Homosexuality and the Roman Catholic Church
Homosexuality and the Roman Catholic Church deals with the subject of homosexuality and Christianity in the context of Catholic social teaching , anthropology , sexual ethics and moral theology of the Roman Catholic Church .
When it comes to the concept of homosexuality , the Church's teaching differentiates between the tendency towards same-sex partners and the resulting actions. A homosexual tendency is considered to be "objectively disordered" because it is "not sinful in itself", but justifies "a more or less strong tendency that is oriented towards morally bad behavior". Homosexual acts, on the other hand, are viewed as “moral disorder” that “ contradicts the creative wisdom of God” and contradicts natural law, because the “transmission of life” is excluded during the sexual act. They do not arise from a “true affective and sexual need for supplementation” and would therefore “in no way be approved”.
According to the Catholic understanding, a marriage consists of a man and a woman, same-sex marriage is rejected in the church's understanding of the sacrament of marriage , but also as a purely state civil marriage . Same-sex partnerships are seen as an unsuitable environment for the upbringing of children, and legalization efforts as harmful to society.
Church teaching post
Catholic teaching condemns homosexual acts as highly immoral, while at the same time calling for homosexual people to be "treated with respect, compassion and tact" and not to be "unjustly set back in any way". Inclination to homosexuality is not subject to any conscious decision and is therefore not regarded as a sin, which, according to Catholic teaching, includes the free decision to sin. However, this goes hand in hand with a “tendency that is oriented towards morally bad behavior”, so that “the inclination itself must be viewed as objectively disordered”.
Homosexual acts, like all acts that are not subordinate to the higher good of love in marriage ( masturbation , artificial contraception ), as well as any desire for sin, are objectively wrong and morally bad.
Interpretations that contradict this doctrine and pressure groups that demand that the Catholic Church change its teaching on homosexuality are strictly rejected. However, bishops are encouraged to support forms of pastoral care that promote homosexual persons at all levels of their spiritual life, and the Christian community is called upon to stand by their homosexual brothers and sisters without disappointing them or driving them into isolation.
In 1975 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith published the Declaration Persona humana , in which the foundations of the Catholic Church's doctrine of sex are developed. It describes human sexuality as a central element of personality, which gives human life its fundamental, differentiating characteristics.
From the finality (procreation) the act of bodily devotion gets its dignity and without this homosexuality stands in contradiction to the function of sexuality in the natural order, as it teaches the church in the natural law doctrine of Thomas Aquinas . Therefore, "homosexual acts are inherently out of order" and their acceptance contradicts church teaching and morality. The difference between the sexes is a constitutive part of the natural order. Sexual pleasure is then disordered "when it is striven for for its own sake and is detached from its inner order to the transmission of life and to loving union." According to this, sexuality finds its meaning and its dignity only in marriage and only if it is basically geared towards reproduction.
Reference is made to a distinction between people "whose tendency is derived from a wrong upbringing, from insufficient sexual maturity" or other non-biologically justified and as curable causes and those "who are caused by a kind of innate drive or a pathological predisposition “Are incurably homosexual. The opinion that this second category, due to its natural cause, can be seen “as a justification for their homosexual relationships in a marriage-like sincere community of life and love” is rejected because a moral justification cannot depend solely on the fact that the “acts are with according to their personal constitution ”, while according to the“ objective moral order ”they are“ deprived of their essential and indispensable regulation ”.
Jeffrey Siker criticizes the fact that homosexuality is referred to as an "anomaly" from which homosexuals suffer as a negative linguistic connotation and draws a contrast to more neutral or even positive interpretations of homosexual orientation in the following years. In a letter from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on Pastoral Care for Homosexual Persons from 1986, Joseph Ratzinger pointed out that the description of homosexual acts as intrinsically disordered (“inherently not in order”) was partially misinterpreted homosexual tendencies would be presented as "indifferent or even good". However, this is an "extremely benevolent interpretation" and he makes it clear that even a homosexual tendency is "objectively disordered". This formulation was also adopted in the catechism.
