Anointing of the sick
The anointing of the sick or holy unction is an act practiced in many churches that is performed on the sick and is justified above all with instructions from the 5th chapter of the letter of James . In the Roman Catholic Church, the Old Catholic and the Orthodox Churches, the anointing of the sick is considered a sacrament . In the past, the anointing of the sick was called the Last Unction in the Catholic Church ; within the anthroposophically oriented Christian community it is still called that today. Evangelical free church congregations practice the anointing of the sick as a service of elders according to James 5 . Also, Lutheran , Reformed and United churches see partly for Health Pastoral Care, another anointing before that but is not understood as a sacrament.
The New Testament is, as the Old Testament , disease and suffering in a reference to God as the Lord of illness and healing. The Gospels tell of Jesus of Nazareth numerous healings of the sick ; The kingdom of God can be experienced in the healing work of Jesus ( Lk 11.22 EU , Lk 7.18–22 EU ). Jesus asked his disciples to help the sick and to heal them ( Lk 10.9 EU ). The disciples did this and used as a sign a means of healing wounds , the anointing with oil ( Mk 6,12-13 EU ).
The letter of James shows that the anointing of the sick existed in the Christian community in the last decades of the first Christian century:
“Are any of you sick? Then he calls the elders of the church to him; they are to say prayers on him and anoint him with oil in the name of the Lord. Faithful prayer will save the sick and the Lord will raise him up; if he has committed sins, they will be forgiven him. "
The sick person is identified as someone who ἀσθενεῖ astheneī 'is weak, sick', that is, apparently tied to the house, but he can still call for the elders; he is (verse 15) κάμνων kámnōn 'tired' but not dying. He calls for the “ elders of the congregation ”, that is to say the members of the collegial governing body who “are not able to act on sick people because of a charismatic healing gift, but by virtue of their office”. Anointing and prayer go together; The primary activity is the prayer “over the sick” (ἐπ 'αὐτόν ep autón ), the “anointing in the name of the Lord” has an accompanying function (ἀλείψαντες aleípsantes ' while they anoint'), it is a symbolic act and not a medical application. The effect of action arises from prayer. This precludes a magical understanding of the anointing.
History of the Anointing of the Sick
From the time up to the early Middle Ages, few prayers have survived that were said to bless the anointing oil for the anointing of the sick, but no actual liturgical orders. In ancient church usage, it was not the anointing but the consecrated oil (Greek μύρον míron , also ἒλαιον νοσούντων élaion nosoúntōn "(olive) oil of the sick", Latin pinguedo olivae "fat of the olive" or oleum benedictum ") consecrated "Sacrament" means. The faithful brought oil with them to church, where it was blessed by the bishop or priest at the end of the prayer of Holy Mass . From the 5th century onwards, the oil was consecrated by the bishop in the Roman rite on Maundy Thursday and could then be taken by the faithful or picked up if necessary. Until the 8th century lay people had the opportunity to keep the consecrated oil at home and use it on themselves or on sick family members, but the anointing could also be performed by the priest. You may have anointed the affected parts of the body or the whole body. In the earliest times the oil was probably also drunk.
A prayer for the consecration of the sick oil ("Emitte, quaesumus, Domine"), which originated in the 5th century and goes back to older Coptic models, is still only slightly changed today as part of the liturgy of the consecration of oil, which takes place on Maundy Thursday or another day of Holy Week in Roman Catholic cathedral churches takes place:
“Send, we ask you, Lord, the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete, from heaven onto this fat of the olive, which you brought forth from the green wood to strengthen the spirit and the body. And your holy blessing be to everyone who anoints himself with it, tastes it and touches it, protection of body, soul and spirit, who drives away all pain, all weaknesses and every disease of the body, [this oil] with which you priest, Anointed kings, prophets and martyrs. "
The practice of anointing the sick had declined by the early Middle Ages. Bishop Jonas of Orléans (818–843) complained that many Christians had given them up out of ignorance or carelessness and instead went to diviners and magicians. In the 9th century, the bishops widely recognized the importance of the anointing of the sick for pastoral care and campaigned for its upgrading. The anointing of the sick by lay people was forbidden by the Church, since the oil genus sacramenti is "a kind of sacrament" and belongs in the hands of the priest. But the sacrament had also been neglected among priests. Therefore, the bishops and synods urged that the sacrament at least be offered to the dying . In the sacraments of the 9th century, the anointing was included in the liturgy of death in addition to confession and prayers for the dead ( Ordines ad visitandum et unguendum infirmum, “Regulations for visiting and anointing a sick person ”), while the accompanying texts for anointing included the aspect of penance versus that of healing more and more in the foreground. Mostly the five senses, feet and loins of the sick were anointed. The rite usually also included the laying on of hands.
