A church wedding is the signing of a marriage according to the prescribed rite of a church ( marriage form ). It usually takes place in front of a clergyman . In some countries civil marriage can coincide with church celebrations. In the German-speaking area, however, it is usually carried out separately in a separate act in front of the representative of the secular congregation, usually before the church wedding (until December 31, 2008, religious pre- marriage was prohibited in Germany ).
The church wedding is one of the casualies , the official church acts on a special occasion. As such, it is viewed by the state in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France and certain other countries as legally irrelevant and only recognized under canon law. In such countries, the couple usually has to be civilly married before the church marriage. This is still necessary in Austria and Switzerland, for example, and was mandatory in Germany until the reform of the Personal Status Act that came into force on January 1, 2009 . Even after the reform in Germany, it is generally required of the churches themselves. In Sweden , the United Kingdom , Ireland , Spain , Poland , Italy and countries with state churches (e.g. Greece , Norway and Denmark ), on the other hand, church weddings also have civil law effects or can be reported to and recognized by the civil status authority.
The church wedding is tied to the ritual or the worship order of the respective church. Often the bride and groom are given the opportunity to help shape the service within the permissible framework according to their ideas. This is the rule in the Protestant free churches. The church wedding takes place almost exclusively in the church; there are only a few exceptions where a different location is approved. If you do not marry in your own parish, you need the consent of the responsible pastor, who has to issue a dimissorial . In the free churches , an away wedding does not require the consent of your own pastor.
A church wedding basically requires that both spouses belong to a denomination and that at least one partner is a member of the respective church. The large churches left to the partners at different denominational pastors or parish lines on site to decide whether the couple can still be trusted. In some cases, especially in the Roman Catholic Church , a dispensation from the local bishop must also be obtained.
Church weddings in the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church are only open to couples of different sexes. In many Protestant churches in Europe and in some North America, there is a blessing for same-sex couples as well as weddings of partners of the same sex .
Roman Catholic Church
According to the Roman Catholic understanding, the church wedding serves to establish the valid marriage covenant, which (in the case of a marriage between Christians) the bride and groom donate to themselves as a sacrament . Core of the wedding ceremony is therefore the manifestation of the marriage consensus by the couple of maid clergy and witnesses . A public announcement ( bid ) must have preceded; the marriage is to be registered in the church register. According to Catholic doctrine , the sacramental marriage bond established by the married couple is indissoluble during their lifetime; Marriage annulment is possible if the requirements are met.
The Roman Catholic teaching basically knows two forms of marriage: the sacramental and the natural . According to the Catholic view, marriage between Christians is always a sacrament . Apart from special cases, the marriage covenant is publicly proclaimed in a liturgical celebration. According to Catholic teaching, the bride and groom give each other the sacrament of marriage. The fulfillment of the formal norms in the celebration of the marriage is the prerequisite for the canonical recognition of the validity of the marriage. It usually takes place during the so-called bridal mass ; even a word service is sufficient for the form. To prepare for the sacrament of marriage, the Church is familiar with the establishment of marriage pastoral care , which includes, for example, marriage preparation courses or other forms of pastoral care before and after marriage.
In order for a wedding to be celebrated, the bride and groom must first contact a priest . If this is not the pastor of the parish at the place of residence, a church must be found in which the bridal mass can be celebrated. The pastor then issues a marriage transfer to the trusting priest. The bride and groom must present baptism certificates from the two parishes in which the bride and groom were baptized. The certificates must not be older than six months. In Germany, a civil marriage certificate must be presented before the church wedding , unless, as has been possible since January 1, 2009, a purely church wedding is exceptionally requested from the episcopal ordinariate . Before the wedding, a marriage preparation interview (meaningfully with the wedding priest) is mandatory. Its result is documented in the marriage preparation protocol . The protocol ends with the signatures of the witnesses and the registration of the wedding ceremony. The doctrine of the Catholic Church on marriage is reproduced in the notes to the marriage record.
The marriage can also be validly concluded without a priest or deacon in front of only two witnesses, if there is either a risk of death, or if over a period of about a month “it can reasonably be foreseen” that a priest or deacon will not be brought in “without serious disadvantage “Or ask for assistance. The marriage concluded in this way must be reported to the responsible pastor. According to Can. 1112 lay people are delegated to assist in marriage where priests and deacons are absent.
