Codex Iuris Canonici
The Code of Canon Law ( CIC , Latin for the Code of Canon Law ), the Code of Canon Law of the Roman Catholic Church for the Latin Church . The current version is the Codex Iuris Canonici 1983 promulgated by Pope John Paul II with the additions listed below. For Germany there is an official translation of the German Bishops' Conference . The current edition (green bound, previous translations red or blue binding) is from 2017 and will be published with the previous additions and changes as well as the decisions of the PCLT made up to then .
In the first millennium, there was no uniform canon law, only the local canon law regulations of the local churches , supplemented by the decrees of the Pope . It was not until the Middle Ages that they were gradually brought together in collections such as Liber Extra (1234), Liber Sextus (1298) and Clementinae (beginning of the 14th century). Most of the regulations were based on the Roman jurisprudence of the Corpus iuris of Emperor Justinian I from 533. They led to the creation of appropriate legal proceedings in the form of the Inquisition with collegial working ecclesiastical courts .
The six most important compilations thus created together formed the Corpus Iuris Canonici and, in its revised version from 1582 until 1917, the canon law applicable in the Catholic Church. The problem with this right was that it always only applied where it was promulgated. In some parts of the world there were even laws that were contrary. This only changed with the appearance of the Codex Iuris Canonici, which was universally valid.
Codex Iuris Canonici 1917
The First Vatican Council suggested the creation of a single, uniform Catholic code of law, which was commissioned by Pope Pius X. in 1904 to the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law , which he established and which was largely drawn up by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri . Pope Benedict XV promulgated this centralizing legal code with the first codification of Latin canon law with the Constitution Providentissima Mater on May 27, 1917 (Pentecost). The CIC came into force on Pentecost of the following year, on May 19, 1918.
The main task of the CIC / 1917 was to “collect and systematize canon law”. With the exception of two small deletions, nothing was changed at the CIC / 1917 until the CIC / 1983. Subordinate laws were mostly published in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis and collected privately in Ochoa: Leges Ecclesiae post Codicem iuris canonici editae .
The strengthening of papal legal competences , criticized as Roman centralism , was promoted by the Vatican also from the devastating experiences of papal impotence in the face of the First World War . Episcopal ordinations, for example, have no longer been allowed to come under the control of national politics. In the bull for the promulgation of the CIC / 1917, the Pope makes it clear that there are many laws that are so confusing that the creation of universal rights is inevitable for the Catholic Church.
The CIC / 1917 soon proved to be in need of addition. In the Concordats with Prussia and Baden, the Pope's sole right to appoint a bishop was abandoned. Over time, canon law proved to be as scattered as it was before the codification of the CIC / 1917.
Codex Iuris Canonici 1983
While the ecclesiastical code of law, the Codex Iuris Canonici (CIC) was still effective for the entire Catholic Church from 1917, the new CIC from 1983 onwards only works in the Latin Church or Western Church (CIC can. 1). The United Eastern Churches received their own canon law in the Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium (CCEO) from 1990. The highest authority for the Roman Catholic Church is the Pope , who, as Bishop of Rome, is both the bishop of an individual diocese and the head of the entire Church. The Eastern Catholic Churches, however, recognize the Pope's primacy of jurisdiction as Bishop of Rome and are in a community of faith, prayer and the sacraments with one another and with the Latin Church .
History of origin
The current version was promulgated by Pope John Paul II on January 25, 1983 with the Apostolic Constitution Sacrae Disciplinae Leges and has been in force since the first Sunday in Advent of the same year. The Codex from 1983 replaced its predecessor from 1917.
The reform was carried out by a commission set up by the Second Vatican Council , the Codex Reform Commission, which was later transferred to the Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of Legal Texts and the Council for Legal Texts (PCLT). As a commission of experts from all over the world, it worked out the changes to the CIC / 1917 from 1965 to 1982. Originally, the intention was to divide the law into a kind of “constitutional law” (Lex ecclesiae fondamentalis), where important things (e.g. truths of faith) should be collected, and a supplement that covers less important things (e.g. keeping the tabernacle key in the sacristy). However, the LEF project was abandoned and the contents of the LEF were incorporated into the CIC again in 1981.
