Dei verbum


from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dei verbum (DV) ( Latin for "God's Word") is one of the four constitutions of the Second Vatican Council , named after their opening words , as is common in such texts. The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation was adopted by the Council Fathers on November 18, 1965 with 2,344 votes to 6 and was approved by Pope Paul VI through solemn proclamation in the Council Hall promulgates .

The emergence of the Revelation Constitution (such a common short title) extended from the beginning to the end of the council. Dei verbum is considered to be one of the most important texts of the Council and provided an "epochal turning point" with which "new and decisive perspectives with regard to the theological understanding of Revelation" were opened.

In addition to examining the concept of revelation, the document clarifies the relationship between tradition and scripture . She also attaches importance to the correct understanding of the Holy Scriptures and thus opens up possibilities for the use of historical-critical exegesis in Catholic theology.

History of origin

After the question of revelation was first discussed at a council in the Document Dei Filius of the First Vatican Council, a council in Deiverbum dedicates a first independent and explicit treatment to revelation.

Phases of text development

The final version of the Revelation Constitution was preceded by three versions. The prepared schema De fontibus revelationis (On the sources of revelation) was written by Sebastian Tromp SJ and speaks of two sources of revelation that are different in content, the Holy Scriptures and the tradition. In addition, the scheme confirmed the inerrancy of the scriptures also with regard to historical statements. Not so much the theological statements - they were supported by papal pronouncements - but rather the “spirit of fear and distrust of the exegetes and above all the lack of pastoral and ecumenical orientation” met with great criticism. In addition, it was shaped by an “instruction-theoretical” conception of revelation, which understood revelation exclusively as instruction, that is, communication.

This scheme was controversial in mid-November 1962. There were initial proposals from the council auditorium, including from Cardinal Joseph Frings , to completely revise the scheme. An ambiguous vote on November 20, 1962 as to whether the discussion of the scheme was over did not achieve the necessary two-thirds majority . This led to confusion and uncertainty as to whether the scheme was already adopted. Therefore, Pope John XXIII. the scheme was taken off the agenda the next day and a new commission of opponents and supporters of the scheme discussed was set up to undertake a fundamental redesign. Cardinals Alfredo Ottaviani and Augustin Bea  SJ took over the chairmanship of this “mixed commission” , while Sebastian Tromp and Johannes Willebrands were appointed as secretaries . John XXIII solved the problem through his intervention, which was called for in particular by Cardinal Paul-Émile Léger . At the same time, he set a “clear signal for the possibility of being able to reject a prepared scheme without inciting a conflict with the head of the assembly.” The cancellation of the proposed text made a new discussion about the revelation possible.

The theological commission's proposed changes were incorporated into this second text, resulting in the third version. In September 1964 that text was debated in the council and a fourth version was worked out. This could only be discussed in the fourth session, in September 1965, and further amendments ("modes") were incorporated. Two very important modes in DV 9 and 11 came from Pope Paul VI, who, however, did not specify any formulations. The resulting fifth version of the document was adopted shortly before the end of the council in its last session on November 18, 1965.

Main concern in the creation process

The emergence of the constitution and the debate around it are characterized by three motifs: firstly, the (re) evaluation of tradition, secondly, the acceptance of the historical-critical method in Bible exegesis, and thirdly, the new, positive attitude of Catholic Christians towards the Bible.

  1. The re-evaluation of tradition arose from the dogmas of the Immaculate Conception of Mary (1854) and the Assumption of Mary into Heaven (1950), both of which were justified with the traditional argument. In this context the question of the development of dogmas was raised, speaking of a process of tradition, not of a materially tangible tradition.
    Furthermore, the interpretation of the Council of Trent and its statements on the Lutheran Sola scriptura principle was discussed in depth during the years of the Council. This debate was raised by the theses of Josef Rupert Geiselmann , according to which the Council of Trent did not decide on the completeness of the Scriptures.
  2. During the modernism crisis, many exegetes who used the historical-critical method were condemned by the Church . A position of the council on this question was now seen as necessary. Even if the “relationship between critical and ecclesiastical exegesis” was not clearly clarified, it had become clear that a historical-critical method could no longer be avoided. In this sense, all research methods that reveal the "original message of the prophets and apostles" were confirmed.
  3. The biblical movement, which, like the liturgical movement and the ecumenical movement , had shaped the pre-council period, prompted the council to promote the spiritual preoccupation of Catholics with the Holy Scriptures.

content

The document is divided into six chapters.

