Stefan Mappus

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Stefan Mappus, 2010

Stefan Mappus (* 4. April 1966 in Pforzheim ) was a German politician of the CDU . From February 2010 to May 2011 he was Prime Minister of the State of Baden-Württemberg and from November 2009 to July 2011 State Chairman of the CDU Baden-Württemberg .


education and profession

From 1972 to 1976 Mappus attended primary school in Mühlacker-Enzberg and then the Theodor-Heuss-Gymnasium Mühlacker until graduation in 1985 . After training as an industrial clerk at Standard Elektrik Lorenz in Pforzheim, he did his basic military service with the rocket artillery battalion 122 in Philippsburg from 1987 .

From 1988 to 1993 Mappus studied economics and social sciences at the University of Hohenheim and graduated with a degree in economics . From 1993 to 1995 he was a research assistant at the Chair of Political Science . From 1995 to 1997 he worked part-time at Siemens AG in Stuttgart in the sales of telecommunications systems. Since then he has been released from Siemens with a right of return.

Political activity

Mappus joined the Junge Union in 1983 and the CDU two years later. From 1988 to 1990 he was district chairman of the Junge Union Enzkreis / Pforzheim and from 1989 to 2002 a member of the state board of the Junge Union Baden-Württemberg. From 1994 to 2010 he was district chairman of the CDU Enzkreis / Pforzheim. From 2005 to 2009 he was deputy state chairman of the CDU Baden-Württemberg , from November 20, 2009 to July 23, 2011 as its state chairman.

From 1989 to 1995 he was a member of the municipal council of the city of Mühlacker and from 1994 to 1995 district councilor in the Enzkreis. Since 1996 Mappus has held the direct mandate of the Pforzheim state electoral district and was a member of the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg . In the state elections on March 25, 2001 , the member of the Bundestag, state chairwoman and top candidate of the SPD Baden-Württemberg for the office of Prime Minister Ute Vogt ran in the same constituency. Vogt achieved a 13.5 percentage point increase in votes in the constituency, but not the direct mandate. In this election, the SPD received 8.2 percentage points more nationwide than in the previous election; But Vogt could not move into the state parliament due to the results of the constituency. Vogt, who in the 1998 federal elections in the Bundestag constituency Pforzheim had acquired the direct mandate remained until the 2005 general election Member of the Bundestag.

From 1998 to 2004 Mappus was political state secretary in the Baden-Württemberg Ministry for Environment and Transport and from 2004 to 2005 Minister of Environment and Transport ; In 2000, the then State Secretary was appointed Interregio- Commissioner by Prime Minister Erwin Teufel in order to persuade Deutsche Bahn to create independent regional transport as a replacement for the discontinued IR trains. On April 21, 2005, he was elected as the successor to Günther Oettinger , who became Prime Minister of the country, in a vote against Peter Hauk as chairman of the CDU parliamentary group. After the state elections in 2006 , he was confirmed in this office with a large majority. From January 2011, Chancellor Merkel appointed Mappus as the representative for German-French cultural cooperation .

On October 24, 2009, Mappus declared his readiness to succeed Baden-Württemberg's Prime Minister Oettinger, who had been nominated as the new EU Commissioner in the course of the formation of the new black and yellow government coalition ( Merkel II cabinet ) in Berlin . Two days later, the state presidium and the state executive committee of the CDU voted together for his nomination. In addition, Mappus was chosen as the top candidate for the 2011 state elections and was elected as the new state chairman of the CDU Baden-Württemberg on November 20, 2009 . On February 10, 2010, he was elected Prime Minister in the Baden-Württemberg state parliament with 83 out of 137 votes; the coalition of CDU and FDP had a total of 84 members of the state parliament.

In the state elections in 2011, the CDU under Mappus received only 39 percent of the votes, the worst CDU result in Baden-Württemberg to date. The Greens and the SPD formed the government for the first time in the country's history , Winfried Kretschmann succeeded Mappus as Prime Minister. Mappus resigned as CDU state chairman the day after the state elections. At the end of August 2011 he resigned from his state parliament mandate; the second candidate Marianne Engeser moved up.

Further professional life

From September 1 to the end of 2011, Mappus was employed by the pharmaceutical and chemical group Merck , where he was supposed to manage business with Brazil. While it was initially claimed after his departure that he had left voluntarily, it was later announced that he had to leave at Merck's request. After a period from November 2012 as an advisor to the board of the IT consultancy pmOne, he was a board member there from March 2015 until the end of 2019.


