bar on Earth on the 106th and 107th floors. Through the panoramic windows of the Windows on the World one could see over Queens , New Jersey , Brooklyn and the John F. Kennedy airport . A view of up to 80 kilometers was possible on a clear day.

Eight floors each were occupied exclusively by building technology. All the supply facilities required for the building were located here, such as water and air supply, air conditioning and electrics. Numerous television and radio stations had their broadcasting systems on the 110th floor of the north tower. In addition to numerous companies from the finance and insurance industry, the tenants also included the Embassy of Thailand .

  • On the morning of August 7, 1974, the French high-wire artist Philippe Petit balanced a total of eight times from roof to roof on a steel cable stretched between the twin towers at a height of 417 meters. After the action, Petit was initially arrested. Because of the extensive coverage and worldwide recognition of his work, all charges were dropped. The 2008 multi-award-winning Oscar- winning documentary Man on Wire was published about this story .
  • On February 13, 1975, a fire broke out in the offices of the BF Goodrich Company on the 11th floor and spread through an installation shaft to floors 9 and 14. The greatest damage was caused on the floor of the fire source and on the floors below through the use of extinguishing water. At that time, the building was not yet equipped with a sprinkler system.
  • On July 22, 1975, construction worker Owen J. Quinn, who was involved in the construction of the towers, carried out a base jump from the roof of the north tower and landed on the plaza , where he was arrested by the police.
  • On May 26, 1977, the self-proclaimed “human fly” George Willig used the window cleaning system to climb the outer facade of the north tower from the ground floor to the roof in 3.5 hours. During his ascent he was secured by the police on the last few meters and was able to climb the roof with the help of the police. Willig was sentenced to a symbolic fine of $ 1.10 - 1 cent per floor.
  • In May 1983 Daniel Goodwin climbed the north tower equipped with suction cups. He said his role model was George Willig.
  • On January 13, 1998, two money messengers were ambushed on their way to Bank of America on the 11th floor of the North Tower. The three masked perpetrators initially stole 1.6 million US dollars, but were arrested a short time after the robbery.


The South Tower ( English South Tower or Two World Trade Center , abbreviated 2WTC ) was completed in 1973 as part of the twin towers and was 415 meters high. The world's highest publicly accessible visitor terrace was located on the 110th floor of the south tower. On the 107th floor was an internal viewing platform. The division and technical equipment corresponded to that of the north tower. The tenants included numerous companies in the finance, investment and insurance sectors.

From September 11 to October 10, 1995, the 1995 World Chess Championship between defending champion Garry Kasparov and challenger Viswanathan Anand was held on the viewing platform on the 107th floor of the south tower . Kasparov won the duel, which was held in a soundproof glass cabin, with 10.5 to 7.5 points.


Marriott World Trade Center

The Marriott World Trade Center ( WTC 3 for short ), which opened in 1981 under the name Vista Hotel , had 821 hotel rooms on 22 floors and a height of 72 meters. The design came from Skidmore, Owings and Merrill .

The AAA-rated hotel had a narrow floor plan that followed West Street directly at the foot of the twin towers. The hotel had connections with the north tower (WTC 1) and the south tower (WTC 2). Fashion houses, cafes and restaurants were housed in the connections. The shops in the passage to the two towers were a Greenhouse Cafe, the Tall Ships Bar & Grill, Times Square Gifts, a sales center from the Grayline New York Tours Bus and Olga's hairdressing salon. In addition to restaurants, there was 2400 m² for business meetings. Another footbridge crossed West Street towards St. Niklas. The former Vista Hotel was leased to the Marriott Group by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in November 1995 for $ 141.5 million.

The Marriott World Trade Center was initially damaged on September 11, 2001 by falling debris from the collapsing south tower and finally destroyed by the collapse of the north tower. After 9:00 a.m., a mobile control center for the New York fire department was set up in the hotel lobby . All guests and staff have been evacuated.

The British television station Channel 4 produced the documentary The 9/11 Hotel about 14 employees and hotel guests of the Marriott World Trade Center who survived the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001.


Opened in 1975, WTC 4 (also known as the South Plaza Building or Commodities Exchange Center ) was a 36-meter-high, nine-story building constructed in the same design and style as World Trade Center 5 and World Trade Center 6 .