In the Roman Catholic Church , marriages with an Orthodox partner or with a non-Christian also require the approval of the responsible bishop . If a Catholic does not want to marry a non-Catholic partner in the context of a Catholic wedding ceremony, but in the rite of another denomination or, for example, when entering into a marriage with a non-Christian, only in a civil ceremony, he must obtain special permission from the local pastor (dispensation of the formal requirement ).
According to Roman Catholic doctrine, the marriage between two baptized Christians belongs to the seven sacraments : marriage has been counted as such since the Second Lateran Council (1139); This doctrine was expressly confirmed by the magisterium at the Synod of Verona (1184) and on other occasions and finally solemnly dogmatized against the Reformers by the Council of Trent in 1547 . In contrast to the understanding of Orthodox and Eastern Church theology, the sacramental marriage is not founded by the trusting priest, rather the spouses donate the sacrament of marriage to each other according to the Latin view. The German bishops define sacramental marriage as “the conjugal communion of a man and a woman who through faith and baptism participate in the life of Christ and are incorporated into the Church”. Unity (loyalty, single pairing and heterosexuality, i.e. a man and a woman) and indissolubility are seen as essential characteristics of marriage.
A church marriage is only valid if the partners are not subject to any impediments to marriage , no grounds for invalidity such as B. There is a lack of consensus or a lack of will and the church formal requirements are observed. The formal requirement requires that the clergyman authorized to marry (priest or deacon with a marriage permit from the bishop) asks for the marriage consensus in the presence of two witnesses. In the case of a mixed denominational association, a special permit (dispensation) can be used to exempt from adhering to the ecclesiastical form of marriage.
Civil marriage with the participation of a Catholic is viewed by the church not as the justification for a real marriage, but as a mere bureaucratic act without religious significance. The civil marriage between two baptized Christians who do not belong to the Catholic Church, on the other hand, is regarded as sacramental and is therefore in principle indissoluble. This is because, according to the Codex Iuris Canonici , which came into force in 1983 , on which the theology of the Second Vatican Council is based, non-Catholics are not subject to Catholic canon law and thus also not subject to the formal obligation, so that their marriage is not invalid due to non-compliance with the Catholic marriage form can be explained, because this form is not mandatory for them. According to earlier Catholic church law, on the other hand, all believers in Christ were in principle subject to papal canon law, so that marriages outside the Roman Catholic Church were previously not considered sacramental. It should be noted here that the constitutive formal requirement was only made binding by the Tridentine Council , 24th session, with the Tametsi decree ; because until the 16th century, marriages concluded secretly or "informally" (without the participation of a clergyman) (so-called "clandestine marriages") were considered binding under Latin church law.
In addition to the promise of marriage (yes) as an expression of the will to marry, the Catholic understanding of the final conclusion of a sacramental marriage also requires physical fulfillment ( sexual intercourse ). The validly concluded marriage (matrimonium ratum) is only carried out through the (at least one-time) sexual act (consummatum) and is thus indissoluble; beforehand it has already had a sacramental character, but a dissolution through papal sovereignty is still possible. This regulation, based on the widespread assumption of Germanic legal customs, continued with the two-stage marriage teaching developed by Anselm von Laon of the canonist Gratian († approx. 1158), who in the Decretum Gratiani (around 1140) between a "started" (matrimonium initiatum) and a marriage “decided” (ratum) through copulative execution (copulation theory), against the doctrine advocated by other theologians and popes ( Ivo von Chartres , Petrus Lombardus , Innocent III ) until the 13th century that marriage comes alone validly established by the consent of the spouses (consensus theory). The background to the two-stage marriage model, which emphasizes the actual handover (traditio) of the bride by the father to the husband as an element establishing marriage, is possibly the fact that in the 12th century there were often long periods of time between the marriage promise and the home of the bride. The modern view goes back essentially to the lawyer and later Pope Rolando Bandinelli ( Alexander III. , Reigned 1159–1181), who in particular helped the breakthrough of the notion that marriage (unlike mere engagement ) also unites only has an imperfect, yet already sacramental marital character and can therefore only be dissolved by the Pope and not by the spouses themselves. For this reason, the so-called Joseph's marriage, in which the partners consciously renounce the sexual consummation of their marriage, is from the Catholic point of view a fully sacramental connection.