In the High Middle Ages, the term extrema unctio (“last unction ”) was used for the anointing of the sick . From the instruction to give the anointing of the sick at least to the dying , the practice had developed to give it only to the dying . This was unfolded by speculative theology, presumably without knowledge of the historical roots, and thus again had a stabilizing function on practice. The theologians of scholasticism saw in the anointing of the sick the "removal of all obstacles before the entrance into heavenly glory" - in the 19th century also called "death consecration" - their donation was "the completion of the church's endeavors to heal the soul" at the end of life. Petrus Lombardus spoke of unctio in extremis ("anointing in the last [moments of life]"), Albertus Magnus of unctio exeuntium ("anointing of the dying"). It was not until the 20th century that the term unctio infirmorum (“anointing of the sick”) became established, which corresponds more closely to the testimonies known from the tradition of the ancients and the early medieval church as well as the liturgical texts still used today.
The Byzantine theologian and Archbishop Symeon of Thessaloniki († 1429) and a century later the reformers criticized the “wrong practice” and the “spectacular building of ideas” of scholasticism . With reference to the letter of James in his work De Captivitate Babylonica Ecclesiae 1520, Martin Luther resolutely opposed the reinterpretation of the anointing of the sick as a sacrament of death and refused to accept it in the form practiced as a sacrament going back to Jesus. The Council of Trent defended the sacramentality of the anointing of the sick and the Catholic practice as not contradicting the Bible. "The terminology [of the council decision] remains within the framework of the view that primarily wanted to see the anointing of the sick as a spiritual help at the end of life, admittedly without a dogmatic determination in the direction of a final sacrament." The Roman Catechism , published in 1566, summarized this The period in which the sacraments were administered was long and indeed called for life-threatening illness - not mortal danger alone, for example when traveling or before an execution - but one should not wait until there is no longer any hope of recovery. However, this instruction was largely ignored in practice. The Rituale Romanum of 1925 even tightened the formulation of earlier rituals: Instead of “that there seems to be a threat of death” (ut mortis periculum imminere videatur) , it was now “in danger of death due to illness or old age” (whether infirmitatem vel senium in periculo mortis versetur ) .
Anointing of the Sick in the Roman Catholic Church
The anointing of the sick is seen as a sacramental means of strengthening and encouragement . In serious illness she should give a share in the Holy Spirit and awaken trust in divine mercy in the sick . According to the Catholic understanding, it has a sin forgiving effect and connects the sick with the suffering, the cross and the resurrection of Jesus Christ .
“Through the holy anointing of the sick and the priest's prayer, the whole Church recommends the sick to the suffering and glorified Lord, that he should raise them up and save them (cf. Jas 5: 14–15 EU ), yes it exhorts them to join in of their own free will to unite the suffering and death of Christ (cf. Rom 8,17 EU ; Col 1,24 EU ; 2 Tim 2,11–12 EU ; 1 Petr 4,13 EU ) and thus contribute to the good of the people of God . "
The former official name of the anointing of the sick as the last unction is still popular today. The correct designation, which is also used in the Constitution of the Second Vatican Council on the Liturgy of the Church " Sacrosanctum Concilium " (No. 73), is anointing of the sick . With this in mind, the council decided to renew the rite and interpretation of this sacrament. With the Apostolic Constitution " Sacram Unctionem Infirmorum " Pope Paul VI. on November 30, 1972 the license to practice the renewed form of the anointing of the sick.
The anointing of the sick is intended for people "who are in a threatened state of health due to illness or old age"; the sacrament can be received repeatedly if the patient has regained his strength in the meantime or if the disease continues to deteriorate.