In the Catechism of the Catholic Church (KKK), the section on chastity and homosexuality (2357–2359) is devoted to the topic . This refers to Persona humana , the biblical texts Gen 19.1–29 EU , Rom 1.24–27 EU , 1 Cor 6.10 EU and 1 Tim 1.10 EU and the living tradition of the church, its close connection in Dei verbum is stressed.
In paragraph 2359, the Catechism teaches that for homosexuals, life can be mastered in chastity and in approximation to Christian perfection “perhaps with the help of selfless friendship”.
In the provisional version from 1992 homosexuality was still referred to as a "non-self-chosen disposition", in the authoritative version from 1997 as a "deep-seated tendency", the psychological origin of which is largely unclear; this “tendency”, which is “objectively disordered”, is a test for most of those affected. The Catechism advises that homosexual people “be treated with respect, compassion and tact. Be careful not to unjustly set them back in any way ”(n. 2358).
In the differentiation of venial sins , mortal sins and blatant sins in the catechism, according to KKK 1867, the sin of the sodomites with reference to Gen 18.20 EU and Gen 19.13 EU (but not to Gen 19.5 EU ) belongs to the latter and is thus characterized as a serious disturbance of the moral order. According to Johannes M. Schwarz (2005), the “sin of the sodomites” is “ sodomy ”, pedophilia and homosexual acts. According to Joseph Schumacher (2005), these include homosexuality, pederasty and bestiality ( zoophilia ). According to Karl Hörmann (1969, 1976) it is a matter of "sodomy", whereby sodomy in the full sense of the word is homosexual activity. According to Franz Xaver Linsenmann (1878), it is a matter of “complete, unnatural fornication”, but also a “lack of mercy for the poor and crude abuse of strangers in order to stop the influx of strangers”. In 1910, the moral theologian Anton Koch from Freiburg counted all sexual acts with the purpose of thwarting reproduction (contrary to nature). In 1985 Josef Scharbert saw the actual guilt of the Sodomites in the "violence with which they disregard all rights, especially the right to hospitality, and force fellow human beings to serve their desires against all law and custom."
About pastoral care for homosexual people
The letter to the bishops of the Catholic Church on pastoral care for homosexual persons of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, written in October 1986, is a pastoral instruction on how to deal with homosexuals in pastoral care. It was designed to remove any ambiguities about tolerance of homosexual orientation emanating from Persona Humana and had a particular focus on the Church in the United States , where the influence of homosexual groups and clerics had grown.
In the letter it is stated that homosexual orientation is not a sin, but brings with it a tendency to "morally bad" homosexual acts and must therefore be viewed as an "objective disorder" that deviates from the norm of natural things. Robert J. Dempsey makes a comparison with kleptomania , which, while not inherently sinful, is an objective disorder that leads to morally wrong actions. Nobody chooses for themselves to be a kleptomaniac and nobody wants to be. And the more compulsive this mental disorder is, the lower the guilt of the actions it causes. Nevertheless, kleptomaniacs cannot be given permission to steal at will, they cannot be granted a natural or constitutional right to theft, or kleptomania is simply codified as an alternative form of human life. Siker interprets this to mean that homosexual identities cannot be celebrated or appropriately imbued with pride.
Physical or verbal violence against homosexuals is clearly condemned.
The letter also points out that it is harmful to accept homosexual acts as morally equivalent to heterosexual acts in conjugal intercourse and warns the bishops not to support organizations that contradict the Church's teaching on homosexuality and are therefore not really Catholic. As a direct consequence, several American bishops banned the organization DignityUSA from celebrating services in Catholic churches.
Opinions on legislative initiatives
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith wrote to the American bishops in July 1992 in relation to planned legislative initiatives on non-discrimination that homosexuals had the same human rights as everyone else. However, these are not absolute rights, but can rightly be restricted on the basis of behavior that can be described as objectively disordered. Sometimes this is not only legal but also mandatory, not only in the case of guilty conduct, but also in the case of the actions of mentally and physically ill people. It is also accepted that the state can restrict the exercise of rights, for example in the case of disease carriers or the mentally ill, in order to protect the general good.
The American moral theologian Richard Peddicord , who published a monograph on gay rights in 1996, concluded that the letter was "a collection of allegations and presumed implications" for which there was no empirical evidence. For example, it raises the question of why homosexuals shouldn't become teachers, sports teachers or soldiers. Without sufficient reason to encourage discrimination against a group, it violates the principles of moral theology and social ethics.