Spouses who are connected to each other in a validly closed and completed sacramental marriage can live separately (“separation of table and bed”), but according to church doctrine , divorce (dissolution of the marriage bond ) is not possible. A church remarriage of civilly divorced persons is therefore fundamentally excluded. Only someone whose previous marriage no longer exists (death of the partner) or was invalid from the start ( nullity ) can marry a second time in church . New marriages after the death of the respective partner are (unlike in Orthodoxy, for example) permitted in any number as long as there is no impediment to marriage .
If the marriage prerequisites, which the Roman Catholic Church regards as elementary, were not met at the time of the marriage, it is possible to have the marriage declared invalid by an ecclesiastical court ( marriage annulment ). With the cancellation, the Church recognizes that the relationship, which in this case is called putative marriage ("alleged marriage"), was invalid from the start due to the lack of prerequisites.
In many countries, including Germany until the end of 2008, civil marriage is a prerequisite for a church marriage. However, this is not an internal requirement under church law. Rather, the church only grants the state responsibility for the civil legal consequences of the marriage contract (naming and professional status, matrimonial property law and inheritance law) as well as the right to decide on disputes in civil law proceedings. To the extent that state legislation and jurisprudence intervene in the powers claimed by the church, they are not recognized by the church.
In Germany, as in earlier epochs, it is now possible to get married again, which is carried out exclusively by the church, but not in public or civil and accordingly has no civil legal consequences. This special form, known in church circles as a marriage of conscience , is a fully valid, sacramental marriage under canon law. For the performance of a church wedding without a previous civil marriage, a dispensation from the local bishop is required , which is only granted in exceptional cases. B. the marriage of two widowed persons.
Any marriage between a baptized and an unbaptized person, or between two unbaptized persons, between a baptized and an unbaptized person or between two unbaptized persons is not considered a sacramental but a natural marriage ( natural marriage), both state and possibly also ecclesiastical (with dispensation from the impediment of religious differences). According to canon law, a validly concluded non-sacramental marriage can be dissolved by means of a papal act of sovereignty (dispensation) under certain conditions with the use of the Petrine privilege in favor of faith. A marriage between unbaptized persons can, under certain conditions, also be dissolved on the basis of the Pauline privilege if one of the partners is baptized and the other refuses to continue the marriage peacefully under these circumstances.
Roman Catholic marriage law
- Main article: Marriage law (Catholic Church)
In the Roman Catholic Church , marriage law is regulated in a separate title of the Codex Iuris Canonici (Cann. 1055–1165; divided into ten chapters). According to the Catholic understanding, effective marriage among the baptized is to be understood as a sacrament (Can. 1055 f.). It has come about since the 12th century “through the consensus of the partners”, that is, the “act of will by which man and woman give and accept one another in an irrevocable covenant in order to establish a marriage” (Can. 1057: marriage consensus ). A valid and consummated marriage cannot be dissolved by any human violence and for any reason, except death (Can. 1141). Catholics should be confirmed and, if possible, should receive the sacrament of penance and communion before entering into marriage (Can. 1065).
Obstacles to marriage and dispensation
According to Can. 1059, the marriage of Catholics, even if only one partner is Catholic, is based not only on divine law , but also on ecclesiastical law, without prejudice to the jurisdiction of secular authority with regard to the purely civil effects of this marriage. In particular, the following regulations are of particular importance:
- The man must be at least 16 years old, the woman 14 years old, whereby the Bishops' Conference can set a higher minimum age (Can. 1083).
- There must be no “permanent inability to have sex , be it on the part of the man or the woman, be it absolute or relative”; On the other hand, sterility alone does no harm (Can. 1084).
- None of the people entering into the marriage may already be effectively married, the consummation of the existing marriage is irrelevant (Can. 1085).
- One partner may not be Catholic, but the other unbaptized (Can. 1086). A dispensation is possible under special conditions.
- The man must not have received the sacrament of ordination (Can. 1087) and neither man nor woman may be bound by a canonical vow of celibacy ( e.g. profession , consecration of a virgin ) (Can. 1088).
- The woman must not have been abducted to enter into marriage (Can. 1089) and no person must have been killed with a view to entering into marriage (" spouse murder ", Can. 1090)
- Marriage closing ends must not in a straight line blood relative and also be the sidelines no blood relationship to the fourth degree may be through (Can 1,091th); neither may they be related by marriage (Can. 1092). There is also no dispensation from the obstacle of consanguinity in a straight line and in the second degree of the sideline.
- "Mixed marriages" between Catholics and baptized people who do not belong to the Catholic Church are also prohibited without express permission (Can. 1124).