The main tenant of WTC 4 was on the 7th, 8th On the 4th and 9th floor the synonymous Commodities Exchange Center with the world's largest commodity futures exchange for raw materials, New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) as well as three other commodity futures exchanges of the ICE Futures US ( Commodity Exchange (COMEX), New York Cotton Exchange (NYCE), Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa Exchange, Inc. ). The 8th floor of WTC 4 was home to the world's largest trading floor for futures trading in gold, silver, platinum, copper, aluminum, crude oil, heating oil, natural gas, propane gas, cotton, sugar, cocoa and concentrated frozen orange juice. The commodity exchange for frozen orange juice concentrate (FCOJ) served as the backdrop for the comedy The Soldiers of Fortune with Eddie Murphy and Dan Aykroyd . Floors 4.5 and 6 with a total of more than 25,000 m² were fully rented by Deutsche Bank . On the side of WTC 4 facing Liberty Street , the entrance to The Mall was in the basement of the World Trade Center .

In the catacombs of World Trade Center 4 , raw material depots were set up in some two-story vaults. At the time of the attacks on September 11th, ScotiaMocotta alone stored around 11.2 tons of gold and 850 tons of silver with a total value of over 200 million US dollars, which were used to conclude gold and silver futures contracts at the WTC 4 based company Balance commodity futures exchange NYMEX. The approximately 380,000 ounces of gold and 30 million ounces of silver were recovered with the help of the police and fire brigade.


Opened in 1975, WTC 5 (also known as the North Plaza Building ) was a 36 meter high nine-story office building. The L-shaped WTC 5 had a dimension of 100 × 130 meters. Each floor had a floor area of ​​around 11,000 m².

The US financial institution Morgan Stanley occupied more than 30,000 m² of office space on all floors 3, 4 and 5. Another main tenant was the Credit Suisse investment bank Credit Suisse First Boston with over 16,000 m² on floors 7, 8 and 9.

When the twin towers collapsed on September 11, 2001, the top six floors were badly damaged or collapsed by fallen debris and fires. On the roof of World Trade Center 5 , parts of the aircraft were recovered from the Boeing 767 that hit the south tower. The lower three floors remained undamaged.

The WTC 5 was completely demolished in January of 2002. The new Two World Trade Center will stand on this property .


The Sphere in front of the WTC 6

Opened in 1975, WTC 6 (also US Customshouse , German  US customs office ) was located on the northwest corner of the World Trade Center complex at the foot of the north tower. The WTC 6 was 32 meters high and eight storeys, the lowest inside the World Trade Center complex. Government institutions such as the Customs and Border Protection , the Office for Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) , the Ministry of Commerce , the Ministry of Labor , the Ministry of Agriculture and the Export-Import Bank of were located in the office building with a total usable area of ​​49,953 m² the United States .

On September 11, 2001, all 800 workers were successfully evacuated from WTC 6 just 12 minutes after the aircraft hit the north tower . The WTC 6 was so badly damaged by debris and long-lasting fires that it will be like any other building the world's largest office complex ultimately demolished had. Among other things, a segment of the collapsing north tower, weighing an estimated 1,000 tons and 40 meters wide, fell down into the basement of WTC 6 . The new One World Trade Center skyscraper was built on the site of WTC 6 .



The WTC 7 was built between 1984 and 1987 on a property owned by the New York Port Authority north of Vesey Street opposite the actual World Trade Center square, but as part of the overall complex. It was 186 meters high, had 47 floors and was connected to the main WTC complex at the level of the third floor with a promenade and a pedestrian bridge. The building contractor and owner was the real estate company Silverstein Properties , the design came from the architects' office Emery Roth & Sons , the construction work was carried out by Tishman Construction , as with the twin towers . WTC 7 had a total usable area of ​​200,000 m², of which 174,000 m² was designed as office space.

In 1989, on behalf of the new main tenant, Salomon Brothers, an extensive $ 200 million conversion was carried out to create a "building-within-a-building" that was unique at the time. In addition, over 375 tons of steel were used to reinforce the floors for the Salomon Brothers' special equipment. Afterwards the WTC 7 was also called the Salomon Brothers Building . As in WTC 6, the tenants included numerous government agencies, such as the US Tax Administration (IRS) , the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) , the US Department of Defense , the US Secret Service , the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Office of Emergency Management of the City of New York City.

Bomb attack on February 26, 1993

The building complex was first the target of a bomb attack by Islamist terrorists on February 26, 1993 . At that time, terrorists had parked a rented Ryder van on level B2 of the underground car park of the North Tower of the World Trade Center. It contained around 700 kg of the explosive urea nitrate and a number of pressurized gas containers with hydrogen , which were supposed to increase the force of the vehicle's explosion. The explosion tore a 30-meter hole in four of the six basement floors (made of concrete).

