Jerusalem early church
The early community in Jerusalem is considered to be the first community of early Christianity . It was formed in Jerusalem after Jesus was crucified . She announced the resurrection of Jesus Christ to the Israelites and all other peoples , the forgiveness of sins and Jesus' commandments to prepare for his second coming ( Parousia ) and the associated end of the world .
There are only a few concrete references for the beginnings of the early church in Jerusalem. The sources are the statements in Paul's letter to the Galatians , conclusions from the synoptic Gospels and, above all, statements from the Acts of the Apostles by Luke , which was written between AD 62 and around 100. In addition, there are his own traditions that Paul of Tarsus included in his Pauline letters . The oldest Passion report ( Mk 14–15 EU ), which is integrated into the Gospel of Mark , was probably written in essence by the original Christians in Jerusalem.
Luke described the early church as a largely harmonious steered unit ( Acts 4 EU ) of "apostolic age" (30 to 70) to highlight it as a model for all later Christian communities. Historical criticism has challenged this image in many ways. The older Pauline and Markinian tradition confirms the Acts of the Apostles in the basic statements of the Christian faith, but also supplements and corrects them in important details.
None of the four canonical gospels came from the early church. However, they allow conclusions to be drawn about their peculiarities if one compares their information on the preaching of Jesus with those in the Acts of the Apostles. Indirect information on forms of worship and office rules in Jerusalem also yields non-canonical Christian writings such as the Didache , a kind of catechism of Jewish Christians who were theologically and ethically close to the early community. Important individual data on its later history also come from extra-biblical sources such as the Testimonium Flavianum (around 90) by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus and from notes by Hegesippus (around 180), which the first church historian Eusebius of Caesarea quoted.
The chronological key data give an overview of the first processes and developments in the original community.
|30th||Death of jesus||Mk 15 par.|
|~ 30-32||Constitution of the Jerusalem community
/ first conflicts
|from 30||Work of the Jesus movement in Galilee; first oral transmission of the Jesus tradition||Mk 16; Mt 28; Joh 21|
|31-43||Peter leads the Jerusalem church||Acts 1-5|
|31/32||Formation of a church in Damascus||Acts 9|
|~ 32||Hebrews and Hellenists in Jerusalem||Acts 6|
|32/33||Calling Paul||Acts 9; 22; 26th|
|from 33||Mission of Philip||Acts 8|
|~ 33-34||Paul in Arabia||Gal 1.17-18|
|~ 34||Foundation of the church in Antioch||Acts 11: 19ff|
|35||1. Paul's visit to Jerusalem||Gal 1.18|
|~ 35||Barnabas works in Antioch||Acts 11: 22-26|
|~ 35-40||Oral / written fixation of the Passion Report, first targeted collections of Jesus traditions||-|
|~ 36-42||Paul in Syria and Cilicia (Tarsus)||Acts 9.28-30|
|~ 40||Foundation of the church in Rome, 'Christian' as a separate group in Antioch||Acts 11:26|
|~ 40-50||Formation of pre-Pauline traditions||-|
|~ 42||Paul joins Antioch||Acts 11: 25-26|
|43/44||Persecution under Agrippa I, Peter leaves Jerusalem and James takes over the leadership of the church||Acts 12: 1-4.17|
|~ 45-47||1. Mission trip||Acts 13-14|
|48||Apostles' Convention (spring); Antiochian incident (summer / autumn)||Acts 15: 1-34;
|49||Claudius Edict||Acts 18.2|
|~ 45-47||1. Mission trip||Acts 13-14|
|48-51 / 52||2. Mission trip||Acts 15-18|
|50/51||Paul in Corinth||Acts 18: 1-17|
|51/52||Gallio in Corinth||Acts 18: 12-17|
|52-55 / 56||3. Mission trip||Acts 18-21|
|52-54 / 55||Paul in Ephesus||Acts 19|
|55||Paul's journey to Macedonia||Acts 20: 1-2; 2 Corinthians 2.13|
|56||(Beginning of the year :) Paul's last stay in Corinth||(Acts 20: 2-3)|
|56||(Early summer) arrival of Paul in Jerusalem||Acts 21|
|56-58||Paul's imprisonment in Caesarea||Acts 23-24|
|58||Change of office Felix / Festus||Acts 24:27|
|59||Arrival of Paul in Rome||Acts 28.11ff|
|64||Death of Peter and Paul||-|
Jesus' followers from Galilee , who had followed him to the temple city of Jerusalem, probably dispersed after his arrest ( Mk 14.50 EU ). Most of the disciples returned to their home villages after his burial at the latest, as his execution on the cross also seemed to have refuted his sermon about the near kingdom of God ( Lk 24.21 EU ).