Sacramental act and form
- Word worship
- Reading (possibly with explanation)
- Sacramental celebration
- Laying on of hands
- Consecration of the oil or thanksgiving prayer over the oil
- Anointing of the forehead and hands
- Prayer after the anointing
The forehead and hands of the patient are anointed; in an emergency, an anointing of the forehead is sufficient or, if this is not possible due to special circumstances, another, more suitable part of the body. Regarding the anointing with the sick oil , the priest said: “Through this holy anointing the Lord help you in his rich mercy, he stand by you with the power of the Holy Spirit: The Lord, who frees you from sins, save you, judge in his grace he will open you up. "
Expiry until 1975
According to the extraordinary custom ( liturgy of 1962 ), the anointing of the senses is provided in the form as it was for the German-speaking area up to the publication of the liturgical book The celebration of the sacraments of the sick. The anointing of the sick and the order of the pastoral care of the sick in the Catholic dioceses of the German-speaking area was prescribed in 1975: The sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, hand, feet) are anointed with oil or - if this is not possible - the forehead. The anointing of the kidneys was omitted in 1925, the anointing of the feet was omitted. The priest speaks in Latin the words Per istam sanctam Unctionem et suam piissimam misericordiam indulgeat tibi Dominus quidquid per visum (auditum…) deliquisti. Amen. ("Through this holy anointing and his mildest mercy, let the Lord indulge what you have sinned by seeing (hearing, smelling, tasting and speaking, touching, walking). Amen"); when the forehead is anointed, this formula is changed to "... whatever you have sinned" . Instead of the laying on of hands, the priest simply extends his right hand over the sick person.
Matter of the anointing of the sick
The anointing of the sick does not use chrism , but sick oil (consecrated olive oil , in an emergency another vegetable oil). This medical oil (lat .: oleum infirmorum every year in the) Chrism Mass on the morning of Holy Thursday , or at an earlier Easter related days from the bishop in concelebration with his priests ordained and then in the parishes distributed the diocese. There it is to be solemnly carried into the church together with the other holy oils at the beginning of the mass of the Last Supper on Maundy Thursday or at another suitable time and its importance to the community is to be declared anew every year.
The bishop may consecrate the oil of the sick in any celebration of the anointing of the sick he presides. In an emergency situation, every priest who performs the anointing of the sick may consecrate the sick oil during this celebration.
Donor of the anointing of the sick
The sacrament is administered by the responsible pastor . If the permission of the local bishop can be accepted, other priests may donate it. In an emergency, however, every priest can and should offer this sacrament. In the Codex Iuris Canonici it says: "The anointing of the sick is validly donated by every priest, and only he." Important for the realization of the sacrament is the corresponding intention ("intention") of the donor to want to donate the sacrament.
Accidental and Last Sacraments
If the anointing of the sick is donated to the dying, the sick person is provided with the sacraments of penance (before the anointing of the sick) and the communion given as food for the journey (after the anointing of the sick) (hence the name "Verehgang "). If the sick person is no longer able to receive communion under the form of bread, it can also be given to him under the form of wine. In accordance with the authority given by the Pope, the priest also gives the apostolic blessing associated with complete indulgence . If the dying person is not confirmed , the priest can also bestow this sacrament on him. In these cases one speaks of the sacraments of death.
In earlier years in rural areas, when such a mistake occurred, the priest went to the sick man's house in choir clothes accompanied by an acolyte ; the acolyte wore a light and a small bell to alert oncoming people to the presence of the holy of holies . Today the priest usually comes alone into the house, but a small congregation should meet wherever possible to give the anointing of the sick. If possible, a table covered with a white cloth for the holy oils, candles, a crucifix and a vessel with holy water with aspergillus or a sprig to sprinkle with holy water should be provided in the sick person's house . For this purpose, a so-called accessory set with the necessary equipment was often available in the families .
In the Orthodox churches , the anointing of the sick is donated on the afternoon of the Wednesday of Holy Week . Not only the sick, but all believers can receive the sacrament, and the foreground is the forgiveness of sins as the effect of the sacrament. Donation on another day or to an individual sick person in his or her home is also possible, but always in community. The anointing is given to each recipient one after the other by seven priests, in smaller parishes it can be just two or three priests, in an emergency one.
An oil vessel is placed on a table, into which anointing oil and wine or water are poured (cf. Lk 10.34 EU ), furthermore a gospel book and a bowl with wheat or flour as a symbol of the budding life ( Jn 12.24 EU ). The celebration begins in full form with an abbreviated morning prayer (Ὂρθρος Órthros ) from the church hours of prayer . The priests carry candles in their hands, the oil, the church and all those present are smoked with incense . Then the oil is blessed with a litany of intercession and a blessing prayer: “ Let us pray to the Lord that this oil may be blessed by the power, efficacy and the coming down of the Holy Spirit .” May the oil “be for those who are anointed with it It is sufficient to heal and dispel all suffering, defilement of body and spirit and every evil, "so that the name of God may be glorified.