The CIC 1983 is conceived as a reform law that is intended to implement the ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. The following is mentioned in this context:
- the church as God's people
- the service function of the hierarchy
- the communio (fellowship) between the particular Churches and the universal Church
- the collegiality between Pope and Bishops
- the participation of all believers in the so-called threefold office of Christ , d. H. in his priestly, prophetic and royal office
- the turn to ecumenism
- the strengthening of the subsidiarity principle with the consequence of decentralization.
The Roman Catholic Church is divided into the Latin Church ( Ecclesia latina ) and (currently 27) so-called Eastern Catholic Churches ( Ecclesiae catholicae orientales ). According to c. 1, the CIC only applies to the Latin Church. The CCEO applies to the Eastern Catholic Churches . The purely ecclesiastical laws of the CIC apply according to c. 11 only for those baptized or accepted into the Catholic Church who have used reason and - unless otherwise specified - who have reached the age of seven.
The CIC is divided into seven books:
- General norms: Basic definitions without which a legal system cannot do, such as the legal definition or the regulations for the transfer of church offices .
- People of God: rights and duties of all believers, the church constitution, duties and rights of the Pope, the diocesan bishops , the internal order of the particular churches z. B. the division into parishes and deaneries , the legal status of religious orders and other forms of consecrated life .
- Church preaching service: This includes preaching and catechesis, Catholic schools and universities, religious instruction and censorship of books.
- Sanctification service of the church: sacraments , other acts of worship (e.g. sacramentals ) as well as holy places and times .
- Ecclesiastical property law: administrative regulations on monetary and material assets of the church.
- Church criminal law : In particular, “Church-specific” crimes such as the simulation of the sacraments or refusal of obedience are dealt with here.
- Processes: In addition to the provisions on the ecclesiastical judicial system in general, there are regulations for regular (and almost never occurring) litigation proceedings on special types of proceedings, such as B. the nullity procedure (in Germany the most common procedure at church courts) to the procedure for removal from office or the transfer of pastors.
The CIC is divided into seven books ( libri ). These are divided into parts ( partes ), sections ( sectiones ), titles ( tituli ), chapters ( capita ) and articles ( articula ).
A single legal clause of the CIC is a "canon". The CIC contains 1752 canons . The term canon is replaced by can. or with c. abbreviated, the plural canons with cann. or with cc. In some German-language literature, the abbreviation is only used for the CIC / 1983, the abbreviation can. used for the older CIC / 1917.
A canon can be divided into paragraphs and numbers. Example, taken from the German version of the CIC 1983
- Can. 145–196: Church offices
- Can. 146: A church office cannot be validly obtained without a canonical delegation.
- Can. 153:
- § 1. The transfer of an office ...
- § 2. Is it a matter of an office that is transferred according to the law for a certain period of time ...
- § 3. The promise of an office ...
- Can. 154: An office vacant under the law ...
Changes since 1983
The CIC is a papal law. Changes can only be made by the Pope or with his authorization. In the case of changes to the CIC, a distinction must be made between express changes in the wording and non-express changes in the matter due to changes in the situation or due to different regulations.
Since it came into force, three popes have made changes to the Codex Iuris Canonici:
- John Paul II
With the Motu proprio Ad tuendam fidem of 1998, Pope John Paul II changed two canons of the CIC and corresponding passages in oriental canon law. The original version of the CIC differentiated only two levels of the binding teaching post: the contents of the revelation (c. 750 old), which the teaching profession presented as infallible, and the “authentic teaching profession”, which is binding but not definitely binding. As a third middle stage, c. 750 § 2 new teachings which are to be accepted as final, even if they are not marked as the subject of divine revelation. Can. 750 § 2 reads:
“Also to be firmly recognized and kept is everything and everything that is finally submitted by the Magisterium of the Church with regard to faith and morals, that is, that which is necessary for the intact preservation and for the faithful presentation of the goods of the faith; therefore the teaching of the Catholic Church is opposed to anyone who rejects these sentences that are to be kept as final. "
In Can. 1371 § 1 a reference to the new paragraph was added.
- Benedict XVI.