After they came to believe in the resurrection of Jesus ( Acts 1 EU ), the first communities soon formed in the religious center of Judaism - next to Jerusalem probably almost simultaneously in Galilee and a little later in Damascus ( Gal 1.17 EU ) - the Jesus as proclaimed the Messiah of Israel and of all peoples. What made the followers of Jesus do this is historically in the dark, but is related to their resurrection experiences.
According to the biblical story in Acts 2 EU , the early church came into being through a miracle , the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost . For the early Christians this fulfilled the promise of the Spirit that the Jewish prophet Joel 3 EU had promised for the end times. For with Jesus' resurrection the end times promised by Israel's prophets began. Therefore they proclaimed the Pentecost miracle as an anticipation of the arrival of the kingdom of God, which overcomes all language barriers and allows all nationalities to join in the praise of God based on the forgiveness of sins brought about by Jesus ( Dan 7.14 EU ). Accordingly, the early community saw itself as an eschatological community of salvation, in which international understanding is already a reality and points to the promised peace among nations ( Isa 2.2ff EU par. Mi 4.1-5 EU ).
Members and Organization
The early church essentially consisted of “ disciples ” - men and women - whom Jesus of Nazareth had called as his followers in Galilee and who had accompanied him on his way to Jerusalem. In addition there were Jews , Greek-speaking proselytes and later also “God-fearing Gentiles ” (non-Jews who sympathized with Judaism) who were won over and baptized by the sermons of the early Christians ( Acts 11.20 EU ).
Twelve of the male followers called by Jesus are highlighted by their names in the Gospel tradition as first called and as images of the Twelve Tribes of Israel . Judas Iscariot , who belonged to this group, is said to have committed suicide after his betrayal of Jesus to the high council ; Matthias took his place according to Acts 1,21f EU .
According to the New Testament, Jesus showed himself to his disciples as the risen one and called them to missions : this established their authority as apostles . This included everyone who had an apparition of the risen Christ after Jesus' death and had been commissioned by him to serve. This circle went beyond the twelve: Luke was the first to identify him with the leaders and founders of the early church. It is uncertain until when the circle of twelve held its leadership. In his letter to the Galatians (written in 50-57), Paul only mentions the “three pillars” James , Simon Peter and John ( Gal 2.9 EU ).
According to the list of witnesses of the early church ( 1 Cor 15 : 3–8 EU ), James, the oldest brother of Jesus, had received his own vision of the risen One . He was not his successor during Jesus' lifetime, but after Easter he won the leadership of the early church. He represented the group of “ Judaists ” who demanded that all newly baptized Gentile Christians observe important Torah commandments, possibly also circumcision , that is, convert to Judaism. That is why Paul named him as the main partner in his negotiations on the mission to the Gentiles in relation to Peter, who is otherwise in the first place in all apostellists. His companion Barnabas played an important role in this.
Following the election of seven deacons for the arms supply ( Acts 6 EU ) stood by the other apostles later also called "elders" or presbyters ( Acts 11,30 EU ; 15.6 EU ; 16.4 EU ). Their exact tasks were originally not clearly defined; the growing primitive community initially existed without a “board”. But with the division of labor, a certain hierarchy of offices began, which much later led to the monarchical episcopate .
An essential element of the early church were also prophets who, like their colleagues in Corinth, received direct revelations from God, spoke in "tongues" and had to communicate various " charisms " ( gifts of grace) ( 1 Cor 12.12ff EU ).
Your number of members can only be estimated. According to Acts 1.13–15 EU , there were initially only around 120 "brothers", whereas Acts 2.41 EU already mentions 3,000 first baptized after the first sermon of Peter, 4.4 EU soon afterwards 5,000: These numbers appear in view of those tolerated by the Sanhedrin Meeting in the Jerusalem temple, however, far too high. On the other hand, the early division of labor between apostles, deacons and elders indicates a size that can no longer be administered by a dozen leaders: it will therefore initially have been somewhere between 500 (cf. 1 Cor 15.6 EU ) and a few thousand.