Mappus is Protestant and comes from a shoemaker family in Mühlacker -Enzberg. He has been married to the former state manager of the CDU Baden-Württemberg, Susanne Verweyen-Mappus , who was born in Kleve since 2001 . They have two sons and live in Pforzheim. Like his role model Franz Josef Strauss, Stefan Mappus has a private pilot's license .

Political positions and controversies

Controversy over “Neofascism” exhibition

As State Secretary, Mappus sharply criticized the exhibition Neofascism in the Federal Republic of Germany planned in the Pforzheimer Kulturhaus Osterfeld in an open letter and threatened to cut the funds for the publicly supported Kulturhaus, which would have meant the end of it. Mappus justified this with the alleged closeness of some CDU-related people to neo-fascism, e.g. E.g. the controversial historian and Konrad Adenauer Prize winner Ernst Nolte , or the activity of Hans Filbinger as a naval judge during the Nazi era. Due to the pressure, the exhibition was initially canceled. Mappus' approach was criticized by the opposition and the media as exerting political influence and " abuse of power ".

Legal dispute with Thomas Knapp

In the course of the controversial funeral speech that the then Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg Günther Oettinger gave in 2007 on the occasion of the death of Hans Filbinger , the SPD member of the state parliament Thomas Knapp also made serious accusations at a district party congress that Mappus was "fishing on the right edge". Knapp refused a declaration of cease and desist; Mappus applied for an injunction ; this was rejected by the Karlsruhe Regional Court on May 31, 2007.

Attitude to homosexuality

In the past, Mappus described Christopher Street Day (CSD) Stuttgart as "repulsive". In 2005 he said that 90 percent of the parliamentary group had a problem with him “with the frivolous, carnivalesque display of sexual inclinations, as happens at this event.” He criticized the then Minister of Social Affairs, Andreas Renner , who in 2005 assumed the patronage of the CSD . Accordingly, the state government led by him did not contribute a greeting to the event in 2010. Mappus' refusal to write a greeting was severely criticized by his political opponents as "shameful" and as a "signal of intolerance".

When the then Federal Minister of Justice Brigitte Zypries (SPD) demanded adoption rights for same-sex couples in the summer of 2009 , Mappus criticized this with the fact that, in his view, children were extremely unsuitable for "experiments" in the field of same-sex partnerships. He also spoke out against entering into civil partnerships in the marriage rooms of the registry offices.

Tax fraud data

In February 2010, Mappus decided, in his role as Prime Minister and at the urging of the FDP , that the data on tax evasion offered would neither be bought by the state of Baden-Württemberg nor forwarded to the Federal Central Tax Office . He had to take severe criticism from both his own ranks and the opposition.

Major rail project Stuttgart 21

Mappus endorsed the Stuttgart 21 project . When a large demonstration against the project on September 30, 2010, the so-called "Black Thursday", left several seriously injured and more than 100 demonstrators injured by police officers with pepper spray and batons, including ten children and young people, Mappus became the political one Responsibility given to police violence. The Stuttgart Administrative Court ruled in November 2015 that the police operation was unlawful, the police chief was convicted of negligent bodily harm in office in March 2015 . The state of Baden-Württemberg made compensation payments of 120,000 euros to Dietrich Wagner alone .

Indications that the Stuttgart police felt compelled to undertake the extremely tough operation, especially under pressure from Mappus, could not be proven in the investigative committee of the state parliament. Mappus had been informed of the deployment plans the day before the police operation and had approved them. According to a statement by the State Police President Hammann before the investigative committee, the police operation was carried out because of the government statement planned for October 7th by Mappus. In August 2013, a spokesman for the police union said that Mappus had "poured fuel on the fire" and enforced the police operation on September 30, 2010 as early as possible. Just through his presence at a briefing of the Stuttgart police leadership, he had an influence.

At the beginning of March 2011, Mappus accused the Stuttgart Mayor Wolfgang Schuster (CDU) of a "wrong information policy" with regard to Stuttgart 21. In this context, he stated that, as CDU state chairman, he would make the search for another candidate a top priority and that Schuster would no longer compete in the OB election at the end of 2012 due to his age. After Mappus had been strongly and unanimously criticized both by the opposition and from ranks of the CDU for this interference in regional autonomy, he apologized to Schuster and the Stuttgart CDU.

In December 2013 the Greens, SPD and FDP pushed through a second committee of inquiry in the state parliament.