Seven floors were particularly badly damaged, six of them underground. Six people were killed in the attack and over a thousand more were injured. This resulted in one of the largest rescue operations in the city of New York, with around 45% of the fire service personnel on duty being called to this damaging event. Six Islamist terrorists were found guilty of this attack in 1997 and 1998, respectively, and each was sentenced to 240 years ' imprisonment.

In the wake of the attacks, new security regulations were enacted for the World Trade Center , and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey invested $ 700 million in security measures in the buildings over the next eight years. In addition, the high-tech Office of Emergency Management ( OEM ), costing 13 million US dollars, was inaugurated on the 23rd floor of WTC 7 in June 1999 by the OEM director and anti-terrorist Jerome Hauer. The bomb-proof emergency and disaster center was staffed around the clock and was supposed to coordinate the New York fire brigade, police and other emergency services in the event of a terrorist attack, disaster or large-scale power failure. The OEM was also responsible for daily emergency drills.

terror attacs at the 11th September 2001

On the morning of September 11, 2001, 19 al-Qaida network terrorists hijacked four planes on scheduled domestic flights. Two of them were steered into the twin towers by five kidnappers each. American Airlines Flight 11 struck the North Tower (WTC 1) at 8:46 a.m., and United Airlines Flight 175 hit the South Tower (WTC 2) at 9:02 a.m. The exploding kerosene triggered ongoing building fires on many floors. The south tower collapsed at 9:59 a.m. and the north tower at 10:28 a.m. local time .

The 9/11 Commission cleared from December 2002 to August 2004 creation, planning and course of the attacks on. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) clarified the physical causes of the collapses of WTC 1, 2 and 7 from 2002 to 2008 and issued several investigation reports. According to the final report for the towers, the first impact between the 93rd and 99th floors severed 35 of 236 outer pillars and six of 47 inner pillars of WTC 1 and removed the fire protection coating on 43 of them. Three stairwells collapsed and interrupted the elevator connections above the 60th floor. An estimated 15% of the kerosene in the tank went up in a fireball, and around 50% leaked unburned in the building. Burning kerosene shot up and down through the elevator shafts, blew doors and walls on several floors down to the basement and many windows in the lobby on the ground floor and swept through the entrance hall to the exit to WTC 3. Immediately afterwards, many of those affected called the emergency number.

The second aircraft impact occurred at 870 km / h between the 77th and 85th floors of WTC 2 and severed 33 of 236 outer pillars, including the southwest corner pillar, and ten of 47 inner pillars, and removed the fire protection coating on 39 of them. Here, too, less than 15% of the kerosene burned immediately, and at least half leaked unburned in the building. The weight of the upper part of the building was distributed among the remaining intact outer and inner pillars. The pulling force of the sagging floors 79 to 84 bent the eastern outer pillars inwards just 18 minutes later. When the weakened building structure and failing support pillars could no longer bear the weights, the upper part tilted to the south and east. At 9:58:59 a.m., WTC 2 collapsed in nine seconds. Since 10:06 am, the New York City Police Department had also expected the collapse of WTC 1. At 10:23 am, the floors on the south side gave way; at 10:28 a.m., the part of the building tilted south over the impact zone and then penetrated all floors below in 12 seconds. According to NIST, the main causes of the collapses were direct damage to the building structure from the aircraft impacts, large-scale, ongoing fires on several floors, which quickly heated and softened the now uncoated steel girders of the inner core and transferred their load to the outer support pillars until they sagged inwards and the floors could no longer carry over it.

Around 15,000 people were able to leave the towers on time. A total of 2,753 people died in the plane impacts and building collapses. 16 people survived in a stairwell of WTC 1.

Destroyed facade of the Deutsche Bank Building

The collapse of WTC 2 destroyed over 24 floors and more than 1,700 windows of the Deutsche Bank Building . Toxic dust contaminated the building. Later, a total of over 700 human bones were found there. After many years of disputes under insurance law, experts decided that the asbestos-contaminated skyscraper should be completely demolished, floor by floor. In 2004, Deutsche Bank received $ 140 million in insurance funds and sold the demolished building to the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation for an additional $ 90 million . Further removal lasted until 2011 and cost a total of 300 million US dollars.

The collapse of WTC 2 also damaged WTC 3, destroyed a large part of WTC 4 and completely buried the 11 meter high St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church under the rubble. The undamaged part of WTC 4 was also demolished for new buildings.