Before the anointing of each believer, each priest holds a short litany of the words, consisting of a scripture reading, a short litany, the anointing, and a prayer. The anointing is done with a twig wrapped in cotton on the forehead, nostrils, cheeks, mouth, chest and the inside and outside of the hands. At the end of the celebration the Gospel is placed on the head of the sick person with a prayer. Shortening the process is possible and common.
The recipient of the anointing of the sick in the Coptic rite - called "celebration of the lamp" or "prayer of the lamp" - is someone who is physically ill; the anointing can be repeated any number of times, even during the same illness. As a rule, the sacrament is administered today in the sick person's house. When it was previously donated in church, it was an abusive practice for bedridden sick people to send someone else to church to receive the sacrament on their behalf.
Traditionally, seven priests gathered to administer the sacrament, but today it is common to have one priest. The sick person should first receive the sacrament of penance. In the room of the anointing of the sick there must be a candlestick with seven lamps or a lamp with seven wicks, and if necessary a plate with oil into which seven wicks are inserted. During the liturgy, the lamps are lit one after the other by the seven priests or one after each prayer.
The anointing of the sick consists of seven “prayers” with short alternating prayer, reading from the Old and New Testaments and prayer for healing from physical and mental illnesses as well as the request for forgiveness of sins. The first of the prayers is a longer introductory prayer with repeated insertions by Kyrie eleison and the consecration of the oil. After two more prayers, the patient is anointed, usually on the forehead, chest and veins of the inner wrists. The celebration closes with closing prayers. All those present can get a simple anointing with oil, comparable to the sprinkling of holy water in the Roman rite .
The Anglican Book of Common Prayer of 1549 contained an anointing rite that could be performed in connection with a visit to the sick. In the second edition of the book from 1552, under the influence of the German reformer Martin Bucer, the section on the anointing of the sick was omitted. In the 18th and then especially in the 19th ( Oxford Movement ) and 20th centuries (Canterbury Province, 1935 and York Province, 1936) attempts were made to revive the anointing of the sick as part of the pastoral care of the sick. The laying on of hands and anointing were understood as forms of the church's healing service; the anointing was mainly done on the seriously ill. The recipient should first confess his sins and receive absolution .
In the Church of England , the laying on of hands with prayer and anointing since 1983 (The Laying on of Hands with Prayer and Anointing) liturgically approved. The rites are integrated either in the celebration of the Eucharist (Holy Communion) or in the prayer of the hours ( Laudes or Vespers ). In Holy Communion, the priest performs the rite; outside of the Eucharist, a deacon or a lay person also performs the rite . The laying on of hands can also take place without anointing. The anointing is seen as a sacramental celebration and is given primarily when the sick person is in crisis. The anointing is done with olive oil that has been consecrated by the bishop or priest by drawing a sign of the cross on the forehead. The laying on of hands takes place with a prayer or, if the anointing follows, in silence. The following text can be spoken about the anointing:
“ N., I anoint you with oil in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Our heavenly Father make you whole body and soul and give you the inner anointing with your Holy Spirit, the spirit of strength, joy and peace. Amen. "
Since 1991, a changed text has been used for donations to the dying, dispensing with the request for physical healing. After the anointing the dying person should, if possible, be given the food they need, followed by the dying prayers .
Old Catholic Church
In the dioceses of the Union of Utrecht , the anointing of the sick (often referred to here as the sacrament of strengthening ) is given by a priest or a female deacon. The celebrating person first prays for the recipient of the sacrament to be strengthened by the Holy Spirit . Then he or she silently lays the hand of the recipient on. Then the celebrating person anoints the forehead and the inner surface of the hands with the words:
“ Through the prayer of the Church and through this anointing, may the merciful God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, strengthen you in the Holy Spirit. He will straighten you up and give you his salvation. Amen. "
This anointing can be performed at the bedside, in a life-threatening situation (e.g. after an accident), but also during a Eucharistic celebration in the community. In this case it is carried out after the gospel reading and sermon in front of the assembled congregation and donated not only to the sick, but also to people with disabilities, pregnant women and those in need of other strengthening. The reception of the sacrament of penance ( called the sacrament of reconciliation in the Old Catholic Church ) can be combined with it, but is not a requirement. In mortal danger, the sacrament of Confirmation can also be administered by a priest .
In the Old Catholic Church, an olive oil mixed with rose oil is used as the material of the sacrament, which was consecrated by the bishop in a special Eucharistic celebration during Lent along with the other holy oils, chrism and catechumen oil .