Proemium

In the preface (DV 1) the council succeeds the council of Trent (1545–1563) and the first Vatican council (1869/70). This can be understood as a re-examination of the corresponding texts of the First Vatican Council and the Council of Trent, “in which what was then is read in today's way and at the same time reinterpreted in terms of its essentials and its inadequacies.” The stated aim of the constitution is the exposition of the “Real teaching about divine revelation and its transmission” (DV 1). The quotation from the first letter of John (cf. ( 1 Jn 1, 2–3  EU )) is intended to represent the church's “double gesture of listening and preaching”. This also puts a stop to the pure self-employment of the church with itself and emphasizes sentience to humanity.

I. Revelation itself

The first chapter (DV 2–6) deals with “Revelation itself” (“De ipsa revelatione”). The revelation is portrayed as an event in “deed and word” (DV 2). Revelation is therefore not to be understood solely as communications “'about' God”, but as “ God's self- communication”, a term that does not appear literally in the constitution. In DV 4 it is explained that Jesus, as “the Word made flesh”, “fulfills and closes the revelation”. Therefore “no more public disclosure is to be expected”. This knowledge results from the conclusion that "Christ [...] is the end of God's speaking, because there is nothing more to say after him and beyond him, because in him God said himself." again the view of the council that revelation is not something that is communicated but is existential for man's life and in his relationship with God. Overall, the revelation can be understood as a relational event.

Faith cannot be exercised without gracious grace , so faith cannot be worked out or read, but is a gift (cf. DV 5). To accept this gift of Revelation means to surrender oneself to God “as a whole person in freedom”. "Obedience of faith" ( Rom 16.26  EU ) is owed to God who reveals himself . The Holy Spirit more and more perfect people's faith. The section makes it clear that faith is to be understood primarily as a personal relationship and encounter with God.

With literal recourse to Dei Filius , DV 6 teaches that God himself “can be safely known from created things with the natural light of human reason” ( DH 3004f.), Which, however, is not accessible from the divine realm of human reason, makes God known through revelation (cf. DV 6).

II. The transmission of divine revelation

The second chapter is devoted to the “transmission of divine revelation” (DV 7-10). It praises the apostles and evangelists who followed Jesus' invitation to preach the gospel (DV 7). A distinction is made between holy “tradition” and holy “scripture”. The apostolic tradition, beginning with the apostles, is passed on in the church and "knows progress in the church under the assistance of the Holy Spirit" (DV 8; cf. DH 3020). This tradition is presented as God's conversation with his church.

Relationship between tradition, scripture and teaching post

In contrast to the preparatory scheme, DV 9 states that tradition and the Holy Scriptures arise from the same divine source and flow towards a common goal (cf. DV 9). Revelation is not found in Scripture alone. This last addition before the decision on the document makes it clear that the writing alone is not sufficient, even if it is not denied that it is sufficient in terms of content. The tradition is nevertheless always mentioned before the scripture in order to observe the chronological order, after all the scriptures were created within a community that goes back to the tradition of the apostles. "In order to be able to hear and understand the word of God, one must place oneself in the light of tradition (DV 9)"

In DV 10 the sentence follows: “The teaching office is not above the word of God, but serves it.” The church teaching office cannot teach anything that is not contained in tradition and scripture. On the contrary, it wants to “draw from this treasure trove of faith”. The subordination of the teaching office was already part of an “almost unquestionable conviction” and was contained in the text versions “fairly identical”. Nevertheless, the “factual […] procedure” of the teaching office contributed to somewhat obscuring this “order, which is always recognized in principle.”

The section ends by stating that sacred Tradition, Scripture, and the Magisterium of the Church cannot exist without one another. In their own way they “effectively serve the salvation of souls through the work of the one Holy Spirit”. The expression “sub actione unius Spiritus Sancti” was only added in the last edition. Karl Cardinal Lehmann comments on this: “It is important that a pneumatological context is emphasized again at the end : For all human responsibility, the interaction is not the result of an ecclesiastical act alone, but 'through the action of the one Holy Spirit' for the salvation of the People effective. "

Criticism from the Reformation side that Pope Benedict XVI. later took up, referred to the lack of appreciation of writing as an element critical of tradition.