Debris from WTC 1 fell on WTC 7, 110 meters away, causing uncontrollable fires as main water pipes were destroyed, a sprinkler system had failed, the sources of the fire were inaccessible and the fire brigade was withdrawn around 2:30 p.m. that day for safety reasons. At 5:20 p.m. WTC 7 collapsed completely. The NIST investigation revealed that steel girders and supports were bent and displaced by the thermal expansion caused by the uncontrolled fires . This broke a connection between a beam and a column on the 13th floor. The floor collapsed at this point and tore the floors below it up to the fifth floor with it. Three support pillars, now free-standing over the length of eight floors, were overloaded at this point, buckled and thus caused the total collapse. Buildings with a similar steel frame construction had not collapsed under similar fire conditions, but had a different structural design than WTC 7.

Since September 11th, the World Trade Center Site ⊙ is also called Ground Zero . In May 2002 the clean-up work was finished there. Most of the debris and excavation was moved to the Fresh Kills construction waste site in Staten Island , NY. During the removal of the rubble and the excavation, an attempt was made to filter out the remains of victims of the attack and to identify them genetically. As a result, there was a debate in the USA about how to deal with the World Trade Center property and the landfill.

In memory of the victims, the Tribute in Light is held annually on September 11th . The outlines of the twin towers are reproduced as columns of light in the evening and night sky.

Conspiracy theories for September 11, 2001 claim other causes of the building collapses, mostly a controlled detonation with explosives that were secretly placed in the building before the plane strikes. The NIST reports rejected this thesis in detail. Anti-Semitic conspiracy theories portray Larry Silverstein, the leaseholder of the towers of Jewish origin and owner of WTC 7, often profiting from the building collapses and claim: He must have expected the attacks because he had only recently acquired the WTC towers on very favorable terms and for him have taken out cheap insurance policies. In fact, Silverstein's company had to continue to pay the leasing installments for the destroyed buildings, received only about half of the targeted sum insured after a long legal battle and was legally obliged to invest this in the new building.


Location map

The groundbreaking ceremony for the 7th World Trade Center took place on May 7, 2002 ; As the lead architect, client Larry Silverstein pushed his regular architect David Childs and his architectural office Skidmore, Owings and Merrill through against Daniel Libeskind , whose designs had initially won the competition. Silverstein accused Libeskind's emotionally charged building visions for a lack of profitability. Childs had a long business relationship with Silverstein and had already designed the 7th WTC for him. In addition, at the beginning of August 2001, Silverstein commissioned him to develop renovation concepts for the twin towers. Shortly after its destruction, Silverstein commissioned him to draw up the first drafts for a new development on Ground Zero.

In the course of the construction work, there were several legal disputes between Silverstein, the City of New York and the port authorities, which led to temporary construction stops and considerable delays.

From November 2002 to May 2006 the 7th World Trade Center was built on the site of the 7th WTC that collapsed on September 11, 2001 . Since the property is outside the actual World Trade Center square, construction could start early.

On September 6, 2005, construction work began on the new World Trade Center subway station designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava at Ground Zero . The costs for the publicly financed construction project doubled after a construction period of more than ten years from an estimated nearly two billion to 3.85 billion US dollars. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub , which opened on March 4, 2016, is the most expensive train station in the world.

In autumn 2006, the design concept for the remaining office towers in the new World Trade Center complex was presented. On December 19, 2006, the foundation stone was laid for the construction of the One World Trade Center by architect David Childs on the site known as Ground Zero . On the 10th anniversary of the terrorist attacks, the national memorial was inaugurated on September 11, 2011 .

The One World Trade Center , which was completed on May 10, 2013, is with a symbolic height of 541.3 meters the tallest building in the western hemisphere and the sixth tallest in the world . One World Trade Center , which is mainly financed with taxpayers' money by the New York Port Authority , was the result of a joint venture with the New York real estate company Durst Organization and, with construction costs of 3.8 billion US dollars, is by far the most expensive office building in the world.

The Four World Trade Center was opened in November 2013 . In June 2018, the construction work for the Three World Trade Center was completed. The new Two World Trade Center is scheduled to follow in 2021 . Buildings 2 , 3 and 4 World Trade Center are owned by Silverstein Properties . The start of construction of the Five World Trade Center has been postponed several times and is currently uncertain.

In August 2016, the Westfield World Trade Center underground shopping mall opened . The Westfield Group invested $ 1.4 billion in the two-story shopping arcade, which offers over a hundred stores a total of 34,000 m² of retail space. In addition, shops and boutiques will be set up on the five lower floors of the Three World Trade Center and Four World Trade Center .