Theology and worship
The ideal of the early church is primarily through the presentation in Acts 2.37 to 47 EU states: In the early Christian missionary preaching that entirely to the proclamation of the resurrection of Jesus and his exaltation to " Kyrios oriented", here are the conversion and follows baptism of new Younger. This meant forgiveness of sin and thus acceptance into the eschatological community, salvation from the expected final judgment and reception of the Holy Spirit , who enables Jesus to keep the commandments and to spread his "teaching".
According to Luke, the following criteria connect the original Christians to a community:
- They remained steadfast in the apostles' teaching , that is, in faith in the resurrection of Jesus that was announced to them.
- ... and in the community : The early Christians met regularly.
- ... and in the breaking of bread : They celebrated the breaking of bread as a continuation of the meal fellowship of Jesus and / or in memory of the last meal of their Lord.
- ... and in prayer : This probably included the Our Father taught by Jesus himself .
- ... and many miracles and signs also happened through the apostles : They continued the healing mission that they had received as followers of Jesus (Mt 10) within the early church by devoting themselves to the sick.
- But all who had believed were together and had all things in common. Luke emphasized the community of property as an essential characteristic of the early community, which, as a result of the outpouring of the Spirit, also established the holiness of the church as "Ecclesia" (called out).
- They also sold goods and possessions and distributed them to everyone, depending on who was in need : the care of needy Christians from the community was a task of the later “deacons”.
- And they were daily and always with one another in the temple ... : The Jerusalem central shrine also remained the meeting place of the Christians, so that at the beginning they adhered to its cultic customs and were accepted as part of Judaism.
- ... and took turns breaking the bread in the houses ... : At first the Eucharistic celebration was not separated from an ordinary meal and, as an agape celebration, was connected with the distribution of food to needy Christians. This did not take place in the temple, but in the family circle and in house churches.
- ... took the food with joy and a pure heart, praised God and had grace with the whole people : This too emphasizes the harmony between the early Christians and the Jewish environment. They were united by the praise of God.
Baptism, following the doctrine of the risen Christ ( Mt 28.20 EU ) and giving up ownership formed the equal “acceptance conditions” of the early church for Luke. The formulas from Acts 2 EU suggest a common practice, but according to 5.4 EU ; 12.12 EU , giving up ownership was rather voluntary. Prayer, agape celebration with communion, praise of God, creed , healing activity, poor relief, public missionary sermon, readiness for martyrdom - "to obey God more than men" ( Acts 5:29 EU ) - were essential basic elements of early Christian worship.
In this context one learns nothing of a scripture reading; It can be assumed, however, that this preceded the public mission sermons as in the synagogues , because it was necessary for the preaching of the risen Jesus ( Lk 24:27 EU ). The preaching of the word was not reserved for the apostles: presumably every member of the congregation could express his or her thoughts on the traditional doctrines and scriptures as long as the congregation was ready to understand.
The first Peter's sermons, edited by Luke, reflect the basic ideas of the early Christian mission: for them, Jesus was the savior of the people of God announced through Israel's entire biblical history, whose death on the cross as acceptance of the final judgment fulfills the promises of blessing to the patriarchs , whose resurrection God's reconciliation with Israel puts into effect, opens salvation to the peoples and calls the hearers of the sermon to comprehensive repentance .
The creed formulas adopted by Paul also place Jesus' gift of himself and his resurrection by God at the center of the early Christian doctrine of faith. The early dogmatization of the circle of twelve in all Gospels also shows: The early community saw itself as the eschatological representation of the entire people of God, chosen by the Messiah Jesus Christ elevated to be God. Her mission to Israel was therefore a priority for her.
Community of property
Whether the members of the Jerusalem community actually lived without property and shared all their property is a matter of dispute. Some exegetes consider this to be a motif of the ahistorical Lukan ideal, which falls back on analogue tradition in the Hellenistic environment - for example the community of goods of Pythagoras .
However, very early speeches from the Logia source formulate the lack of possession as a condition of following Jesus ( Mt 10 : 9f EU ). Because the disciples belonged to the poor poor (Greek ptochoi ), who at that time made up the bulk of the Galilean and Judean population ( ochlos ). Because of the Beatitudes in Jesus' Sermon on the Mount, they were considered the true chosen people of God ( Mt 4,1-11 EU ). So also the rich were invited to give up property in order to be able to become disciples of Jesus ( Mk 10,21 EU ). For formerly wealthy followers of Jesus, this was not just general charity, but an obligatory component of charity towards the poor (cf. Lk 6.27-35 EU ).