According to Can. In 1078 the local ordinary can dispense (liberate) from all obstacles of ecclesiastical (but not divine) law; but excluded are those obstacles, the dispensation of which is reserved for the Apostolic See , i.e. the Pope . These include consecration , the public, solemn vow of celibacy, and spouse murder.
According to the Catholic understanding, the fulfillment of the formal norms within the framework of the canonical marriage act is the prerequisite for the recognition and thus canonical effectiveness of the marriage.
The actual marriage is the sacrament of marriage , which the bride and groom donate to themselves in the consensus to lead their marriage for life and consensus by “the two become one flesh”. Because of this contractual agreement in a consensual marriage, minimum requirements for the ability of the married couple to understand are required. According to Can. 1096 “it is necessary that the couple are at least not ignorant of the fact that marriage is a long-term community between a man and a woman, arranged to produce offspring through sexual cooperation”.
An agreement of the bride and groom before the wedding to understand the first years as a "trial period", to commit to a certain number of children, as well as the error about the person ( error in persona , Can. 1097), a malicious deception (Can. 1098), Coercion (Can. 1103) etc. generally lead to the nullity of the marriage: according to the Catholic understanding, there was no valid marriage from the start.
If only one partner is Catholic, special formal requirements apply (see above, confirmed in Can. 1117): The partners must be present at the same time (Can. 1104, substitution is possible) and in front of the local ordinary or a commissioned priest or deacon and explain the consensus to several witnesses. The civil marriage, in which only one Catholic is involved, is therefore formally invalid under Catholic church law.
Following the sacramental doctrine, the marriage of two non-Catholic Christians is also a sacramental Christian marriage and is therefore indissoluble. If two atheists marry under civil law, their marriage is also effective and indissoluble according to Catholic church law; After a secular divorce, a church marriage with a Catholic partner is no longer possible. For example, if two Protestant Christians convert to the Catholic faith, there will be no new church wedding.
Effect and separation
A distinction must be made for the effect of the marriage. In addition to the invalid and the valid marriage (cf. above), Catholic canon law also knows the valid and consummated marriage, namely when “the spouses have performed a marital act with one another in a human manner that is inherently suitable for procreation is, to whom the marriage is ordered according to its nature and through which the spouses become one flesh "( Can. 1061 ), which is assumed (refutably) in" living together "after the marriage .
A valid marriage is indissoluble when it is consummated; otherwise it can at least be resolved by the Pope by grace for a just cause at the request of both partners or one partner, even if the other is reluctant, Can. 1142. This judicial "non-enforcement procedure" is in Can. 1697 ff. Regulated. In addition, the “separation with a permanent marriage bond” comes into consideration, Can. 1151 ff.
Invalid marriages can possibly be made by way of the validation, Can. 1156 ff., To be healed . In a special church court procedure, the "nullity procedure" before the official (Can. 1671 ff.), However, nullity can also be asserted (cf. on this, marriage annulment ). According to the statements of the official office in Osnabrück, one can differentiate between two types of reasons for nullity of marriage:
“Reasons relating to the will of the bride and groom to marry, and reasons relating to their ability to marry. [1.] The so-called lack of will, which affects the marriage promise itself, includes the rejection of the indissolubility of marriage, marital fidelity or the reservation of children and the rejection of marriage itself (fictitious marriage). Marriages that are entered into under duress, under false pretenses, because of a grave error or under one condition, are also not validly concluded. [2.] Serious weaknesses in the personality structure of the bride and groom can also result in the nullity of the marriage. Both partners must be able to recognize and critically examine what they are getting into with the marriage of the specific partner, and they must be able to lead the marriage as a partnership over the long term. Mental illnesses, addiction to drugs or alcohol as well as considerable deficits in maturation at the time of marriage can be the cause of such inability. "
If the invalidity of the marriage is determined in this way, it no longer stands in the way of a renewed (or in the sense of canon law : first-time) marriage. The nullity procedure is therefore of some importance in practice.
Anglican and Protestant churches
According to the understanding prevalent in the Protestant churches in the German-speaking area, the promise made before God is repeated in the wedding service and a valid marriage before the registrar is blessed ( blessing service ). In countries in which church marriage is recognized by the state and no separate civil marriage is necessary, the Protestant churches also regard church marriage as constitutive for the establishment of marriage. According to the general Protestant view, marriage does not have a sacramental character. Therefore, the divorce of a church blessed or closed marriage is basically possible.