New buildings on the site of the World Trade Center (construction status: as of 2016):


  • Angus Kress Gillespie: Twin Towers. The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick NJ 1999, ISBN 0-8135-2742-2 (Revised edition. New American Library, New York NY 2002, ISBN 0-451-20684-3 ), (English).
  • James Shine, Eric Lipton: City in the Sky. The Rise and Fall of the World Trade Center. Times Books, New York NY 2003, ISBN 0-8050-7428-7 (English).
  • Dirk Stichweh: New York Skyscrapers. Prestel Verlag, Munich u. a. 2009, ISBN 978-3-7913-4054-8 .
  • Andres Lepik: Skyscraper. Prestel, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7913-3454-9 .
  • Wolfgang Stiens, Photos: Michael Wolf: New York: Yamas Vision. In: Geo-Magazin. Hamburg 1979.7, pp. 140-156. Informative experience report from before 9/11: "The World Trade Center in Manhattan is only the second tallest building in the world, but the largest office complex ... The architect, a Japanese, is convinced that he has created a symbol for peace and humanity to have." ISSN  0342-8311
  • Colum McCann : The great world Rowohlt, Reinbek 2009 ISBN 978-3-498-04511-1 . Social mosaic image of the protagonists in the area of ​​tension between the Upper East Side and the Bronx . The various interlinked episodes are held together by the balancing act of the French tightrope walker Philippe Petit on August 7, 1974, interpreted by many viewers as a sign of hope , when he crossed the gorge between the Twin Towers at one hundred and ten floors above the ground.


  • September 11th - The last hours in the World Trade Center (F, USA 2001) Documentary by the brothers Jules and Gédéon Naudet about the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York. Originally, the French filmmakers had planned a documentary about a "firefighter in training" in New York. On September 11, 2001, they got involved in the rescue operation of the fire department in New York and received dramatic and unique images of the catastrophe and the way people dealt with it.
  • 9/11 - The last minutes in the World Trade Center (USA / GBR 2006) Docu-drama with a reconstruction of the inferno. Also based on testimony from survivors, police reports, and phone calls.
  • Bomb attack on the World Trade Center (USA 1997) The film reconstructs the search activities after the bomb attack on the World Trade Center on February 26, 1993.
  • The Lonely Shooters (USA 2001) A plane attack on the World Trade Center is prevented.
  • The Simpsons (USA 1998) In the 179th episode Homer and New York , Homer Simpson has to discover that his car has been parked between the two twin towers. The towers play a big part when Homer has to go to the bathroom. After the terrorist attacks of September 11th, the episode was not broadcast in the USA for a long time.
  • Man on Wire (GB 2008) Oscar-winning documentary thatreports on Philippe Petits' high wire runbetween the Twin Towers on August 7, 1974.
  • The Walk (USA 2015) Feature film about the high wire artist Philippe Petit and his balancing act between the twin towers in August 1974.
  • World Trade Center (USA 2006) The film describes the collapse of the World Trade Center from the point of view of the New York police officers John McLoughlin and William Jimeno, who survived the attacks on September 11, 2001 in real life.
  • Meteor (USA 1979) In the film, the World Trade Center is destroyed by the impact of a meteorite. The ruins of the WTC bury the underground command center from which the defense satellite "Hercules", equipped with nuclear weapons, was controlled.
  • King Kong (USA 1976) In the remake of the classic film, King Kong, in contrast to the original King Kong and the white woman, does notclimbthe Empire State Building , but rather the World Trade Center .
  • Labyrinth of the Monsters (USA 1982) Robbie Wheeimling wants to throw himself down from the south tower in order to reach the goal of his visions "in flight". However, by referring to the rules of the role play, his friends can convince him not to jump. They point out to Robbie that he doesn't have enough “points” to fly.
  • Gangs of New York (USA 2002) The final sequence shows in time lapse how Manhattan has developed up to the present day. The Manhattan skyline shows the two twin towers WTC 1 and WTC 2 .
  • Kevin - Alone in New York (USA 1992) In the film, the boy Kevin climbs onto the roof of the World Trade Center as a tourist.
  • Four Weird Birds (USA 1972) In the gangster comedy, the eponymous gang of thieves flies over Manhattan in a helicopter. Your way leads right past the World Trade Center, which is under construction.
  • The Soldiers of Fortune (USA 1983) In the comedy with Eddie Murphy and Dan Akroyd, the World Trade Center and theraw materials exchange,which is located in WTC 4 and actually exists, is one of the main locations. Here, the world market prices for the Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ), which isdecisive in the film, weretraded.
  • Focal Point Brooklyn (USA 1972) In the Oscar-winning film adaptation, a hit man and his contact man meet in front of the twin towers that are currently being built.
  • The Three Days of the Condor (USA 1975) In Sydney Pollack's thriller, CIA employee Joe Turner and his assistant Kathy Hale reveal a plot within their own ranks. The New York secret service branch sits symbolically high up in the WTC . The view from the offices of the city all around means unrestricted surveillance.
  • Wall Street (USA 1987) Director Oliver Stone opened his film about the financial shark Gordon Gekkowith a shot of the dark outlines of the twin towers at sunset.
  • Sylvie (D, USA 1972) In the classic film by German director Klaus Lemke , a helicopter circled the twin towers, some of which were still under construction, up to the roof of the north tower ( WTC 1 ), on which the leading actors were holding a photo shoot. Papa Was a Rollin 'Stone from the Temptations and the typical police sirens from the distant street canyons of New York can also be heard .