Legal recognition of same-sex partnerships
In a statement dated June 3, 2003 under the title Considerations on the draft legal recognition of unions between homosexual persons , the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith rejects the recognition of homosexual , same-sex partnerships and calls on believers, especially politicians, to oppose their legalization. It states that the "respect for homosexual persons required by the teaching does not in any way lead to the approval of homosexual behavior or the legal recognition of homosexual partnerships". This would legitimize “absurd behavior” and make it socially acceptable, as well as reducing the “marital community as the foundation of the family”, which is regarded as the “common heritage of humanity” and needs to be socially protected. Analogies between same-sex partnerships and "God's plan for marriage and the family" were completely unfounded. They lacked the “biological and anthropological factors” that “could justify legal recognition of such communities”. “The marital dimension, which defines the human and orderly form of sexual relations”, is not given, as is the complementary function of the sexes, which is decisive for human sexuality, and the openness to the transmission of life.
Calling on Catholic politicians to prevent "grievously immoral" legislation in favor of same-sex partnerships, it is reminded that "tolerance of evil is very different from approving or legalizing evil."
Children in homosexual unions are hindered in their development by the lack of sexual bipolarity and violence is done to them "in the sense that their state of need is exploited to introduce them into an environment that is not conducive to their full human development." would be seriously immoral and contravene the children's rights enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child .
The Church differentiates between what it believes to be justified and unjustified defenses. She regards the latter as discrimination and rejects it, such as the rejection of criminal prosecution of homosexuality, such as the statement against a bill in Uganda that provides for the death penalty for homosexuality "in particularly serious cases" and the punishment of those who do not report such people .
In certain cases, however, resets are considered justified. In the opinion of the Church, people with homosexual inclinations are not to be used in certain tasks of the Church: The Austrian Bishops' Conference mentions education and training as examples, as does the letter of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith of 1992 to the American bishops, which also mentions the military. In December 2007, the Latvian Cardinal Jānis Pujats , on behalf of all Catholic believers in the country, called on the parties in an open letter to deny homosexuals access to public office in principle.
Also, people who do not adhere to the fundamental principles of the church's doctrine of faith and morals outside of the service area cannot work in church service or should be released from it. In this case, the termination takes place because the way of life no longer appears acceptable; Professional qualifications and the quality of the work are irrelevant. In addition to an unchaste way of life, leaving the church , publicly advocating the legalization of abortion or public criticism of the attitude towards contraceptives can lead to this. For clerics and members of religious orders , the ecclesiastical right of other servants of the church and another related holdings, here modified labor . In addition to the church and religious teachers, this also includes all private law organizations that are considered to be the "expression of the essence and life" of the church, from Caritas and development aid organizations to kindergartens and day care centers, hospitals, retirement and nursing homes, care for the disabled, schools, boarding schools, holiday homes to to the church newspaper. Sometimes there are also written agreements on “absolute secrecy”. However, Article 4 (2) of EU Directive 2000/78 / EC of November 27, 2000, according to which termination is only permitted “if the religion or belief of this person according to the nature of these activities or their circumstances Exercise is an essential, lawful and justifiable professional requirement given the ethos of the organization. ”In the event of a conflict between national law and a directive, national courts must interpret national law in such a way as to avoid any conflict with the directive. Under these conditions, a long-standing Kolping Society employee successfully sued in the first instance against his dismissal without notice
Partners of a registered civil partnership that has become known must expect dismissal in the church service as well as remarried divorced persons, as this is considered to be inconsistent with the teaching of the church. In Germany, the registration authorities are allowed to report the marital status to the relevant religious community under public law for the purpose of tax collection. Since the partnership has no church tax consequences, you do not have to do this. If the interests of the data subject that are worthy of protection are impaired, for example if the transmission of the data deprives the livelihood, the registration authorities must consider an objection to the forwarding of the data. In May 2015, the raised German Bishops' Conference , the Declaration on the incompatibility of the partners after the Civil Partnership Act with the loyalty obligations to the basic order of church service as part of church work conditions of 24 June 2002, the corresponding passage in the basic order of church service in the context of church employment was but only loosened to the extent that entering into a civil partnership continues to constitute a breach of loyalty, but is only punished in exceptional cases, analogous to remarriage.