The Protestant wedding consists of a celebration of the previous civil marriage and the promise of God's blessing to the couple. “According to the Protestant understanding, marriage is not concluded in the church, but at the registry office. In the church, the bride and groom put their common life together under God's blessing. ”In principle, both spouses must be Christians. If only one of the two spouses is a Christian, a “divine service on the occasion of a marriage” is possible instead of an evangelical marriage. As a rule, the church wedding takes place in the place where the husband or wife lives. If it is to be carried out in another location, the bride and groom must obtain permission from their home pastor (Dimissoriale - letter of discharge). It is possible to order as many witnesses as one wishes. There is no longer any obligation to do so.
For the Protestant churches in Switzerland and Germany, civil marriage is a legal requirement for church weddings. Church weddings are about the word of God and the blessing of the conjugal community. In Protestant churches, marriage is not regarded as a sacrament, but according to most agendaric requirements and regional church regulations, a mutual promise is made that is testified to before God and the community. Divorced people can also be married in church, for which the ordinances of the regional churches recommend or prescribe detailed pastoral counseling - especially because of the obviously broken previous vows.
Protestant canon law
The understanding of marriage in the Protestant churches differs considerably from that of the Roman Catholic. While in the Catholic Church the marriage takes place in a rite in front of the assisting priest or deacon, Protestant weddings are only church services on the occasion of a (already done, e.g. civil) marriage. This difference was also reflected in the earlier state law:
"Anyone who undertakes a church wedding or the religious celebrations of a marriage without the betrothed having previously declared to the registry office that they want to marry is committing an administrative offense ."
So marriage is not a sacrament, but “a worldly thing” ( Martin Luther ), the evangelical marriage is only the spiritual celebration of a previous marriage. As a result, Protestant marriage law is far less extensive than Catholic. As for other casualies, the prerequisites for ecclesiastical marriage are usually contained in so-called life orders, the legal quality of which is understood differently by the various religious communities.
Usually, a wedding talk is held between the pastor and the couple . The wedding ceremony takes place in a church service if the marriage is proven. The spouses must belong to a church, one of which is the church from which the wedding is to take place. Under certain conditions, a marriage is also possible, even though one of the couple has not been baptized. Under certain circumstances, the wedding ceremony can also be refused. If in doubt, usually decides the respective elected parish line . The marriage is entered in the church register and certified.
Blessing / marriage of same-sex couples
Roman Catholic Church
Marriages of same-sex couples are not possible in the Catholic Church due to the current canon law. In Germany, the Osnabrück Bishop Franz-Josef Bode suggested in January 2018 to consider the possibility of a blessing for same-sex couples ; Until now, such blessings have only been carried out in rare individual cases.
The Dutch Remonstrants were the first Protestant community to bless same-sex couples in 1986. Since then, blessings for same-sex couples have also become possible in many German Protestant regional churches as well as in some Swiss Reformed regional churches . In 2013 a gay couple in Germany was married for the first time in a Protestant church with church certification.
In many regional churches of the EKD and some canton churches of the Evangelical Reformed Church in Switzerland , the responsible synods have approved public blessing ceremonies for same-sex couples . In the eight regional churches Evangelical Church Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia , Evangelical Church in the Rhineland , Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau , Evangelical Church in Baden , Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church of Hanover Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg , Evangelical Reformed Church and Evangelical Church of In Kurhessen-Waldeck , same-sex couples are allowed to marry.
In August 2013, the first church wedding of a same-sex couple took place in the Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau . In January 2016 the Synod of the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland , on April 9, 2016 the Synod of the Evangelical Church Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia , on April 23, 2016 the Synod of the Evangelical Regional Church in Baden and on November 24, 2017 the Synod of the Evangelical Reformed Church to enable church weddings for homosexual couples in the future. Pastors could, however, reject the marriage of gay and lesbian partners for reasons of conscience. Church congregations that have already spoken out against the previously possible worship service for same-sex couples could also refuse to marry in their congregation. The first church wedding of two men in Berlin took place on August 12, 2016 in the Protestant St. Marien Church on Alexanderplatz.
Outside the German-speaking area
As the first European territorial church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Sweden has enabled homosexual couples to have a regular church marriage since November 1st, 2009. In 2012, the Danish Church also made it possible for same-sex couples to have a church wedding. In November 2015, the Church of Norway allowed same-sex couples to be married in church. In July 2017, the Scottish Episcopal Church approved the wedding. In North America, the United Church of Canada , the United Church of Christ , the Metropolitan Community Church , the Presbyterian Church (USA) and the Anglican Episcopal Church of the United States of America have facilitated church weddings for same-sex couples.