Web links

Commons : World Trade Center (New York City)  - Collection of pictures, videos, and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Net Lease of World Trade Center press release by Lewis M. Eisenberg, Chairman of the New York and New Jersey Ports Authority, March 19, 2001
  2. US Fire Administration / Technical Report Series: The World Trade Center Bombing: Report and Analysis , New York City, New York, February 1993, PDF p. 17 (Complex Overview)
  3. George E. Peterson: Unlocking Land Values ​​to Finance Urban Infrastructure , World Bank, 2009, p. 53
  4. ^ World Trade Center: A Dream Is Born
  5. ^ New York Times. July 6, 1946: Dewey Picks Board for Trade Center
  6. ^ Charles B. Crisman (New York Times, November 10, 1946): Plans are Tabled for Trade Center
  7. ^ New York Times, March 11, 1949: Lets Port Group Disband, State Senate for Dissolution of World Trade Corporation
  8. ^ A b c d e Angus K. Gillespie: Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. New American Library, 2002 ISBN 0-451-20684-3 (Chapter 1)
  9. ^ Leonard Louis Levinson: Wall Street: A Pictorial History. Ziff-Davis Publishing, New York 1961, p. 346.
  10. a b c Charles Grutzner (New York Times January 27, 1960): A World Center of Trade Mapped Off Wall Street
  11. Karl Koch, Richard Firstman: Men of Steel: The Story of the Family That Built the World Trade Center. Crown Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 0-307-42127-9 , p. 173.
  12. ^ New York Times, January 27, 1960: Text of Trade Center Report by the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association
  13. ^ Roger Cohen (Great Buildings, 1990/91): World Trade Center - History Commentary - Casting Giant Shadows: The Politics of Building the World Trade Center
  14. ^ New York Times, May 5, 1960: Tobin Says Proposed Center Should Be World's Best
  15. ^ New York Times, March 12, 1961: 355 Million World Trade Center Backed by Port Authority Study
  16. Charles Grutzner (New York Times, December 29, 1961): Port Unit Backs Linking of H & M and Other Lines
  17. George Cable Wright (New York Times, January 23, 1962): 2 States Agree on Hudson Tubes and Trade Center
  18. a b Syd Steinhard: The Death of New York's Radio Row , Downtown Express, September 2002, accessed August 27, 2009.
  19. ^ Alfred E. Clark, June 27, 1962, Injunction Asked on Trade Center , New York Times
  20. Paul Crowell, April 5, 1963, World Trade Center Here Upheld by Appeals Court, New York Times; Merchants Ask Supreme Court to Bar Big Trade Center Here , New York Times / Associated Press, August 26, 1963
  21. ^ Martin Arnold, Nov. 13, 1963, High Court Plea is Lost by Foes of Trade Center , New York Times; Jr. RW Apple, Nov. 16, 1963, Port Body Raises Relocation Aid , New York Times
  22. ^ Clayton Knowles, February 14, 1964, New Fight Begun on Trade Center , New York Times
  23. ^ Thomas W. Ennis, February 15, 1964, Critics Impugned on Trade Center , New York Times; Clayton Knowles, March 9, 1964, All Major Builders are Said to Oppose Trade Center Plan, New York Times
  24. ^ John Sibley, Jan. 14, 1964, State Will Rent at Trade Center , New York Times
  25. ^ 4th Bank Signed by Trade Center , New York Times, July 14, 1964
  26. ^ Glenn Fowler, July 7, 1965, Customs to Move to Trade Center , New York Times
  27. ^ Terence Smith, Aug. 4, 1966, City Ends Fight with Port Body on Trade Center , New York Times
  28. ^ Terence Smith, Jan. 26, 1967, Mayor Signs Pact on Trade Center , New York Times
  29. ^ Angus K. Gillespie, 1999, Chapter 1, Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center , Rutgers University Press
  30. Syd Steinhardt, September 2002, The Death of New York's Radio Row , accessed January 27, 2010
  31. ^ World Trade Center Feats of Engineering at the World Trade Center;
  32. ^ AD Classics: World Trade Center / Minoru Yamasaki Associates + Emery Roth & Sons Yamasaki, M. A Life in Architecture (New York, Weatherhill, 1979) / Arch Daily
  33. ^ World Trade Center Construction Fact Sheets Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, February 2012, p. 8
  34. ^ NIST: Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers 5.3.2 Aircraft Impact, p. 55