The sharing of property and food, communion of goods and feeding the poor was also practiced in other Jewish end-time communities such as the presumed Qumran group, which however did not address the majority of the people, but retreated into the desert as "holy remnants". With Jesus, on the other hand, the abandonment of possession was not aimed at attaining one's own salvation through ascetic perfection, but at the real earthly anticipation of heavenly justice that God had promised to the poor with the coming of the Messiah ( Lk 4, 16-21 EU ). For example, the property of tax collectors ("customs officers") was considered looted property that was acquired at the expense of their impoverished and indebted compatriots. The followers of Jesus should go through all areas of Israel to proclaim the near kingdom of God and thus the imminent end of these conditions of exploitation ( Mt 10 : 5–15 EU ), without worrying like rich people about accumulating property and livelihood ( Mt 6, 24-33 EU ).
Only at the time of Luke, when the early Christian mission had reached the prosperous coastal cities of Asia Minor, the abandonment of ownership, which was a matter of course for the disciples of Jesus, turned into a moral appeal, which was apparently only obeyed as an exception and was therefore particularly emphasized ( Acts 4,36f EU ). Therefore, Luke highlighted examples in his Gospel where Jesus moved relatively rich people like Zacchaeus to return their property to the robbed ( Lk 19 : 1–11 EU ). Some sold their entire property and brought the money to the apostles, who provided the entire community with it ( Acts 5 : 32–37 EU ). This welfare for the poor was no longer geared towards the whole of Israel, but served to balance property between poorer and richer Christians within the congregation. This, of course, remained unusual within ancient society and attractive to the poorer classes. There are certain parallels only to support in Hellenistic associations.
According to Acts 5 : 1–11 EU , a married couple ( Ananias and Saphira ) lost their lives, analogous to Old Testament rejection narratives, after only part of the proceeds of the land they sold were transferred to the original community. According to one interpretation, the keeping for oneself of property that belonged to everyone was subject to a taboo : Whoever withheld something of his property, “betrayed” the Holy Spirit himself and thus lost his right to life. According to another interpretation, Ananias only lied about the sum of the sales proceeds ( Acts 5,3 EU ) in order to get more honor than he was entitled to. Then the text confirms that there was no obligation to give up completely. Also Acts 12,12f EU suggests that Jerusalem Christians had to own 44 houses and slaves; Ownership was therefore not legally institutionalized, but rather making it available to all fellow Christians and dealing with one another differently than in the environment.
The Lukan representation of the early Christian community of property was occasionally understood as an early form of communism . However, this term also includes the upheaval in the relations of production , which the Acts of the Apostles does not report. Since the early community saw itself as an anticipation of the eschatological people of God, their expectations of salvation, like those of Judaism, also indirectly included the future radical change in property and power relations (cf. Lk 1.46-55 EU ). The ideal of community of property, which anticipated this expectation, has continued to have a multifaceted effect in Christian history , for example in some monastic orders , monastery communities and base communities .
Groups and Conflicts
According to the Acts of the Apostles, the members of the early church lived together in harmony at first. But the growth of the church soon created problems. According to Acts 6.1–7 EU , the widows from the Greek-speaking part of the community were overlooked in the daily poor care. This indicates a spatial distance to this subgroup. Thereupon the plenary assembly of the early congregation selected seven “deacons” (helpers, servants) in order to ensure the fair supply of all. Called Stephen , Philip , Prochorus , Nicanor , Timon , Parmenas and Nicholas : Your Greek names also refer to a separate group, the research " Hellenists calls".
Their task is unclear: Diaconal services are not reported on, but Stephen ( Acts 6,8 EU ) and Philip ( Acts 8,4–13 EU ; Acts 8,26–40 EU ) appeared as missionaries . Therefore, their choice is not only seen as a solution to an administrative problem, but as an indication of conflicts between Judean and Hellenistic Jewish Christians in Jerusalem. Apparently the leadership role of the apostles there was controversial early on. This may also be related to material problems: the early church received an arms collection from the other new Christian communities ( Gal 2,10 EU ; Acts 11:29 EU ). With their election, the Hellenists in the early community apparently received the right to distribute them and thus a certain degree of independence.