III. The divine inspiration of Scripture and its interpretation

The third chapter deals with “divine inspiration and the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures” (DV 11-13). DV 11 differentiates “between God as the 'author' of Scripture and people as its 'real authors' (not 'secretaries!')." Scripture is in error in the sense that it expresses the truth determined by God, which is Salvation of the people is necessary. This does not rule out that sentences taken from their context are incorrect. In fact, the formulation of inerrancy was preceded by a long debate. The version submitted by the commission wrote that the Holy Scriptures contained the "veritas salutaris" (the "salvation truth") without error. Since some Council Fathers feared that this would amount to a restriction of the Scriptures, the Pope suggested that this expression be deleted. In the commission, the council theologian Gérard Philips therefore proposed the current formulation that Scripture teaches in error the truth “nostrae salutis causa” (“for the sake of our salvation”). This prevented an alleged limitation of Scripture and at the same time expressed its inerrancy in a differentiated way: "The truth of Scripture [...] can only ever be sensibly grasped in relation to salvation."

DV 12 emphasizes the need to research the historical situation and the literary form of biblical texts. The Bible must be interpreted in the sense in which it is written; it implies the need, the statement intent of the biblical authors and the meaning of Scripture to elicit. The texts can be historical, prophetic or poetic. The section knows the different literary genres in the biblical books and texts. This is the confirmation of modern biblical science. However, critical exegesis is not the only approach to scripture. The interpretation must take into account the unity of the whole Bible, the tradition of the universal Church and the analogy of faith (“analogia fidei”). DV 13 emphasizes an analogy between the divine Word in human terms and the incarnation of Christ.

Overall, this chapter makes it clear that Christianity is not a book religion in the strict sense, but is oriented towards the incarnation and life of Jesus.

IV. The Old Testament

The fourth chapter "The Old Testament " underpins its importance for Christianity (DV 14-16). It is “the true word of God” (DV 14), even if there is “imperfect and time-related” (DV 15) here. The commentary in the Council Compendium by Rahner and Vorgrimler sees it as a major deficiency that the importance of the Old Testament for the early church and Jesus himself is not emphasized. Nor is the “much longer human experience with God” contained therein underlined clearly enough.

V. The New Testament

The fifth chapter talks about the “ New Testament ” (DV 17-20). First of all, the special priority of the four Gospels within the biblical canon is emphasized (cf. DV 18). The constitution “sticks to the fact that the four named Gospels, the historicity of which it affirms without hesitation, reliably transmit what Jesus , the Son of God, really did and taught in his life among men for their eternal salvation up to the day when since he was taken [into heaven] ”(DV 19). The word “historicity” ( historicitas ) is not further explained. The editorial work of the authors is recognized, who chose from the many reports and experiences and chose it to preach the good news, "but always in such a way that their messages about Jesus were true and honest" (DV 19). The New Testament epistolary as well as the Acts of the Apostles and the Revelation of John appear only marginally in the chapter.

VI. Scripture in the life of the Church

The last chapter of the Council document is devoted to the location of “Holy Scripture in the life of the Church” (DV 21-26). It begins with the renewed appreciation of Holy Scripture, which is venerated by the Church like the “ master's body itself”: a parallel that can already be found in Sacrosanctum Concilium (cf., inter alia, SC 7). Together with the holy tradition, the word of God is the “highest rule” ( suprema regula ) for the faith of the church (DV 21). This can be an answer to “the evangelical question as to whether scripture is the norm for the church.” The word “norma” is avoided, as is an affirmation of the “ sola scriptura ” principle.

In addition, the Constitution encourages the continuation of biblical efforts that were already initiated by Pius XII. was promoted with the encyclical Divino afflante Spiritu (cf. DV 23). For theology in general, too, the importance of Bible study and reading is underlined, as already done in a clearer form in Optatam totius 16. In this passage it was added quite late that this had to be done in compliance with the holy tradition, which can be interpreted as a weakening of the Bible, but does not have to. Listening to scripture and tradition enables a constant rejuvenation of theology (cf. DV 24).