  35. World Trade Center architect Robertson: The tower builder Der Spiegel, September 5, 2011
  36. ^ History of the World Trade Center Association Over 40 Years of Growth, World Trade Center Association
  37. Guy F. Tozzoli, 90, Who Led Team That Built Twin Towers, Is Dead New York Times, February 6, 2013
  38. ^ World Trade Center name rights were sold for $ 10 USA Today, February 14, 2015
  39. ^ History of the Twin Towers Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
  40. World Trade Center Sights Set on Record-Breaking Height / World Trade Center: A Dream Come True;
  41. ^ Sears Tower To Stand Tallest In Antenna Race Chicago Tribune, February 16, 2000
  42. List of tenants in the World Trade Center CNN Special, 2001
  43. ^ AD Classics: World Trade Center / Minoru Yamasaki Associates + Emery Roth & Sons Yamasaki, M. A Life in Architecture (New York, Weatherhill, 1979) / Arch Daily
  44. ^ Post Office Holding Mail For World Trade Center CNN, October 2, 2001
  45. ^ General Agreements Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; November 25, 1995
  46. Contentious City: The Politics of Recovery in New York City John Mollenkopf, New York 2005, p. 76, ISBN 0-87154-629-9
  47. Timeline: World Trade Center (1942-2002) - Summer 2001 American Experience / PBS / New York Times
  48. Historic Port Authority Agreement to privatize World Trade Center Press release from New York and New Jersey Port Authority signing the lease, July 24, 2001
  49. Unlocking Land Values ​​to Finance Urban Infrastructure George E. Peterson, The World Bank, 2009, p. 53
  50. ^ WTC tenant Silverstein: A dream of a skyscraper Der Spiegel, August 29, 2011
  51. WTC leased to Silverstein Westfield, CNN, September 12, 2001
  52. ^ Silverstein Will Get Most of His Cash Back In Trade Center Deal New York Times, November 23, 2003
  53. ^ Sears Tower To Stand Tallest In Antenna Race Chicago Tribune, February 16, 2000
  54. General information: One World Trade Center International database for structures and civil engineers
  55. ^ World Trade Center Elevators. HowStuffWorks, Inc, accessed September 15, 2011 .
  56. ^ List of tenants at World Trade Center 1 CNN, 2001
  57. ^ Documentary "Man On Wire" Stern, January 25, 2009
  58. ^ Trade Center Hit by 6-Floor Fire. In: The New York Times . February 14, 1975. Retrieved January 24, 2019 .
  59. ^ High-rise Security and Fire Life Safety by Geoff Craighead; Published by Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003; P. 398
  60. May 26, 1977 - George Willig climbed the south tower of the World Trade Center WDR, May 26, 2012
  61. ^ Swat Team at World Trade Center Foils Would-Be Human Fly New York Times, November 12, 1997
  62. ^ 3 Gunmen Rob Guards of $ 1.6 million at World Trade Center Bank New York Times, January 13, 1998
  63. ^ List of tenants at World Trade Center 1 CNN, 2001
  64. ^ Playing for Chess Crown, and Game's Future New York Times, September 10, 1995
  65. History of World Chess Championship Kasparov vs Anand, New York City (1995)
  66. ^ The World Trade Center Bombing Report and Analysis; New York City, New York, p. 17
  67. ^ Maggie Brown: A license to be different: the story of Channel 4. BFI, 2007, ISBN 1-84457-204-8 , p. 262
  68. Gold Rises Above $ 400; 5-Month High New York Times, August 18, 1990
  69. ^ The Commodities Exchange Center Commodities Exchange Center Inc .; Brochure (PDF)
  70. ^ Minding your business New York Times, September 13, 1998
  71. tenants in the WTC 4 CNN, list of tenants in the WTC 4
  72. Vault buried in manager magazin, September 16, 2001; The gold treasure of the Twin Towers Die Welt, November 2, 2001
  73. tenants in the WTC 5 CNN, list of tenants in the WTC 5
  74. Debunking 9/11 Myths Popular Mechanics, April 7, 2010
  75. tenants in the WTC 6 CNN, list of tenants in the WTC 6
  76. ^ Knowing the Drill Saved Lives at New York's Customs House Washington Post, September 18, 2001
  77. A NATION CHALLENGED: THE SITE New York Times, October 13, 2001
  78. Company history of Silverstein Properties
  79. ^ Architectural Guidebook to New York City. Francis Morrone; P. 57 ISBN 1-58685-211-6