This internal conflict was accompanied by the distrust of the highest Jewish authority in Jerusalem, the Sanhedrin : it was responsible for maintaining the religious unity of Judaism. According to Acts 4, he interrogated Peter and John and tried to stop their missionary sermon. But the leaders of the early church had retained the sympathy of the population ( Acts 4,21 EU ). After she was arrested again, it was the advice of the Pharisee Gamaliel who obtained her release ( Acts 5 : 34-40 EU ). This reflects the shift in power in Judaism from Sadducees to rabbis at the time of Luke.
The beginnings of the Gentile mission probably came from the Hellenists: Because their leader Stephanus criticized the Mosaic Law and the temple cult ( Acts 6,13f EU ). He publicly accused the Sanhedrin of breaking the law and murdering Jesus. This was followed by a religious process that ended with his stoning ( Acts 7.56 EU ). Then part of the early community was driven out of the temple city and dispersed into the neighboring regions. The circle of twelve remained as the nucleus of the rebuilding of the early church in Jerusalem ( Acts 8.1 EU ). From now on Lukas does not report anything more about him.
Hellenistic missionaries like Philip founded new churches ( Acts 8.40 EU ), so that Christianity expanded into Samaria , Syria and Asia Minor . Thus, in the metropolis of Asia Minor, Antioch, the first large, mixed Jewish and Gentile community came into being next to Jerusalem. The observance of the Jewish commandments was apparently made easier or waived for these new Christians: That is why they were violently persecuted by Jews who were loyal to the Torah, such as the Pharisee Paul, on behalf of the Sanhedrin ( Acts 8 : 1 EU ). But after his unexpected conversion he stood up for the Torah-free peoples mission and initially proselytized independently of the apostles of the early community in the Mediterranean region (Acts 8-10).
The Apostles' Council
After the Hellenists were expelled, they also intensified their missionary work among Greeks who had no Jewish background. This increased the proportion of so-called Gentile Christians - newly baptized of non-Jewish descent - in early Christianity. Jewish regulations were issued to them in many communities. At the beginning this was probably also tolerated by the “Judaists” among the apostles of the early community; Paul does not report any conditions after his first visit to Jerusalem, during which he met Jesus' brother James ( Gal 1.18f EU ). But between him and Peter, whom Luke represents as the first missionary to the Gentiles ( Acts 10 EU ), later tensions arose over the question of the laws of purity ( Acts 11 EU ). Apparently the leaders of the early church disagreed as to whether conditions should be imposed on the Gentile Christians, and if so, which ones.
The different approaches of the missionaries challenged the leadership and identity of the early church and threatened the unity of early Christianity as a whole. Above all, the question of circumcision led to a crucial test: Should pagans also be circumcised at baptism and thus obliged to keep the entire Jewish Torah ? If they did not keep their food and purity laws, the common meal between Christians of Jewish and pagan origin in the congregations also became a problem. This raised the fundamental theological question of whether Christianity is only possible as part of Judaism or whether this framework is removed.
This fundamentally affected the self-image of the early church: It saw itself primarily as the “vanguard” of the people of God, Israel, who had yet to be saved from sin and divine judgment . According to this, Gentile Christians were “called upon” who owed their salvation entirely to the “ excess of grace ” of the savior Jesus Christ. The lack of clarity as to what this meant in relation to the “ Berit ” and the Jewish Torah urged a binding solution.
The insistence of some Jerusalem apostles to make the Jewish commandments binding also for Gentile Christians caused incomprehension among the Hellenistic apostles. There was a threat of division in congregations of Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians. To prevent this, both sides asserted all authority. The Jerusalem apostles called a meeting of missionaries to resolve the issue; On the way there, Barnabas and Paul became spokesmen for the Gentile Christian communities ( Acts 15 : 1-3 EU ).
The so-called Apostle Council (also: Apostle Convention) was a decisive turning point in the history of early Christianity. Paul and Luke present the course and results differently. According to Acts 15 there was a general assembly of the early church, at which the Judaists initially expressed their position that circumcision of the Gentile Christians was necessary. Then there was an internal discussion between Peter, Barnabas, Paul, James and probably others. Thereby the law-free Gentile mission according to Gal 2,1-14 EU was confirmed in its core. This prevented the split in early Christianity. But the validity of the Jewish ritual laws remained a matter of dispute even afterwards.