Positioning the Union

In February 2010, in an interview with the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung , Mappus advised the Union against offending traditional voters. He declared that the thesis that “churchgoers and displaced persons are no longer needed” is wrong. In this context he emphasized that for him the motto was: "First the regular customers, then the walk-in customers". In his view, the Union had hardly gained any voters through a “more modern” policy in the center; “On the other hand, we lost a lot for that”. Mappus had previously emphasized the importance of the people 's parties and defined: "A people's party that does not win 40 percent in the long run is no longer a people's party".

Residual life of nuclear power plants

In July 2010, Mappus stated that abandoning coal and gas energy as quickly as possible was more important than phasing out nuclear energy . At the same time, he called for an extension of nuclear power plants by 15 or more years. When Federal Environment Minister Norbert Röttgen came out in favor of more moderate extensions of the running times of older nuclear power plants shortly afterwards, Mappus even called for his resignation. In autumn 2010, the black and yellow federal government ( Merkel II cabinet ) decided to significantly extend the service life of German nuclear power plants .

Immediately after the reactor disaster in Fukushima ( Japan ), Chancellor Merkel met on March 12, 2011 with the prime ministers of the five federal states with nuclear power plants (Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). Two days later, Merkel announced the nuclear moratorium . Another day later, Mappus said in the Baden-Württemberg state parliament that the Neckarwestheim I nuclear power plant would be "permanently shut down and shut down". This gave him EnBW boss Hans-Peter Villis informed of justifying this step with the "current needs" of the Stuttgart Environmental Ministry in terms of safety retrofits.

EnBW takeover

At the beginning of December 2010, Mappus announced that the state of Baden-Württemberg wanted to buy the 45.01% stake in EnBW held by Électricité de France (EDF) for 4.67 billion euros . The takeover of the block of shares was accompanied by Morgan Stanley Bank AG, the German subsidiary of the investment bank Morgan Stanley . Its chief executive (since February 2009) Dirk Notheis was a member of the CDU state executive committee of Baden-Württemberg until July 2011. In France in particular, people were amazed that EDF boss Henri Proglio had not used an official advisory bank when selling all of the EnBW shares. One explanation was seen in the fact that Proglio's twin brother René has been head of Morgan Stanley France since 2009. This bank had already overseen the privatization and IPO of EDF in 2004 . Mappus cited this circumstance and the "special trust the seller had in this bank" as the reason for commissioning Morgan Stanley Germany. In February 2012, it was announced through a report by the Baden-Württemberg state government that EDF had also commissioned Morgan Stanley as a consultancy bank and that the investment bank had in some cases negotiated with itself. The correspondence shows that the head of Morgan Stanley France, René Proglio (the twin brother of the CEO of EDF, Henri Proglio) was involved on the French side. On November 10, 2010, a joint conversation between Mappus, Notheis and the Proglio twins took place in Paris. The filing that Morgan Stanley made available to the Committee of Inquiry in June 2012 shows that René Proglio played a central role.

According to the State Ministry of Baden-Württemberg , the award to Morgan Stanley took place without a tender. Critics accused Mappus of abuse of power and a lack of transparency . With a premium of 18 percent on the then current market value, the takeover price was too high. According to Stuttgarter Nachrichten , Notheis is said to have said: "The EnBW deal is a bombshell for the state of Baden-Württemberg - unless another nuclear power plant is blown up somewhere." According to the Stuttgarter Zeitung , Notheis later sharply denied this: Never have he said the like, "such cynicism is absolutely alien to me".

The fee paid to Morgan Stanley was kept secret by the then state government of Baden-Württemberg. The amount is said to be “well” below the 0.8% of the transaction amount customary in the industry (ie well below 37 million euros; in mid-2012 it became known that 12.8 million euros plus VAT had been billed).

The approval of the state parliament for a capital guarantee of the state in the amount of 5.9 billion euros was only obtained retrospectively - after the contracts were signed. Mappus justified this procedure with the occurrence of a "(...) unforeseen and irrefutable need (...)" according to Article 81 of the state constitution . Mappus only inaugurated Willi Stächele , Minister of Finance , who is responsible for emergency permits under the state constitution, a few hours before the contract was signed. Despite the allegations, the Stuttgart public prosecutor's office did not respond to the reports received with a preliminary investigation - at least not before the state elections in March 2011 .