Lutheran and United Churches and Communities
In pastoral care for the sick in the Evangelical Lutheran churches, the celebration of the Lord's Supper at the bedside has always been of great importance. In the Evangelical Michael Brotherhood , the wish arose that the pastor could not only pray but also perform ritual activities with the sick and dying who could not receive the Lord's Supper. The Brotherhood's agenda of 1949 contained a form for the anointing of seriously ill people with olive oil, for which the designation "final anointing" was rejected. The celebration begins with the wish for peace, the prayer of Psalm 13 and three orations . After the reading of Jak 5.14 to 15 LUT the unction is done in form of a cross on the forehead; after that there is an oration and the blessing of the sick person.
In the decades that followed, several agendas contained suggestions for anointing rites, some of which could be combined with the laying on of hands, confession and the Lord's Supper. The handout for the pastoral service of the Lutheran Liturgical Conference of Germany (1958) contained a celebration with the sequence of peace - Psalm 23 - oration - reading of scriptures ( Mk 6.7-13 LUT or Jak 5,14-16) - litany - anointing of the forehead - Oration - blessing. Later agendas ( North Elbian Church , 1986; Liturgical Committee of the VELKD , 1990 as a draft) each offer several variants and texts to choose from; can be anointed in the shape of a cross on the forehead and hands. The wording of the blessing formula, possibly with the laying on of hands and / or anointing, is for the sick:
“ N., you are blessed (and anointed with oil) in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
He lifts you up through the healing power of his love. "
For the dying it is said:
“ N., you are blessed (and anointed with oil) in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
He have mercy on you. He be gracious to you and receive you into his eternal kingdom. "
In 1998, the regional synod of the Evangelical Church in Baden saw the anointing of the sick in connection with a preceding interpretive word as a “strong sign of God's attention to people”, which should not be misunderstood as a “magical event” and “not a third evangelical sacrament Church "is. As a rule, two or three people are anointed. One holds the bowl of ointment while another anoints the forehead and the palms of the hands. The non-anointing stand next to the person who wants to be anointed and put their hand on their shoulder.
Evangelical Free Church Congregations (Baptists)
In the preaching and instruction, the anointing of the sick is offered to the believing community as a symbolic act for the healing action of Jesus Christ . In order to carry out the anointing of the sick in the evangelical free church congregations , it is important that the sick person asks for it according to biblical instruction and has the elders of the congregation called to him: “If one of you is sick, he should call the elders of the congregation so that they can pray for him and anoint him with oil in the name of the Lord ” (James 5:14). An exception to this rule is made when parents call the community elders to their sick child. However, there is no anointing of the dead.
In free church congregations, the anointing of the sick is donated by the elders of the congregation. As a fellow elder, the parish pastor is usually present at an anointing of the sick, but his participation is not absolutely necessary. Since the New Testament biblical passages that deal with the ministry of elders always start from a college of elders, at least two church elders should be present at the anointing of the sick if possible.
Matter of the anointing of the sick
In a free church anointing of the sick, simple vegetable oil is used, with which the head of the sick person ( Psalm 23.5 EU ), and sometimes the sick area of the body, is anointed. The oil used does not require any special prior consecration. But it can be fragrant anointing oil .
The anointing of the sick as an act
There is no prescribed liturgy here. As a rule, however, the anointing of the sick has the following course: It is opened with a prayer and a reading of the scriptures (James 5: 14-16). Afterwards the patient reports on the elders' inquiries about his illness and its course. The elders and the sick confess their guilt to each other ( Jak 5,16 EU ) and forgive each other in the name of Jesus . Then the sick person is anointed with oil in the name of Jesus. The elders then lay hands on him and pray for his recovery . The Psalm 23 and / or the Lord's Prayer and a blessing word decide the anointing of the sick.
The Christian Community
The Christian community , shaped by Rudolf Steiner's anthroposophy , describes the anointing of the sick as the holy unction or the last unction . It is a sacramental and the first stage is a four-stage "death and death-conduct." You follow this ritual, the blessing ceremony , the funeral or memorial service and the human act of consecration for the dead.
Meaning of the holy unction
The holy unction is understood as "profound help, in which direction man's path may turn - to death or back to life". According to the Christian community, it conveys three things: the force that makes the spirit independent of the body; the blessing of Jesus Christ who overcame death; the guide “from existence to existence”. There is a conviction that the sacramental act is effective even when the dying person is unconscious. The Last Unction is not performed on those who have already died.