On October 26, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI changed in the Motu proprio Omnium in Mentem some formulations in the CIC in two areas. In ordination law, a clearer distinction is made between the general priesthood of all believers and the ministerial priesthood. The ability to act in persona Christi Capitis (to act in the person of Christ the Head) was previously described in can. 1008 aF related to all degrees of ordination and is now referred to in can. 1009 § 3 limited to the bishops and priests. The changes are in italics:
"Can. 1008 - Through the sacrament of consecration, by virtue of divine instruction, some of the group of believers are appointed as spiritual officials by means of an indelible stamp with which they are marked; they are consecrated and determined to serve the people of God under a new and special title according to their respective degree of consecration.
Can. 1009 § 1. Orders are episcopate , presbyterate and diaconate .
§ 2. They are given through the laying on of hands and the consecration prayer, which the liturgical books prescribe for the individual consecration stages.
§ 3. Those who have received episcopal ordination or priestly ordination receive the mission and the authority to act in the person of Christ, the Head; the deacons, on the other hand, have the power to serve the people of God in the diaconia of the liturgy, the word and love. "
In marriage law , the addition in three canons “and has not fallen away from her [the Church] by a formal act” has been deleted. The background to this is the (controversial) interpretation that leaving the church from a civil registry office in Germany represents an actu formali falling away from the church. In this case, in turn, a Catholic is released from the so-called formal obligation , which implies that a civil marriage would have a sacramental character and would be an obstacle to a church wedding when re-entering the church .
"Can. 1086 - § 1. A marriage between two persons is invalid, one of whom was baptized in the Catholic Church or was accepted into it [deleted: “and has not fallen away from it by a formal act”], but the other is unbaptized.
Can. 1117 The form of marriage prescribed above must be without prejudice to the prescripts of can. 1127 § 2 must be complied with if at least one of the spouses has been baptized or accepted into the Catholic Church [deleted: “and has not apostatized from her by a formal act”] .
Can. 1124 - The marriage between two baptized persons, one of whom was baptized in the Catholic Church or was admitted to it after baptism [deleted: 'and not apostate from her by a formal act'] , but the other partner of a church or ecclesiastical community that is not in full communion with the Catholic Church is prohibited without the express permission of the competent authority. "
In Motu proprios Mitis Iudex Dominus Iesus and Mitis et misericors Iesus of August 15, 2015, Pope Francis simplified the procedure for declaring a marriage nullity for the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches . The changes to the law of marriage procedure in cann. 1671–1691 or cann. 1357–1377 CCEO took effect on December 8, 2015.
Not explicit changes
The CIC was subsequently amended without this being expressed in the wording. Examples:
- The one in the cc. 360 f. CIC called “Council for the Public Affairs of the Church” has been the second section of the State Secretariat since 1988.
- Contrary to c. 874 § 1 No. 3 CIC since 1993 a godfather can also be Orthodox if the other godfather is Catholic.
- Contrary to c. 1342 § 2 CIC, since 2009, a cleric who has committed a criminal offense can also be dismissed from the clergy by administrative means.
- c. 1365 § 2 CIC only criminalizes clerical sexual offenses against minors below the age of 16 years. This age was increased to 18 in 2001.
General norms (I. Book, cc. 1 - 203)
Legal sources (cc. 7 - 34, 94 f.)
- divine right - purely ecclesiastical law
According to the Catholic doctrine of legal norms, a distinction must be made between divine law (ius divinum) and human law (in the sense of purely church law ( ius mere ecclesiasticum )). Purely ecclesiastical law that contradicts divine law is ineffective. In divine law, a distinction is made between natural law (creation / reason) and positive divine law (right of revelation ) according to the basis of knowledge . In the case of purely church law, a distinction is made between written law and customary law .
- written legal sources
The CIC distinguishes between the written legal norms
- Legal norms given to a community by the competent authority
- as independent legal norms = leges ( laws ) (cc. 7-22)
- as legal norms subordinate to the law:
- addressed to all = decreta generalia ( implementing ordinances , general implementing decrees ) (cc. 31-33)
- addressed to the management of = Instructiones ( instructions ) (c. 34)
- Legal norms that a group of persons or objects gives itself = statute ( statutes ( autonomous statute law )) (c. 94).