According to Can. 1184 of the 1983 CIC can refuse church burial to public sinners who have not given any signs of repentance before death if this cannot be granted without public nuisance to the faithful. According to Can. 1185 in such a case any funeral mass must be refused. In San Diego , California, for example, Bishop Robert H. Brom forbade all parishes in the diocese to provide a funeral for 31-year-old John McCusker, who had died of a heart attack, because his business activities were not compatible with Catholic doctrine and a scandal was being prevented wool.
According to Can. 1095 No. 3 of the CIC of 1983, those are incapable of entering into a marriage "who for reasons of their psychological nature are unable to take on essential obligations of the marriage." This is also the case with "psycho-sexual anomalies such as homosexuality, lesbianism [ sic ], Masochism ”is the case. According to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, marriage is indissoluble; However, the invalidity of a marriage can be determined if at the time of the wedding an obstacle to marriage , here one from the category of lack of will to marry, existed. Whether homosexual tendencies, whether practiced or not, constitute grounds for nullity of marriage depends on the intensity of these tendencies.
The Holy See tried to have World Pride 2000 in Rome banned or otherwise prevented. In the run-up to World Pride 2005/2006 in Jerusalem, the apostolic nuncio , Pietro Sambi , took part in an extraordinary press conference on March 30, 2005 with other Christian as well as Jewish and Muslim clergy, at which the cancellation of the demonstration was demanded and, otherwise, the fall of Jerusalem was predicted. On July 6, 2006, the newly appointed Nuncio Antonio Franco invited the mayor to his residence and made it clear that it was unacceptable for the Church that homosexuals demonstrate publicly in Jerusalem. The mayor regretted that his hands were legally tied. And on November 8, 2006, the Holy See told Israel to ban the parade. Freedom of expression has limits, especially when it offends the religious feelings of believers. Archbishop Antonio Mennini , the Nuncio of the Russian Federation , supported Moscow's ban on demonstrations for homosexuals in April 2006 . He thought it was a wise decision, as it would be clear to any sane person that it would create tension in Russian society, possibly even violence, which is definitely unacceptable.
In California , same-sex marriage existed under civil law. Opponents initiated a referendum known as Proposition 8 (2008). The arguments put forward were that a civil marriage between two persons of different sex was "an essential institution of society". Maintaining the law would result in "public schools telling children that same-sex marriage is okay" and that homosexuals would "redefine marriage for everyone." The campaigns raised $ 39.9 million for Proposition 8 and $ 43.3 million against Proposition 8, making it the highest-funded election campaign in any American state to date and surpassing any previous campaign in the United States, with the exception of the presidential campaign. Archbishop of San Francisco George Niederauer invited The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to support the Proposition 8 campaign. The American Bishops' Conference donated $ 200,000, and the Knights of Columbus were the largest single donor at $ 1.4 million.
Homosexuality and priesthood
The 1961 Instruction Religiosorum Institutio of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life states that admission to religious vows and ordination should be denied to those who suffer from evil tendencies towards homosexuality or pederasty, because for them life together and priestly ministry would pose a serious threat. The instruction on criteria for clarifying the vocation of persons with homosexual tendencies with a view to their admission to the seminary and to holy ordinations states that the Church states that "those who practice homosexuality have deep-seated homosexual tendencies or support a so-called homosexual culture" , could not be admitted as a candidate for a seminary or ordination.
The distribution of sexual orientation among Catholic priests has so far only been estimated. It is unclear by which method these estimates were made. There are different estimates of various theologians who, without specifying their methodological approach, estimate the proportion to be between 20 and 60%. For the Roman Catholic Church in the United States , the proportion of homosexual priests is estimated to be between 25 and 50 percent. According to an American study published in 2002, 7% of the questioned priests who resigned gave the reason that they did not feel sufficiently understood or supported as homosexuals, but the author of the study also notes that the likelihood that homosexual priests resigned their office, is significantly lower than with heterosexuals.
In July 2014, in response to questions from journalists, Pope Francis said that he would not pass judgment on gay priests because of their sexual orientation.
