Action Theory (Sociology)
The theory of action is a microsociological theory , with the help of which different actions can be examined and explained. “ Actions ” in this sense are motivated, in contrast to the purely reactive “ behavior ”.
The social action (action or inaction) is sociologically considered as a manifestation of socialized man, that is by the elements of the social order (such as institutions , traditions , organizations ) determined by which and in which man has to live and where and which man has become man in the sense of a social being.
The term "theory of action" denotes (often in summary) different sociological, psychological, scientific theory-based and didactic approaches:
- Phenomenological Sociology
- Symbolic interactionism
- Understanding sociology
- z. T. structural functionalism
- Rational Decision Theory
Systems theory is often mentioned as the opposite of action theory.
- materialistic (e.g. Ferdinand Tönnies )
- collectivist (e.g. Émile Durkheim )
- Individualistic (e.g. Max Weber )
- Structural functionalism : Very broad theories of action were developed by sociologists such as Talcott Parsons from work psychology research and further generalized in the direction of systems theory .
- Phenomenology ( Alfred Schütz )
- Behavior theory
- Methodological individualism
- Systems theory (Luhmann)
- Niklas Luhmann (1981): Action Theory and Systems Theory. In: Sociological Enlightenment 3 (pp. 50–66). VS publishing house for social sciences.
- Siegwart Lindenberg : Homo socio-economicus: the emergence of a general model of man in the social sciences . In: Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics , 146, 1990, pp. 727-748.
- Bernhard Miebach : Sociological theory of action. An introduction. Opladen (1991).
- Karl-Heinz Hillmann : Dictionary of Sociology (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 410). 4th, revised and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-520-41004-4 , pp. 319-321.
- Jürgen Habermas : Theory of communicative action (Vol. 1: Action rationality and social rationalization ; Vol. 2: On the critique of functionalist reason ). Frankfurt a. M. 1981, ISBN 3-518-28775-3 .
- Geert Keil : acting and causing . Frankfurt 2000 ISBN 978-3-46503072-0
- Hermann Korte : Sociology . Konstanz 2004, ISBN 3-82522518-6 , pp. 96-98.
- Action theories. In: Microsoft Encarta