Administrative action (cc. 35 - 93)
Administrative action i. S. d. CIC means legally relevant action in the leadership of the church and is in the cc. 35 - 93 regulated.
Personal law (cc. 96 - 123)
The CIC knows physical (cc. 96 - 112) and legal persons (cc. 113 - 123). The personal rights of the church and a state can be different. A legal person under church law does not have to be a legal person under state law - and vice versa.
Church offices (cc. 145 - 196)
A church office (Latin: officium ecclesiasticum ) is “any service that is established on a permanent basis by divine or ecclesiastical ordinance and that serves the pursuit of a spiritual purpose” (c. 145 § 1). The term church office does not include “participation in the authority of ordination or leadership, nor the exercise by a cleric nor the full-time exercise.”.
The people of God (Book II, cc. 204 - 746)
The Catholic Church (c. 204)
The Church ( Ecclesia ) is the totality of those who have been incorporated into Christ through baptism and thus become God's people (c. 204 § 1 CIC). This church is constituted in the world as a society and “realized” ( subsistit ) in the Catholic Church , which is “led by the successor of Peter and the bishops in communion with him” (c. 204 § 2 CIC). Communities to which the non-Catholic Christians belong are called churches or ecclesiastical communities . Not further defined in the CIC, the distinguishing criterion according to Dominus Iesus is “the valid episcopate and the original and complete reality of the Eucharistic mystery”.
The Believers (cc. 204-229)
Fully integrated into the Church are the baptized who are connected to the Church “through the bonds of the creed, the sacraments and the ecclesiastical leadership” (c. 205 CIC). Believers who are not fully entitled are those Catholics in whom a bond has been torn because they reject the faith in whole ( apostate ) or in part ( heretics ) or the submission to the Pope or with the believers under him ( schismatics ) - c. 751 CIC - or excommunication , subject to an interdict (cc. 1331 f.) Or “stubbornly persisting in an obviously grave sin” and therefore may not be admitted to the sacraments (cc 915, 1007). Anyone who has become a Catholic is regarded by the Catholic Church as belonging for their entire life. It is not possible to leave the church in the strict sense ("semel catholicus semper catholicus"). The catechumens are particularly closely related to the Church (c. 206).
In the church there are among the believers “by divine instruction” “spiritual officials” who are called “clerics” and are distinguished from the “lay people” (laici) (c. 207 § 1 CIC). Entry into the clergy takes place - free (c. 219) - (only) through the ordination of deacons (c. 266 §§ 1-2 CIC). Once a sacrament of ordination has been received, it cannot be undone (cc. 290, 845 § 1 CIC). A cleric can, however, be dismissed from the clergy (cc. 290-292) and also accepted again (c. 293 CIC).
- Lay people
The CIC uses the term layman ambiguously. In § 207 § 2 CIC he is defined as a believer who is not a cleric. According to this, religious who are not clergy are lay people. In c. 463 § 2 CIC religious are excluded from the term lay. In the catalog of the rights and duties of the laity (cc. 224-231 CIC), laypeople in the sense of believers who have a particular "world character" are assumed.
- evangelical councils
According to c. 207 § 2 CIC there can be believers among the clergy and non-clergy who commit themselves to the evangelical counsels “through vows or other sacred bonds” and thus consecrate themselves to God.
- Catalogs of duties and rights
The CIC contains four catalogs of rights and obligations:
- of all believers (cc. 208-223) and of the laity (cc. 224-331);
- the cleric (cc. 273-289);
- of the members of a religious institute (cc. 662-672).
This is new in terms of canon law. The basic rights catalogs of state constitutions served as a model. I.a. postulates c. 208 the general equality of all believers.
- Personal prelatures
In the cc. 294-297 regulate the personal prelatures .
- Associations of believers (cc. 298 - 329)
The cc. 298 - 329 contain general regulations for canonically recognized private and public associations. For the communities of the evangelical councils , the cc. 573 - 746 special regulations.
Hierarchical constitution of the church (cc. 330 - 572)
The second part of the second book (cc. 330-572) is divided into 2 sections: the highest authority of the church (cc. 330-367) and the particular churches and their associations (cc. 368-572).