Various organizations criticize the teaching of the Catholic Church. In Germany there is also an ecumenical working group for homosexuals and the church , in which both Roman Catholic and Protestant Christians work together, and which takes the position that "restricting the legitimacy of sexual activity to the possibility of procreation" is a "constriction". It corresponds to Christian traditions, but not to Christian principles. DignityUSA and Call to Action , both based in the United States, take similar positions but are purely Roman Catholic in membership. On the other hand, there are also organizations like Courage International that represent the teaching of the Church and promote sexual abstinence for homosexuals.
In a sample study in predominantly Roman Catholic Austria, in which homosexual and bisexual test subjects (abk. SLB, n = 358, 67% men, 33% women) from the federal states of Salzburg, Upper Austria and Styria were asked, one of them showed according to the characteristics of age, sex and education parallelized heterosexual control group (abk. HES n = 267) and the Austrian average statistically significant differences. This is mainly due to the fact that there were fewer Roman Catholic participants (SLB: 51%, HES: 72%, Austria: 74%) and more without belonging to a religious community (SLB: 39%, HES: 19%) in the study sample. , Austria: 12%). The attachment to the religious community was also significantly lower in the SLB group than in the control group. Religiousness is seen as a protective factor in suicidality . The study showed that on the one hand people who did not belong to any religious community reported more suicide attempts, on the other hand - according to the accompanying study - membership of a religious community was also a risk factor for members of the SLB group, since internalized homophobia with strength the feeling of belonging to a religious community increased. A survey of gay and lesbian ex-students from American Catholic high schools found that many of them had stopped practicing their beliefs and were even very angry with the Church because of their experiences in school.
In the memorandum Church 2011: A necessary departure, more than 310 Catholic theologians, mainly from Germany, Switzerland and Austria, demand, among other things, the respect and recognition of people in same-sex partnerships .
In 2013, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith under Pope Francis conducted a survey in preparation for the extraordinary Synod of Bishops on the pastoral challenges of the family in the context of evangelization. Among other things, in this survey the majority in the diocese of Essen advocated, among other things, a blessing for same-sex couples . In Switzerland, the survey showed that 60 percent of those questioned would like same-sex partnerships to be recognized and blessed. However, there is a polarization between resolute rejection and clear approval.
In May 2015, advocated Central Committee of German Catholics , the blessing of same-sex couples , but also emphasized the importance of marriage and family. The chairman of the German Bishops' Conference, Reinhard Cardinal Marx , reprimanded the declaration, stating that it did not promote either a theological debate or internal church dialogue, as it contained demands that were “theologically unacceptable”. The demand for a blessing of same-sex partnerships [...] is not compatible with the teaching and tradition of the Church. The demand for an "unconditional acceptance" of coexistence in same-sex partnerships also contradicts the teaching and tradition of the Church.
In December 2015, the Federation of German Catholic Youth of the Archdiocese of Cologne declared in a motion to the diocesan plenary assembly that homosexual people also dealt with sexuality responsibly. The Catholic Magisterium represented heterosexuality as the norm.
From the theological perspective, the Cologne theologian Georg Dietlein emphasizes that dealing with people who feel homosexual should not be narrowed down to a moral (“serious sin”) or judgmental level (“objectively disordered”). Rather, a separate pastoral approach to dealing with people who feel homosexual is required. The starting point is the self-acceptance of one's own gender identity and the integration of this identity into one's own person, whereby the message of the Gospel must be emphasized as something positive.
The considerations on the drafts of a legal recognition of the unions between homosexual persons from June 3, 2003 received different reactions in Germany: The Green politician Volker Beck describes it as a “document of narrow-minded fanaticism” and “to fight love” as a mistake. FDP leader Guido Westerwelle called it a "contribution from a completely outdated image of society" and demanded that the church should listen more "to its believers [...] and to what is developing in society". The deputy CDU / CSU parliamentary group leader Wolfgang Bosbach , on the other hand, was not very surprised, since the church had already represented this doctrine before, and assumed that "every Catholic member of parliament will take into account the words of the Holy Father in his decision-making."