It was also criticized that the purchase could be a big loss-making business, which it actually became. The purchase of the shares for 4.67 billion euros plus additional costs entailed considerable risks , for example because of the uncertainty about possible remaining operating times of nuclear power plants in Germany, in particular the Neckarwestheim nuclear power plant (owned by EnBW). The scenario actually occurred after the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in March 2011 and the nuclear phase-out in Germany that was initiated shortly thereafter .

In 2010 the finance committee of the state parliament put the cost of the takeover of EnBW by the state of Baden-Württemberg (including guarantees and permits) at 5.9 billion euros. Small investors - they held around 10 percent of the shares in EnBW at the time - showed great interest in a mandatory offer by the state of Baden-Württemberg to the other shareholders in the amount of 41.50 euros per share, because the shares except for a single day (28 December 2010, closing price = 41.154 euros) were never quoted above 40 euros.

On October 6, 2011, the state court for the state of Baden-Württemberg announced its judgment on the EnBW purchase. It said that the then Finance Minister Stächele had violated the constitution of the state of Baden-Württemberg by signing the emergency approval to purchase EnBW shares without parliamentary participation . Stächele resigned as President of the State Parliament on October 12, 2011.

On February 8, 2012, the Stuttgart public prosecutor announced that they would not initiate any investigations against Mappus and Stächele on suspicion of infidelity .

In April 2012, the lawyer Martin Schockenhoff, whose law firm was advising the business in question, put on record before the committee of inquiry that Mappus had been prepared to accept constitutional concerns in the event that this made a sale to third parties less likely would. In doing so, he contradicted Mappus' presentation.

The Stuttgart public prosecutor's office has been investigating Mappus since July 2012 on suspicion of infidelity. An expert opinion by the Rhineland-Palatinate Court of Auditors resulted in “sufficient factual indications” for a suspicion. Mappus was accused of having paid at least 840 million euros too much for the EnBW shares. This emerges from a further report that was commissioned by the green-red state government and drawn up by the auditing company Warth & Klein Grant Thornton. On July 11, 2012, the apartment of Stefan Mappus and other objects in eight locations were searched by the police.

On August 23, 2012, it was announced that all data on the former Prime Minister's office computer had been destroyed. At the instigation of Mappus, after the CDU's defeat in the state elections, but before his successor Kretschmann moved into the Reitzenstein government villa in Stuttgart, the hard drive was removed and physically destroyed. Mappus had commissioned the lawyer Stephan Holthoff-Pförtner with his defense.

In November 2012, Mappus failed with his lawsuit at the Stuttgart Higher Regional Court against the handing over of documents that the public prosecutor had confiscated from him to the EnBW investigative committee of the state parliament. These are backup copies that were made in autumn 2010 only to troubleshoot the computer. The mails are of a private nature, explained the attorneys of the Stuttgart public prosecutor's office. According to the Higher Regional Court, the ex-Prime Minister's complaint against the release of a copy of the complete investigation files is unfounded. At the end of November 2012, the public prosecutor announced that the investigation would take months.

On November 21, 2013, the Stuttgart public prosecutor published the result of an expert opinion that was intended to check whether the purchase price for the block of shares was appropriate. The financial scientist Wolfgang Ballwieser comes to the result in the report that the then state government paid 780 million euros (or 20 percent) too much - instead of 34.58 euros per share, 41.50 euros.

In January 2014 it became known that according to the previously unknown interrogation protocols, the EDF did not want to sell, contrary to Mappus' claims, and that there was no other serious interested party.

According to a report by SWR Landesschau aktuell Baden-Württemberg in April 2014, the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Finance “deliberately let the statute of limitations of a lawsuit against Mappus for compensation for the EnBW deal at the end of March pass”. The official reason for the waiver is the arbitration proceedings against EDF.

On October 27, 2014, it became known that Mappus was demanding compensation from its former legal advisors because the purchase of EnBW had been classified as unconstitutional without the involvement of the state parliament. But they stressed that they had warned against it. The amount in dispute was 500,000 euros. On February 24, 2015, the Stuttgart Regional Court dismissed the claim for damages because it was not Mappus but the state that was the lawyers' contractual partner. The Stuttgart Higher Regional Court and the BGH confirmed the judgment of the Stuttgart Regional Court.

The ICC arbitration court ruled in May 2016 that the state of Baden-Württemberg has no right to repayment of part of the purchase price. The then Finance Minister Nils Schmid (SPD, Cabinet Kretschmann I ) had asked the ICC for a repayment of over 800 million euros from what the government believed was overpriced.

See also

Web links

Commons : Stefan Mappus  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
 Wikinews: Stefan Mappus  - in the news

References and comments

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