A continuous preoccupation with the Holy Scriptures is also necessary for preachers in order not to become - as Augustine says - "a hollow and external preacher of the word of God" (DV 25). Dei verbum also calls for translations of the Bible to be made into different languages, with the original Hebrew and Greek texts being used as far as possible (cf. 22) - which means a subordinate order of the Latin translation Vulgate , which was primarily used until then , and which is still honored however, the original languages ​​have priority. In connection with this, annotated editions should be developed so that the Bible can also be used and understood by non-Christians (cf. DV 25). The constitution concludes with the wish that “the treasure of revelation entrusted to the Church” should fill the “hearts of men” and that the spiritual life should receive new impetus through the increased worship of God's word (DV 26).

classification

Due to the special history of the constitution over the entire period of the council, it is of exemplary importance. Similar to the council opened new perspectives, documented Dei Verbum a changed understanding of revelation. “To open up God's speech to people again and again” is the aim of both the Council and Dei verbum .

In contrast to the decree of the Council of Trent, which understood the Revelation as a tradition as well as a scripture ("et ... et"), Dei verbum emphasizes rather the "mutual relationship, inseparable unity and inner entanglement". The question of whether the font is sufficient, i.e. whether it contains everything, is not answered. The assessment of tradition as a “church stream of life” in which Scripture is borne, attested to and interpreted shows that tradition is more than a second, purely complementary source.

Appreciations

Joseph Ratzinger , then the Council theologian, summarized the result of the four years of discussions in 1967 as follows: “The text that was solemnly proclaimed by the Pope on this day naturally bears the traces of its arduous history; But the fundamental compromise that carries it is more than a compromise, it is a synthesis of great importance: the text combines loyalty to ecclesiastical tradition with the yes to critical science and thus opens the way for faith to today. "

The Council document was also valued because it “spoke so intensely and so extensively about the word of God and about Holy Scripture” in an unprecedented way. The demands on theology and on Christian life are not small.

Henri de Lubac paid tribute: “So nothing would contradict the spirit of this constitution more than a kind of hostile competition between scripture and tradition, as if one were taking away from one what one said to the other. Never before had a Council text so well emphasized the traditional principle in all its breadth and complexity; never before has the Holy Scriptures been given so much space. "

The Freiburg professor for Catholic dogmatics Helmut Hoping sees in Dei verbum an encouragement to bring the numerous "theological arguments [...] into play again" in order to link seemingly contradicting approaches like historical-critical exegesis and the spiritual reading of scriptures as well as Dei verbum was able to do it with scripture and tradition as well as with teaching and theology.

Self-communication from God

The concept of God's self- communication does not appear explicitly in Deiverbum . But this theological term is a helpful key to understanding the constitution. The focus is no longer on an instruction-theoretical revelation model - as was the case during the first Vatican Council, which was about the revelation of doctrines and factual information - but a communication-theoretical understanding of revelation. The focus here is on God's relationship with people. The revelation is a "dynamic salvation event", the faith of the people is the answer to the revelation. The incarnation of God in Jesus Christ is the highest and most concrete form of God's self-communication.

literature

Text output

  • Latin: Acta Apostolicae Sedis . Volume 58, 1966, pp. 817-836.
  • Latin / German: Denzinger-Hünermann , pp. 4201–4235.
  • Latin / German: Peter Hünermann (Ed.): The documents of the Second Vatican Council. Constitutions, decrees, declarations. Latin-German study edition. Publisher Herder GmbH, Freiburg i. B. 2012, ISBN 978-3-534-25856-7 (new edition 2012, 3rd, unchanged total edition), pp. 363–385.

Text output with comments

  • Latin / German: Dogmatic constitution on divine revelation. In: Lexicon for Theology and Church . 2nd edition, Volume 13 (= Supplementary Volume II), 1967, ND 2014, 497-583. (Introductions and comments: Joseph Ratzinger (Chapters 1, 2 and 6), Aloys Grillmeier (Chapter 3), Béda Rigaux (Chapters 4 and 5))
  • German: Karl Rahner , Herbert Vorgrimler : Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B., 35th edition 2008.

Theological classifications

  • Joseph Ratzinger: On the state of faith. A conversation with Vittorio Messori . Verlag Neue Stadt, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-87996-180-8 .
  • Sascha Müller: Theistic Revelation, Christology and Historical Criticism. In: Christian Schaller, Michael Schulz, Rudolf Voderholzer (Eds.): Mediators and Liberators. The Christological Dimension of Theology. For Gerhard Ludwig Müller. Herder, Freiburg i. B. 2008, ISBN 978-3-451-29804-2 , pp. 287-299.