In connection with homosexuality, the former chairman of the German Bishops' Conference , Archbishop Robert Zollitsch , speaks of a "disposition" and a "social reality". He rejects the term marriage for same-sex partnerships in this context. Irish Bishop Willie Walsh deplored the Church's position on homosexuality in November 2009.
As Bishop Emeritus of Pistoia , Simone Scatizzi called in 2010 to deny homosexuals the sacrament of the Eucharist because “openly stated homosexuality” is a sin that makes it impossible to receive communion. But he emphasized the need for a merciful treatment of homosexuals, since only God can judge.
During a visit to Chile in 2010, the then Cardinal Secretary of State of the Vatican and after the Pope the highest official of the Catholic state, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone , expressed the opinion that celibacy had nothing to do with sexual abuse in the Roman Catholic Church , but that homosexuality did. Experts have shown that there is a relationship between homosexuality and pedophilia. For this statement he was criticized many times in Italy.
In April 2010, the Bishop of Essen, Franz-Josef Overbeck, called homosexuality a sin in a talk show by Anne Will . In a conversation with representatives of gay organizations, he later stated that he had no intention of discriminating against homosexuals. In contrast, the Catholic theologian David Berger calls on the Church to “renew its relationship to homosexuality”.
In August 2010, the press secretary for the diocese of Mexico City said that homosexuality was worse than drug trafficking .
In his book, published in November 2010, Pope Benedict XVI. among the isolated cases in which condoms may be used, male prostitutes.
In February 2014, the Irish Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Dublin, Diarmuid Martin, spoke out against homophobia in the Irish Roman Catholic Church, calling people who do not treat homosexual people with love as homophobic and anti-God. However, he turned against same-sex marriage , which will be voted on in a 2015 referendum .
Pope Francis commented on homosexual couples in the media in March 2014, stating that partnerships should be viewed differently and in their diversity. At the same time, however, he confirmed the church teaching that marriage is only possible between a man and a woman.
Lewis Zeigler , Archbishop of Monrovia , claimed during the 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa that homosexuality was the cause of the epidemic . He was thus the highest-ranking Roman Catholic signatory of a corresponding non-denominational declaration by Christian dignitaries.
At the first synodal assembly of the Synodal Way of the Catholic Church in Germany, the Archbishop of Hamburg , Stefan Heße , called for new ways to assess homosexuality on February 1, 2020. If the Catholic Catechism (No. 2358) says that homosexual people must be treated with respect, this is formulated from a perspective from above and does not correspond to an encounter at eye level.
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- Hanspeter Heinz : On the legal regulation of same-sex unions - research report on the attitude of the Catholic Church. In: Jürgen Basedow (Hrsg.): The legal position of same-sex partnerships. Mohr Siebeck, 2000, ISBN 3-16-147318-3 , p. 296; based on: Richard Peddicord: Gay and Lesbian Rights. A Question: Sexual Ethics or Social Justice? Sheed & Ward, Kansas City 1996, pp. 123-141
- Joseph Ratzinger: Considerations on the drafts of a legal recognition of the unions between homosexual persons . Ed .: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith . June 3, 2003, conclusion (section 11) - ( online version ).
- Joseph Ratzinger: Considerations on the drafts of a legal recognition of unions between homosexual persons . Ed .: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith . June 3, 2003, Chapter IV: Conduct of Catholic Politicians in Relation to Legislation in favor of homosexual unions (Section 10) - ( online version ).
- Radio Sapientia - The Catholic Radio in Uganda
- 5.) Pastoral care for people with homosexual inclinations (an orientation aid for the establishment of pastoral care initiatives) , Version: August 22, 2001, published after recognition by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Official Journal of the Austrian Bishops' Conference No. 34 (PDF) , September 1, 2002
- Latvia: Cardinal wants homosexual ban , queer.de, December 12, 2007
- OGH 9ObA31 / 95 v. April 12, 1995 , ris.bka.gv.at, Austrian Federal Legal Information System
- Educator dismissed after ten years ( Memento from August 12, 2003 in the Internet Archive ), Allgemeine Zeitung, July 24, 2003
- DIRECTIVE 2000/78 / EC OF THE COUNCIL of November 27, 2000 establishing a general framework for the implementation of equal treatment in employment and occupation (PDF) Official Journal of the European Communities, DE, December 2, 2000, L 303/16 ff.
