As jargon [ ʒarˈɡɔŋ or ʒarˈgõ ] ( French jargon , actually and originally probably word painting = incomprehensible murmur, also: birdsong) - also slang [ slɛŋ or slæŋ ] ( English , origin unclear) - becomes a non-standardized language variety , a special language or denotes a non-standardized vocabulary that is used in a professionally, socially, politically or culturally demarcated group of people, a certain social milieu or a subculture (“ scene ”).
Jargon denotes a (not generally understandable) special language vocabulary of certain social classes or professional groups. The name was derived from the French in the 18th century . Language adopted into German. The French jargon originally meant “ gibberish ”, “incomprehensible murmur” and belongs to a group of words of onomatopoeic origin that denote a gurgling, smacking sound (cf. French gargote “cheap restaurant”, “pub”; from French gargoter “ slurping and smacking, eating and drinking ”) This word has been used in French since around 1270 and is derived from a root * garg- , which denotes the throat (the throat, throat) and their performance: speech sounds.
The term slang was for a "careless colloquial language" in the first half of the 19th century from English. slang “professional”, “special language”, “familiar, casual and innovative way of speaking”. At first he only referred to the Engl. Language (especially in London), then also to American English and in the 20th century it was also related to German forms of colloquial language. As a term in linguistics, it is a term for “special language” or “ sociolect ”. In 1893 the word first found its way into spelling .
Meaning and definition
The jargon is as slang a special language ( sociolect can) serving the (often simplified) communication within the user group as well as the separation from the outside and thus the identity. As a professional and specialist language, it is also called technical jargon.
The technical jargon describes the special professional world aptly and concretely, but is not standardized. It must therefore not be confused with standardized technical terminology . However, the technical jargon is efficient and clear: it is able to differentiate and emphasize.
The scene jargon draws group boundaries by creating a kind of "language complicity". By using a special jargon, for example the youth language , which is different from the language of the elderly, an individual identity is created. The speakers, as the creators and owners of their language, thus exercise a power in the community that distinguishes between members and strangers. The group creates expressions that reflect a particular experience of reality. The jargon integrates this into the identity and culture of the group.
One differentiates among other things:
- Group languages ( sociolect ): Gamer lingo , drug jargon , grypsera , glossary of graffiti , hip hop slang , youth language , network jargon , slang , language of Canaan , students language , students language , slang (originally beggars and crooks language of medieval France)
- Professional languages : miner's language , printer language , hunter's language , legal German , seaman's language , soldier's language , administrative language , laboratory jargon
- Technical languages : administrative language , sports language , scientific language, language of computer experts .
- Educational jargon
A jargon can be distinguished from other language variations, such as vulgar language or registers , by the fact that these variations are not a typical language of a particular group. Sometimes a jargon develops into a pidgin language .
In the neurosciences, jargon is also understood to be a language production that is incomprehensible to outsiders. H. certain words are replaced by others without their meaning becoming clear (see also paraphasia ).
- Kirsten Nabrings: Linguistic varieties. Narr, Tübingen 1981, ISBN 3-87808-147-2 , p. 172 f .: section “Jargon”.
- Peter Wippermann (Ed.): Duden. Dictionary of scene languages. Published by Trendbüro. Duden, Mannheim et al. 2000, ISBN 3-411-70951-0 .
- Peter Wendling: Slang register. Standard German - colloquial German. Seasoning words at their finest. Helix-Verlag, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-927930-18-0 .
- Jargon in duden.de, accessed on August 8, 2017.
- Jargon in DWDS, accessed on August 8, 2017.
- Jargon in the Dictionnaire du Center National de Resources Textuelles ( CNRT ).
- Slang in DWDS , accessed on August 8, 2017.
- Slang , duden.de, accessed on August 8, 2017.
- Computer gamer jargon + meta events: Tequatl - Guild Wars 2. In: YouTube.com. February 11, 2016, accessed April 26, 2017 .
- Jan Drengner, Manuela Sachse: Small Hip Hop Lexicon. In: splash-meets-classic.de. November 6, 2006, accessed April 26, 2017 .
- Christian Lehmann: Wissenschaft - Science. In: ChristianLehmann.eu. September 11, 2013, accessed April 26, 2017 .
- Hans-Otto Karnath , Peter Thier: Cognitive Neurosciences . 3. Edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-642-25526-7 , chap. 41 .