The sacred unction as an act
Only the ordained priest of the Christian community has the authority to give the Last Unction to the dying. As a rule, an acolyte assists , who represents the community at the deathbed. Before the act, the priest puts on his official costume and consecrates the oil to be used in the anointing. First, on the sick or death bed, he reads the so-called high priestly prayer from the farewell speeches of Jesus ( Jn 17 EU ), which he recites in ritual language. This is followed by three short “cultic sentences” with which the aforementioned effects of the holy unction are expressed and to which the altar boy responds with a “Yes, so be it!”. Then the priest takes anointing oil three times from a capsule with his thumb and forefinger, which he draws in a cross shape on the forehead of the dying person - first over the right eye, then over the left and finally in the middle. The action, in which relatives, friends, doctors and nursing staff can also take part, is thus decided.
- Oliver Krüger : The liturgical ritual accompanied by death processes in the Christian churches in Germany, in: Handbook dying and human dignity . Edited by Michael Anderheiden & Wolfgang U. Eckart, Berlin 2012, pp. 1383-1394.
- Reiner Kaczynski : Celebration of the anointing of the sick . In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2 (Church service. Handbook of Liturgical Science 7.2) . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 1992, ISBN 3-7917-1334-5 , p. 241-343 .
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- Marc Retterath: The liturgy of the sick of the Trier Church since the Council of Trient (= Theos . Volume 54 ). Kovač, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-8300-0732-9 (also: Trier, University, dissertation, 2002).
- Benedikt Kranemann : Sick Oil. In: Real Lexicon for Antiquity and Christianity . Volume 21: Clothing II - Signs of the Cross. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-7772-0620-2 , Sp. 915-965.
- Paul Meyendorff: The Anointing of the Sick (= The Orthodox Liturgy Series . No. 1 ). St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Crestwood NY 2009, ISBN 978-0-88141-187-4 .
- Anointing in the Evangelical Church in Baden ( Memento from March 6, 2014 in the web archive archive.today )
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 251ff.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 254f.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241–343, here pp. 258–273.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241–343, here p. 264.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241–343, here pp. 274–285.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241–343, here pp. 281–284.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here p. 247; Petrus Lombardus, Sent. IV 23.11; Albertus Magnus, In sent. IV 23,2,4,2.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 285f.
Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241–343, here p. 287.
Concilium Tridentinum, Sessio XIV (November 25, 1551): Doctrina de sacramento extremae unctionis: DS 1694–1700, 1716–1719.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 288ff.
- Cf. Pope Paul VI. , Apostolic Constitution Sacram Unctionem Infirmorum , quoting the Council of Trent, 14th session, On the Last Unction , chap. 2 ( DS 1696): "The content is namely the grace of the Holy Spirit, whose anointing takes away the offenses, if such are still to be redeemed, and the remnants of sin and uplifts and strengthens the spirit of the sick."
- The celebration of the sacraments of the sick. 1994, p. 55.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 290ff.
- Cf. Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, pp. 310f.
- can. 1003 §1 CIC
- Small rituals for special pastoral situations. Herder, Einsiedeln u. a. 1980, p. 75.
Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 317-321.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 321ff.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 324-327.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241–343, here pp. 327–330.
- Joachim Vobbe : Bread from the stone valley. Episcopal letters. Alt-Katholischer Bistumsverlag, Bonn 2005, ISBN 3-934610-63-3 , p. 367 f.
- Reiner Kaczynski: Celebration of the anointing of the sick. In: Sacramental Celebrations I / 2. Regensburg 1992, pp. 241-343, here pp. 331-336.
- Kirchenrecht-baden.de: Anointing in the Evangelical Church in Baden. Recommendations of the regional synod of April 9, 1998.
- The facts and quotations in this section are taken from the following essay; Helgo Bockemühl: The accompaniment of the dying and deceased through the rituals of the Christian community , in: Die Drei. Journal for Anthroposophy in Science, Art and Social Life , No. 8–9 / 2001, pp. 95–99 ( PDF-online ( Memento from June 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive )).
- kathisch.de: Anointing of the sick
- Karl Hörmann : Anointing the Sick. In: Karl Hörmann: Lexicon of Christian Morals. Tyrolia-Verlag, Innsbruck u. a. 1969, col. 693-701.
- The process of an anointing of the sick on erzbistum-muenchen.de