The highest authority of the Church (cc. 330-367)
Like Peter and the apostles, the successor of Peter and the bishops, as successors of the apostles, are "connected to one another" (c. 330). This "according to the direction of the Lord", d. H. by virtue of divine right (c. 330). The Pope and the College of Bishops thus hold the highest authority in the Church. Thus neither the college of bishops stands above the pope (a. A. conciliarism ) nor does the pope stand outside the college of bishops.
- The pope
The holder of the office of the Bishop of Rome - the Pope - is considered to be the “head of the college of bishops” who “has the highest, full, immediate and universal ordinary power” (c. 331 CIC). Anyone who is legally elected, is ordained bishop and accepts the election becomes a pope (c. 332 § 1 CIC). The papacy can be waived (§ 332 § 2 CIC). One loses the papal office by losing the clerical office according to c. 194 CIC (apostasy; marriage).
- The college of bishops
The college of bishops “means the entirety of the Pope and the bishops in communion with him”. Like the Pope (alone) it has “the highest and full authority with regard to the universal Church” (c. 336 CIC). Resolutions of the college of bishops require confirmation by the Pope (c. 341 CIC). The college of bishops acts “in a solemn manner” at an ecumenical council (c. 337 § 1 CIC) or (so far only theoretically) otherwise “through a united official act” (c. 337 § 2 CIC).
- organs assigned to the Pope
Four types of permanent organs and officials are assigned to the Pope:
- the Synod of Bishops (cc. 342 - 348 CIC) as an advisory body,
- the College of Cardinals (cc. 349 - 359 CIC) as an electoral and advisory body,
- the Roman Curia (c. 360 CIC) as the papal authority of an executive and judicial nature (the term Holy See means the Pope together with the Roman Curia (c. 361 CIC)),
- Envoy of the Pope (cc. 362 - 367 CIC), usually called Nuncio .
Local Churches and their Associations (cc. 368 - 572)
- Partial Churches (cc. 368 - 374)
According to c. 368 consists of the Catholic Church “in” and “from” particular churches (also: particular churches ) ( ecclesiae particulares ). The term is not further defined. The prototype is the diocese (synonymous with diocese , Latin dioecesis ), called eparchy in the Eastern churches .
- The bishops
- Bishops in general (cc. 375 - 380)
The office of bishop is considered to be based on divine law, a bishop as successor to the apostles (c. 375 § 1). Bishops to whom a diocese is entrusted are called diocesan bishops , others titular bishops (c. 376).
- The Diocesan Bishop (cc. 381-402)
The diocesan bishop has full authority in his diocese. Some decisions (e.g. exemption from celibacy) are reserved for the Apostolic See . In relation to the Bishops' Conference there is competing jurisdiction (c. 135 § 2). The power of attorney for authentic proclamation (c. 753) as well as the legislation (c. 135 § 2) is highly personal, the executive and judicial authority can be delegated.
- Bishop coadjutors and auxiliary bishops (auxiliary bishops) (cc. 403 - 411)
- Disability and vacancy of the episcopal see (cc. 412-430)
One speaks of a handicap when the diocesan bishop is not even able in writing to communicate with the diocesans (c. 412). In the event of a vacancy , cc. 416 - 430 regulations made.
- Local Church Associations (cc. 431 - 459)
The following are regulated as part church associations :
- the ecclesiastical provinces (cc. 431 - 438), which can be traced back to the 4th century. The main bishopric of an ecclesiastical province is called the metropolitan bishopric , its diocesan bishop metropolitan (cc. 435 - 438), the other suffragan bishoprics , their bishops "suffragan bishops".
- the particular councils (cc. 439-446);
- the Episcopal Conferences (cc. 447-459).
Internal order of the particular church associations (cc. 460-572)
Various forms of partly compulsory, partly exempted assemblies and bodies are planned in the CIC:
- a diocesan synod (cc. 460 - 468) (optional)
- the council of priests (cc. 495 - 501) (mandatory)
- the college of consultors (c. 502) (mandatory) - in Germany, Austria and Switzerland e.g. T. are the tasks of the cathedral chapter transfer
- A canon chapter (cc. 503-510) is a community of priests whose task it is to carry out the services in the cathedral or collegiate church - as well as other tasks that are entrusted to it by the diocesan bishop, among others (c. 503). The canon chapter of a diocese is called the cathedral chapter and is often called cathedral chapter , in archbishopric also metropolitan chapter . In Germany, Austria and in some dioceses in Switzerland, the cathedral chapter acts as a college of consultors within the meaning of c. 502.