The early community had survived the persecution after the execution of Stephen (around 36) ( Acts 7.59 EU ) as well as the execution of James the Elder under Herod Agrippa I (44) ( Acts 12.2 EU ), so it was continued by tolerated by the leading groups of Judaism. So she was able to send her Jewish and Gentile missionaries from Jerusalem to the surrounding regions.
Notes from the Gospels reveal the areas in which new Christian congregations were founded: Mark 3.7 EU lists Galilee, Judea and Jerusalem as well as Idumea (in the south of Judea), Perea (in the east) and Phenicia (coastal region in the west) on. Mt 4,24 EU instead called the Decapolis , a Hellenistic Cities and Towns in Transjordan and Syria , Lk 6,17 EU next Phenicia and Samaria. After his conversion, Paul not only visited Damascus , but also “ Arabia ” ( Gal 1.17 EU ): At that time, this referred to the kingdom of the Nabataeans east of Judea . If you add up the information, you get a rough picture of the distribution of Christian communities in and around Palestine up to about 100.
After the Apostles' Council, the Acts of the Apostles almost exclusively depicts Paul's missionary journeys and hardly offers any news about the early church. The Jerusalem Circle of Twelve had probably already been replaced by a committee of three under the leadership of the eldest brother of Jesus ( Mk 6.3 EU ), James ( Gal 2.9 EU ); the other apostles no longer appear. Peter had left Jerusalem after the council and was traveling as a missionary in Asia Minor ( Gal 2 : 11-14 EU ; 1 Cor 9 EU ).
Only James and the "elders" are later mentioned again as recipients of the poor collection that Paul was given at the council ( Acts 21.15ff EU ). It is therefore believed that he was now the sole leader of the early church. According to Gal. 2:12, he apparently enforced the resolutions of the Apostolic Council outside Jerusalem and, according to Acts 21 : 21-25 EU, even after Paul's missionary successes , he advocated the demarcation of the Jewish Christians from the Gentile Christians. Until his death, the early church retained its primacy in early Christianity.
Although Paul had to fight in his congregations against groups that rejected or falsified his lawless mission to the Gentiles, he did not equate their missionaries with his enemies (including the "over-apostles" in 2 Cor 11.5 EU ; 12.11 EU ), but recognized them always the primacy of the early church: This confirms his collection for them in his letter to the Romans around 60 ( Rom 15.25–28 EU ).
Nevertheless, the increasing preponderance of the Gentile mission of the early church was ultimately fatal: This is already shown in the First Letter to the Thessalonians (written around 50), in which Paul violently polemicizes against the Jewish authorities who pursue his mission ( 1 Thes 2,14f EU ). So he was imprisoned in Jerusalem after his collection was handed over ( Acts 21 : 27ff EU ). It is uncertain whether this also affected the early church itself. It is assumed that their endangerment worsened in the years before the great Jewish uprising against the Romans.
According to the extra-biblical reports of Flavius Josephus , the Sadducees under the high priest Ananias II (Annas) used the power vacuum after the death of the governor Festus until the arrival of his successor to execute James with other Jewish Christians in Jerusalem. His death is dated to the year 62. Most of the members of the early church then fled to what is now Jordan , where they were taken in by a Jewish Christian community in Pella . With the beginning of the uprising in 68, the remaining members had to flee to the surrounding area because they refused to take part in the uprising.
However, after the temple was destroyed in 70, a remnant church was re-established in Jerusalem; Sons of James and other relatives of Jesus took over their leadership and ensured the continuity of their traditions. However, their leadership role in the rest of Christianity could not be renewed. It now lost more and more importance for the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire, for its organizational and theological consolidation. In the course of the Bar Kochba uprising (132-135) the rest of the early community 135 had to flee from Jerusalem again. That ended their existence.
- Hans Conzelmann : History of early Christianity (= floor plans for the New Testament. Vol. 5). 6th edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-525-51354-2 .
- Leonhard Goppel : Theology of the New Testament (= Uni-Taschenbücher 850). 3. Edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1978, ISBN 3-525-03252-8 .
- Ludger Schenke: The early community. Historical and theological development. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart et al. 1990, ISBN 3-17-011076-4 .
- ^ Johann Pock : Communities between idealization and planning compulsion . LIT Verlag, Vienna, 2006, p. 86.
- ↑ Udo Schnelle : The first 100 years of Christianity . 2015, p. 235-559 .