Text versions online

Individual evidence

  1. See e.g. B. Karl Lehmann, Ralf Rothenbusch (eds.): God's Word in Human Word. The one Bible as the foundation of theology (Quaestiones disputatae 266), Freiburg i. B. 2014.
  2. a b c cf. Christoph Berchtold: Dei verbum . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 3 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1995, Sp. 59 f .
  3. Claus-Peter March : The Dogmatic Constitution on the divine revelation "Dei Verbum" . In: ThG 58 (2015), pp. 54–63, there 54. ( Accessed online on the website of the University of Erfurt on October 5, 2015)
  4. See Klaus Schatz : General Councils - Focal Points of Church History , Paderborn, 2nd edition 2008, 296.
  5. Klaus Schatz: General Councils - Focal Points of Church History , Paderborn, 2nd edition 2008, 297.
  6. Cf. Claus-Peter März: The Dogmatic Constitution on the Divine Revelation "Dei Verbum" In: ThG 58 (2015), 54–63, 56.
  7. Cf. Benedikt XVI .: last conversations, with Peter Seewald , Munich 2016, 157.
  8. See Klaus Schatz: General Councils - Focal Points of Church History , Paderborn, 2nd edition 2008, 297.
  9. See Klaus Schatz: General Councils - Focal Points of Church History , Paderborn, 2nd edition 2008, 298.
  10. Cf. Joseph Ratzinger: Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation - Introduction . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Hrsg.): Lexicon for theology and church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, documents and commentaries) ND 2014, 498–503, 501.
  11. ^ Giuseppe Alberigo: Johannes XXIII., Life and Work of the Council Pope , Mainz 2000, 215.
  12. Cf. Benedikt XVI .: Last Conversations, with Peter Seewald , Munich 2016, 158.
  13. Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Introduction to the dogmatic constitution on the divine revelation Dei Verbum . In: Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 1966, ND 35th edition 2008, 361-366, 361.
  14. a b Cf. Klaus Schatz: General Councils - Focal Points of Church History , Paderborn, 2nd edition 2008, 329 f.
  15. a b Cf. Claus-Peter März: The Dogmatic Constitution on the divine revelation "Dei Verbum" in: ThG 58 (2015), 54–63, 58.
  16. Joseph Ratzinger: Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation - Introduction . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Hrsg.): Lexicon for theology and church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, Documents and Commentaries) ND 2014, 498–503, 498 f.
  17. a b Cf. Joseph Ratzinger: Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation - Introduction . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, documents and commentaries) ND 2014, 498–503, 498.
  18. a b Cf. Joseph Ratzinger: Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation - Introduction . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, documents and comments) ND 2014, 498–503, 499.
  19. Thomas Söding : Theologie mit Seele, The importance of the interpretation of scriptures according to the Revelation Constitution Dei Verbum , in: Jan-Heiner Tück (ed.): Remembrance of the future, The Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 2012, 423-448, 438.
  20. Joseph Ratzinger: Commentary on the Proemium, I. and II. Chapters . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Hrsg.): Lexicon for theology and church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, documents and commentaries) ND 2014, 504–528, 505.
  21. Joseph Ratzinger: Commentary on the Proemium, I. and II. Chapters . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Hrsg.): Lexicon for theology and church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, documents and commentaries) ND 2014, 504–528, 504.
  22. ^ A b Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Introduction to the dogmatic constitution on the divine revelation Dei Verbum . In: Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 1966, ND 35th edition 2008, 361-366, 362.
  23. Joseph Ratzinger: Commentary on the Proemium, I. and II. Chapters . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Hrsg.): Lexicon for theology and church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, documents and commentaries) ND 2014, 504–528, 510.
  24. See Joseph Ratzinger: Commentary on the Proemium, Chapter I and II . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, documents and commentaries) ND 2014, 504–528, 510.
  25. See Klaus Schatz: General Councils - Focal Points of Church History , Paderborn, 2nd edition 2008, 330.
  26. Cf. Henri du Lubac, quoted from: Karl Cardinal Lehmann: Scripture - Tradition - Church. The Second Vatican Council viewed up close, using the example of the Dogmatic Constitution on divine revelation. In: IKaZ, 34 (2005), 559-571, online on the website of the Diocese of Mainz , accessed on September 3, 2015.