- Guide to the LPartG - 7. Workers, employees and civil servants - 7. Employees in church institutions ( Memento from May 26, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), accessed: July 6, 2008
- n: Kolping Society loses labor court case against gay employees , Wikinews, April 23, 2007
- Kolping Society is re-employing gay employees ( Memento from May 21, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), Evangelischer Pressedienst Hessen, April 27, 2007
- Hermann Münzel: Bishop Marx in advance obedience - The Trier bishop dismissed a lesbian teacher, ( Memento from 23 August 2008 in the Internet Archive ) imprimatur, December 2003
- "Uniformity not mandatory". Interview with Cardinal Woelki on the reform of church labor law (PDF; 45.1 kB)
- Basic order of church service in the context of church employment relationships (PDF; 33.3 kB) April 27, 2015
- new “basic order” for employees in Catholic institutions brings slight relaxation, but no legal security , press release of the LSVD from May 6, 2015
- Alex Roth: Bishop won't allow funeral for club owners. signonsandiego.com, March 18, 2005
- Wilhelm Rees : Catholic Church in the New Europe. Religious education, financing and marriage in church and state law - with a view of two African countries. LIT Verlag, Berlin / Hamburg / Münster 2007, p. 41 f.
- See: Decision of the Roman Rota of July 9, 1998 . According to established jurisprudence, as we have noted, a mild or moderate homosexual condition does not justify a declaration of consensual incapacity. See also: Verena Feldhans: Dissolution and Nullity. The marriage and procedural law of the Catholic Church , Familienanwaelte-dav.de, August 1, 2007
- Italy - Homo March on Rome , FOCUS No. 27, July 3, 2000
- World Pride 2005: Scandal at press conference ( Memento from August 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), report-k.de, 2005, accessed: October 2, 2008
- Monsenior Franco to Jerusalem's Mayor Lupoliansky: Stop the Gay Parade! hagalil.com, July 7, 2006
- Vatican wants CSD ban in Jerusalem , queer.de, November 9, 2006
- Catholic approves Moscow's ban on gay parade , interfax-religion.com, April 13, 2006
- California General Election Tuesday November 4th Voter Information Guide www.sos.ca.gov . Version January 15, 2009
- Dan Aiello: Catholic bishops revealed as key in marriage battle , Bay Area Reporter, March 19, 2009
Congregazione dei Religiosi: Religiosorum Institutio , February 2, 1961, not published in Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Sacred Congregation for Religious: Instruction on the Careful Selection and Training of Candidates for the States of Perfection and Sacred Orders , February 2, 1961, unofficial English translation published in: Lincoln Bouscaren, James I O'Connor (Eds.): Canon Law Digest , Volume V, Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee, 1963, pp. 452-486;
History of (re-) discovery: John Vennari: Found: 1961 Vatican Document Barring Homosexuals from Ordination and Religious Vows , rcf.org, May 28, 2002
Translated German title: Careful selection and training of candidates for the state of perfection and the holy ones vow
- Congregation for Catholic Education: Instruction on Criteria for Clarifying the Vocation of Persons with Homosexual Tendencies with a View to Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders , November 4, 2005
The theologian Hanspeter Heinz estimates the proportion at 20%: cf. Thomas Leif: Homosexual priests. What do we learn from it? ( Memento of June 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), in: Imprimatur 1/97.
Alwin Hammers assumes 25%. Cf. Beck: Church - fear of the gays . In: Der Spiegel . No. 18 , 1997, p. 128 ( online ). Bishop Gene Robinson takes an estimate of 40 to 60% from Elizabeth Stuart , Chosen: Gay Catholic Priests Tell Their Stories (London / New York: Chapman, 1993) on page 18 of his book In the Eye of the Storm (Seabury Press, New York, 2008)
- Dean R. Hoge : The First Five Years of the Priesthood: A Study of Newly Ordained Catholic Priests . Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota 2002, p. 3.
- AW Richard Sipe : Celibacy in Crisis: A Secret World Revisited. Brunner-Routledge, New York / Hove 2003, p. 136.