  80. Robert Tishmann, 94, died New York Times, October 12, 2010
  81. ^ The Salomon Solution: A Building Within a Building, at a Cost of $ 200 Million. New York Times, February 19, 1989
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  83. ^ Fried, Joseph P .: Sheik Sentenced to Life in Prison in Bombing Plot (English) , The New York Times . January 18, 1996. Retrieved November 20, 2008. 
  84. Jury convicts two in Trade Center blast (English) , CNN. November 12, 1997. Retrieved November 20, 2008. 
  85. ^ Hays, Tom and Larry Neumeister: In Sentencing Bombers, Judge Takes Hard Line (English) , Seattle Times / AP. May 25, 1994. Retrieved November 20, 2008. 
  86. With Crisis in Mind, Center Opens New York Times, June 8, 1999
  87. ^ New York City's anti-terrorism efforts go high-tech CNN, June 7, 1999
  88. 9/11 Commission Report 9.2 September 11, 2001; P. 285
  89. NIST study 2002 (PDF); NIST Final Report Executive Summary ES.1. World Trade Center Building 7; Pp. Xxxv – xxxvii
  90. ^ NIST, Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers: 2.3 The Immidiate Damage , pp. 22-24 and 2.5, p. 26
  91. ^ NIST, Final Report: 2.4 The Jet Fuel , p. 24; 2.5, p. 25
  92. ^ NIST, Final Report: 3.2, p. 38 ; 3.4 The Jet Fuel , p. 42
  93. ^ NIST, Final Report: 3.5, p. 43
  94. ^ NIST, Final Report (October 2005): 3.6 , p. 44; NIST NCSTAR 1-5: Reconstruction of the Fires in the World Trade Center Towers ; NIST FAQ, September 19, 2011: Questions and Answers about the NIST WTC Towers Investigation (answer to question 11)
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  96. NIST, September 19, 2011: Questions and Answers about the NIST WTC Towers Investigation (answer to question 3)
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  98. Business Insurance, August 17, 2003: Deutsche Bank sues insurers over 9/11 loss ( Memento from April 23, 2016 in the web archive ).
  99. Kyriaki Noussia: Reinsurance Arbitrations. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-45145-4 , p. 27 f.
  100. ^ Daily Mail, February 9, 2011: Ten years on, Deutsche Bank skyscraper damaged on 9/11 is finally dismantled
  101., December 2, 2008: Insurers kick in Money for German Demo ; New York Times / Unbuilding A Skyscraper: Deutsche Bank Demolition
  102. New York Times, October 30, 2013: St. Nicholas Church, Destroyed on 9/11, to Rebuild With Byzantine Design
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  104. ^ The Guardian, September 9, 2014: World Trade Center memorial lights return to New York - in pictures
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  106. Stern, July 16, 2003: World Trade Center: Profit versus Vision
  107. ^ FAZ, September 3, 2003: Libeskinds Meister: David Childs ; Martin Filler: Makers of Modern Architecture - From Frank Lloyd Wright to Frank Gehry. New York Review Books, New York 2007, ISBN 978-1-59017-227-8 , p. 274
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  109. ^ New York Times, December 2, 2014: How Cost of Train Station at World Trade Center Swelled to $ 4 Billion ; FAZ, March 4, 2016: The world's most expensive train station Die Welt, March 4, 2016: The world's most expensive train station is at Ground Zero
  110. ^ Wall Street Journal, Jan. 30, 2012: Building at World Trade Center Site To Cost Public Agency $ 3.8 trillion ; Die Welt, January 31, 2012: New WTC will be the most expensive office tower of all time ; Port Authority of New York and New Jersey: Timeline of the Rebuilding Effort
  111. ^ Westfield's World Trade Center mall rises from the ashes The Australian, January 20, 2016
  112. ^ World Trade Center Silverstein Properties, 2016
  113. Trivia about the film on (English)
  114. Gladys Knight: Pop Culture Places: An Encyclopedia of Places in American Popular Culture. Greenwood, 2014, p. 928
  115. New York location : The Twin Towers as a backdrop Spiegel online, November 13, 2015
  116. Dominik Graf, Michael Althen (ed.): Sleeps a song in all things: Texts for the film. Alexander Verlag, Berlin 2013, p. 34
before Tallest skyscraper in the world after that
Empire State Building 417 m
Sears Tower