  27. ^ Henri de Lubac: The divine revelation. Comments on the foreword and on the first chapter of the Dogmatic Constitution “Dei Verbum” of the Second Vatican Council (Theologia Romanica XXVI), translated from the French and introduced by Rudolf Voderholzer, Einsiedeln a. a. 2001 [translation of the third French edition, Paris 1983], 251. Quoted from: Claus-Peter März: The Dogmatic Constitution on the Divine Revelation “Dei Verbum” In: ThG 58 (2015), 54–63, 60.
  28. a b c Karl Cardinal Lehmann: Scripture - Tradition - Church. The Second Vatican Council viewed up close, using the example of the Dogmatic Constitution on divine revelation. In: IKaZ , 34 (2005), 559-571, online on the website of the Diocese of Mainz , accessed on September 3, 2015.
  29. Joseph Ratzinger: Commentary on the Proemium, I. and II. Chapters . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Hrsg.): Lexicon for theology and church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, documents and commentaries) ND 2014, 504–528, 527.
  30. a b Cf. Karl Cardinal Lehmann: Scripture - Tradition - Church. The Second Vatican Council viewed up close, using the example of the Dogmatic Constitution on divine revelation. In: IKaZ, 34 (2005), 559-571, online on the website of the Diocese of Mainz , accessed on September 3, 2015.
  31. Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Introduction to the dogmatic constitution on the divine revelation Dei Verbum . In: Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 1966, ND 35th edition 2008, 361-366, 363.
  32. Cf. Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Introduction to the dogmatic constitution on the divine revelation Dei Verbum . In: Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 1966, ND 35th edition 2008, 361-366, 363.
  33. Klaus Schatz: Church history of the modern age, second part, Düsseldorf 3rd edition 2008, 186, footnote 29.
  34. Cf. Claus-Peter März: The Dogmatic Constitution on the Divine Revelation "Dei Verbum" In: ThG 58 (2015), 54–63, 61.
  35. Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Introduction to the dogmatic constitution on the divine revelation Dei Verbum . In: Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 1966, ND 35th edition 2008, 361-366, 364.
  36. Cf. Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Introduction to the dogmatic constitution on the divine revelation Dei Verbum . In: Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 1966, ND 35th edition 2008, 361-366, 365.
  37. Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Introduction to the dogmatic constitution on the divine revelation Dei Verbum . In: Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 1966, ND 35th edition 2008, 361-366, 366.
  38. a b Cf. Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Introduction to the dogmatic constitution on the divine revelation Dei Verbum . In: Karl Rahner, Herbert Vorgrimler: Small Council Compendium, Complete Texts of the Second Vatican Council , Freiburg i. B. 1966, ND 35th edition 2008, 361-366, 366.
  39. Augustinus: Serm, 179: PL 38,966, quoted from DV 25.
  40. Claus-Peter März: The Dogmatic Constitution on the Divine Revelation "Dei Verbum" In: ThG 58 (2015), 54-63, 63.
  41. ^ A b Klaus Schatz: General Councils - Focal Points of Church History , Paderborn, 2nd edition 2008, 330.
  42. Joseph Ratzinger: Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation - Introduction . In: Josef Höfer , Karl Rahner (Hrsg.): Lexicon for theology and church . 2nd Edition. tape 13 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967. (= The Second Vatican Council, Documents and Commentaries) ND 2014, 498–503, 502 f.
  43. Helmut Hoping: Theological Commentary on the Dogmatic Constitution on the Divine Revelation Dei Verbum. In: Herder's Theological Commentary on the Second Vatican Council , Vol. 3, Freiburg i. B. 2005, 695–831, 815. Quoted from: Claus-Peter März: The Dogmatic Constitution on the divine revelation “Dei Verbum” In: ThG 58 (2015), 54–63, 63.
  44. Cf. Klaus von Stosch : Introduction to Systematic Theology, Paderborn a. a. 2006, 80.
  45. Helmut Hoping: Theological Commentary on the Dogmatic Constitution on the Divine Revelation Dei Verbum , in: Herders Theological Commentary on the Second Vatican Council , Vol. 3, Freiburg i. B. 2005, 695–831, 807. Quoted from: Claus-Peter März: The Dogmatic Constitution on the divine revelation “Dei Verbum” In: ThG 58 (2015), 54–63, 55.
This article was added to the list of articles worth reading on January 26, 2017 in this version .