- Hoge, p. 3 and p. 32
- Rheinische Post: Pope does not want to judge gay priests
- Spiegel.de Pope Francis approaches gay priests after World Youth Day
- HuK: Our hope is justice - lesbians and gays under Benedict XVI. ( Memento of March 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), 2006, version: June 2, 2008
- Martin Plöderl: Sexual Orientation, Suicidality and Mental Health , Beltz Verlag, Weinheim-Basel 2005, pp. 121, 247
- Thomas F. Field: http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=1462 ( memento July 20, 2012 in the web archive.today ) , America Magazine - The National Catholic Weekly, February 4 2002
- Memorandum: Church 2011
- Sueddeutsche.de:Catholics evaluate the teaching of the church as unworldly
- The West: Roman Catholic Believers in the Ruhr Diocese for the blessing of homosexual couples
- NZZ: View of the church base deviates from the official teaching
- Domradio.de: Catholic Committee calls for the blessing of same-sex couples
- Vatican Radio: ZdK advocates blessing of same-sex couples
- Application of the KjG Diocesan Association Cologne at the BDKJ Diocesan Assembly 2015 ( Memento from December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Georg Dietlein, Looking at the person with love - Pastoral challenges in dealing with people who feel homosexual, in: Anzeiger für die Seelsorge 2/2016, pp. 34–36; Archbishop's Pastoral Office Freiburg / Catholic Academy of the Archdiocese of Freiburg, Seeing people. Pastoral work with homosexual people, Freiburg 2012; see. also about the offer of the Archdiocese of Freiburg ("Homosexual Pastoral "): www2.erzbistum-freiburg.de (PDF)
- Vatican: "Homosexual relationships violate the moral law" . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . July 31, 2003 ( online version ).
- Peter Wensierski, Stefan Berg: It would be a revolution . In: Der Spiegel . No. 8 , 2008, p. 54 ( online conversation with Archbishop Robert Zollitsch).
- BBC: Bishop urges women priests talks
- No communion for gays
- Cardinal Bertone: Pedophilia through homosexuality in Kronen Zeitung of April 13, 2010 ( online )
- Overbeck calls homosexuality a sin in "Anne Will" . In: Der Westen , April 12, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- http://www.bistum-essen.de/start/nachrichtenueberblick/ueberblick-detailansicht/?tx_ttnews%5B;tt_news%5D;=6547&tx_ttnews%5B;backPid%5D;=110&cHash=0e01feefff ( Memento from August 3, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) Press release of the diocese of Essen from September 3, 2010.
- Frankfurter Rundschau: Gay accuses church ( Memento of April 27, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). See also Ders .: The holy glow: As a gay theologian in the Catholic Church . Ullstein, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-550-08855-1 .
- Mayor of Mexico City sued Archbishop of Guadalajara - derStandard.at
- Male prostitutes are allowed to use condoms - says the Pope , in: Süddeutsche Zeitung of November 21, 2010.
- Advocate.com:Stob Homophobia in the church
- DailyMail: Francis to stop condemning same-sex civil partnerships hints leading cardinal in move which could be step towards gay marriage
- New York Daily News.com: Francis understands gay civil unions
- Churches: Homosexuality to blame for Ebola. queer.de from August 8, 2014
- domradio.de: Mixed results. Reform process between fear and departure , February 2, 2020.
- Joseph Ratzinger : Letter to the bishops of the Catholic Church about pastoral care for homosexual persons . Ed .: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith . Rome October 1st 1986 ( online version ).
- Joseph Ratzinger: Considerations on the drafts of a legal recognition of unions between homosexual persons . Ed .: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. June 3, 2003 ( online version ).
- Benedict J. Groeschel : The Courage to be Chaste. Paulist Press, New York 1985, ISBN 0-8091-2705-9 .
- Andreas Laun : Homosexuality from a Catholic perspective. Sales, 2001, ISBN 3-7721-0239-5 .
- Josef Spindelböck : Responsible freedom. Contributions to theological ethics. Kleinhain 2004, pp. 241–265 ( The Moral Assessment of Homosexuality: Moral-Historical Notes on the Christian Viewpoint )
- Courage International Catholic apostolate for people with homosexual tendencies who want to lead a chaste life