- a (diocesan) pastoral council (cc. 511 - 514) (optional)
Not named by the CIC include a .:
- Diocesan Council of Catholics
- Church Tax Council
- Deacon Council
They are regulated in detail
- Parishes , pastors and parish vicars (cc. 515 - 552);
- the deanery with the dean (cc. 553 - 555);
- Church rectors (cc. 556-563) and chaplains (cc. 564-572).
Life communities of the evangelical councils (cc. 573 - 746)
Part III of Book II regulates institutes of consecrated life and societies of apostolic life . The CIC does not mention a generic term. Suggested expressions are communities of evangelical councils or canonical associations . Stand in the foreground
and for the general regulations (cc. 573 - 606) are prepended. In addition, the
a regulation (cc. 731 - 746).
The Church's Annunciation Service (Book III, cc. 747-833)
Features of the Church's Annunciation (cc. 747-748)
The church's preaching service ( munus docendi ) is the church's participation in the mission of Jesus Christ and comprises the truths of faith (c. 747 § 1) as well as the "moral principles .. about the social order" (c. 747 § 2). This also applies to every believer by virtue of baptism and confirmation (c. 211) ( private proclamation ). The use of coercion in proclamation is prohibited (c. 748 § 2). But everyone is obliged to search for the truth and to hold fast to the truth that has been recognized (c. 748 § 1).
The Doctrinal Authority of the Church (cc. 749-755)
In addition to the private preaching of every believer, there is the official preaching of the church “in the name of the church”. This takes place sovereignly if it appears as a teaching post ( magisterium ) with the claim to be binding, otherwise not sovereign. In the case of sovereign proclamation, a distinction must be made between the authentic teaching post without claim to infallibility (cc. 752 - 753) and the so-called infallible teaching post , be it in the form of a teaching as revealed by God (c. 750 § 1) or in the form of a teaching that is to be accepted as final (c. 750 § 2 new version).
The Sermon (cc. 762-772)
The right to preach belongs to the bishops everywhere (c. 763) and the priests and deacons with the presumed approval of the church rector (c. 764), religious in their churches according to the religious law (c. 765). The homily in the celebration of Holy Mass is reserved for the clergy (c. 767 § 1) and is mandatory on Sundays and public holidays (c. 767 § 2). Lay people can also preach in a church or chapel in accordance with the provisions of the Bishops' Conference - outside the liturgy, c. 767 § 1 - to be admitted (c. 766). According to the legal recommendation of the German Bishops' Conference, a layperson is commissioned for individual occasions by the pastor, otherwise by the local ordinary at the suggestion of the pastor. According to a general decree of the Austrian Bishops' Conference only by the diocesan bishop on the suggestion of the pastor.
Catechetical instruction (cc. 773-780)
Missionary work (cc. 781 - 792)
Catholic education (cc. 793-821)
In addition to general norms (cc. 793 - 795), Catholic education is regulated in and through schools (cc. 796- 806) and in universities (cc. 807 - 821).
Media (cc. 822-882)
Creed (c. 883)
Sanctification Service of the Church (Book IV, cc. 834 - 1253)
- Baptism (cc. 849-878)
- Confirmation (cc. 879 - 896)
- Most Holy Eucharist (cc. 897-958)
- Sacrament of Penance (cc. 959-997)
- Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (cc. 998-1007)
- Sacrament of Orders (cc. 1008 - 1054)
- Marriage (cc. 1055 - 1165)
Other acts of worship (cc. 1166 - 1204)
- Sacramentals (cc. 1166 - 1172)
- Liturgy of the Hours (cc. 1173 - 1175)
- Church burial (1176 - 1185)
- Adoration of saints, images and relics (cc. 1186 - 1190)
- Vow and Oath (cc. 1191 - 1190)
Holy Places and Times (cc. 1205 - 1253)
- Holy Places (cc. 1205 - 1243)
- Churches (cc. 1214-1222)
- Chapels and private chapels (cc. 1223-1229)
- Sanctuaries (cc. 1230 - 1234)
- Altars (cc. 1235 - 1239)
- Cemeteries (cc. 1240 - 1243)
- Holy Times (cc. 1244 - 1253)
Church property (V. Book, cc. 1254 - 1310)
Criminal provisions of the Church (Book VI, cc. 1311-1399)
Processes (VII. Book, cc. 1400 - 1752)
- Codex iuris canonici. Pii X Pontificis Maximi iussu digestus Benedicti Papae XV auctoritate promulgatus. Rome , Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1917.
- Codex iuris canonici - Codex of Canon Law. Latin-German edition with subject index on behalf of the German Bishops' Conference, the Austrian Bishops' Conference, the Swiss Bishops' Conference, the Archbishops of Luxembourg and Strasbourg as well as the Bishops of Bozen-Brixen, Liège and Metz. 1st edition, Kevelaer: Verlag Butzon & Bercker, 1983. (bound in red, valid translation until 2002)
- Codex iuris canonici - Codex of Canon Law. Latin-German edition with subject index on behalf of the German Bishops' Conference, the Austrian Bishops' Conference, the Swiss Bishops' Conference, the Archbishops of Luxembourg and Strasbourg as well as the Bishops of Bozen-Brixen, Liège and Metz. 3rd, updated edition, Kevelaer: Verlag Butzon & Bercker 2002. (blue bound, valid translation until 2017)
- Codex iuris canonici - Codex of Canon Law. Latin-German edition with subject index on behalf of the German Bishops' Conference, the Austrian Bishops' Conference, the Swiss Bishops' Conference, the Archbishops of Luxembourg and Strasbourg as well as the Bishops of Bozen-Brixen, Liège and Metz. 8th, updated edition, Kevelaer: Verlag Butzon & Bercker, 2017.
- Acta Apostolicae Sedis (the Official Gazette of the Apostolic See)
- German Bishops' Conference (Ed.): Codex Iuris Canonici, Codex of Canon Law (original edition)
- Archive for Catholic Canon Law (a leading journal for canon lawyers)
- Stephan Haering , Wilhelm Rees , Heribert Schmitz (eds.): Handbook of Catholic Church Law ; Regensburg ³2015 (review article, the classic manual)
- Klaus Lüdicke (Ed.): Munster Commentary on Codex Iuris Canonici, loose-leaf collection (the standard German commentary, commentary is canonical)
Text of the CIC 1983
- German text and other languages
- Latin text
- German text at codex-iuris-canonici.de (with search function)
Text of the CIC 1917 - is only used for the interpretation of the CIC 1983, otherwise church law no longer applicable
- Ulrich Rhode : Canon Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (Textbooks Theology; Vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 26
- So Georg Bier: Introduction to Canon Law. In: Clauß Peter Sajak : Practical Theology. Module 4. Schöningh, Paderborn 2012 (UTB; 3472), ISBN 978-3-8252-3472-0 , p. 133 f.
- Basic Knowledge of the Catholic Church - The Organization of the Church. Published on February 3, 2015, updated on March 24, 2015 in Catholica, konfessionskundliches-institut.com 
- By Ulrich Rhode : Church Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (textbooks theology; vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 47
- Canons 145-196
- According to Ulrich Rhode : Church Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (textbooks theology; vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 48 f.
- See Ulrich Rhode : Church Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (Textbooks Theology; Vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 16
- So Ulrich Rhode : Canon Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (Textbooks Theology; Vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 35
- So Ulrich Rhode : Canon Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (Textbooks Theology; Vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 35
- Ulrich Rhode : Canon Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (textbooks theology; vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 77
- Ulrich Rhode : Canon Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (Textbooks Theology; Vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 96
- Ulrich Rhode : Canon Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (textbooks theology; vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 101
- Ulrich Rhode : Kirchenrecht Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (Study books Theology; Vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 117
- Ulrich Rhode : Canon Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (Textbooks Theology; Vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 150
- Ulrich Rhode : Canon Law. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2015 (textbooks theology; vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-17-026227-0 , p. 163