In Anglicanism , there is no consensus on whether marriage should be understood as a sacrament. As a rule, however, the marriage rite is also assigned a sacramental character by those who are not part of the Anglo-Catholic wing ( High Church ), since it is an externally visible sign and a means of grace. The question of whether marriage should remain limited to heterosexual couples reinforces the tendency towards permanent division in the Anglican community. Church weddings for same-sex couples are permitted in the Anglican Church of Canada , the Anglican Church in Scotland, the Episcopal Church of the United States of America , Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia and Igreja Episcopal Anglicana do Brasil .
In the Orthodox Churches , marriage is one of the mysteries (sacraments). In contrast to Catholic marriage, the sacrament of marriage is not administered by the bride and groom themselves, but by the priest; the marriage vows of the bride and groom are the prerequisites for the administration of the sacrament. A central moment of the marriage rite is the coronation of the bride and groom.
In the Orthodox Churches, one or two divorces are allowed in an emergency. The celebration of remarriage is less festive than with a first marriage. The thought of repentance prevails, since marriage is a mystery and it is fundamentally assumed that marriage is indissoluble. Admission to another marriage is an act of mercy. Depending on the reasons for which the first marriage failed, a corresponding period of penance can be imposed before a second and third marriage. Despite the penitential character of the celebration of the second / third marriage and the indissolubility of the first marriage, the rite of remarriage contains all the essential elements of a sacramental marriage. In principle, no one may enter into more than three marriages, unless the “Church Court” decides otherwise.
According to the teaching of the Orthodox Churches, the marriage bond does not end after the death of a partner; remarriage after the death of a partner is evaluated and handled in the same way as after a divorce.
When partners who belong to different denominations are married, there is sometimes a need for a so-called ecumenical wedding service. However, there is no ecumenical marriage with equal liturgists in the Catholic Church:
“It is forbidden to hold another religious wedding ceremony before or after the canonical marriage in accordance with § 1 to give or renew the marriage consensus; Likewise, no religious celebration may take place at which the Catholic assistant and the non-Catholic official at the same time, each in his own rite, ask for the consensus of the partners. "
If one of the partners is Protestant and one is Catholic and both want an ecumenical wedding service, registration takes place at both parish offices. Depending on in which of the two churches the wedding is to take place, a pastor of the other denomination is asked for help. In the Protestant Church, the ecumenical wedding is therefore a Protestant wedding with the participation of a Catholic clergyman - or vice versa. An exception applies to the area of the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the Evangelical Church in Baden, where also the possibility of an ecumenical ceremony for Form C is.
For Christians, the marriage covenant is a synonym for marriage , which is intended to remind of the biblical example. It expresses that marriage should be an example of the relationship between God and man ( covenant ). However, whether Pauline theology strengthens the marriage covenant is controversial.
Pope Leo XIII. spoke in his inaugural encyclical Inscrutabili dei consilio that Jesus Christ himself raised the marriage covenant to the dignity of a sacrament and that this covenant represented the relationship between Jesus and his community. Leo XIII referred to a marriage that was only entered into before secular authorities. as a "legal cohabitation ".
Promise of loyalty
The Church incorporated the promise of faithfulness to one another in life and in death into her wedding liturgy. At church weddings, the formula “until death do you part” first appeared in the Sarum Manual (Salisbury 1508). Originally this formula was only available in English - "til death us depart" - and not in Latin. This found its way into the Book of Common Prayer of 1549 and was changed in 1661 to "till death do us part".
In German evangelical agendas it cannot be proven before the end of the 19th century and then finds its way into the questioning of the consensus “do you want […] in good and bad days, until death do you part?” Martin Luther is content with his Traubüchlein with the answer to the question: “Hans, do you want Greten as your married husband? Dicat: Yes. "And then has Matthew 19: 6 read:" What God has put together, man should not divide. "
In the celebration of the Catholic wedding, the priest asks questions about the readiness for a Christian marriage among other things: “Do you want to love and respect your wife [your husband] and keep faith with her [him] all the days of her [his] life ? "
The wedding ring has been a symbol of closed marriage since the 13th century. It is usually worn from a civil or church wedding. It is of no further significance for the respective ceremony or the validity of a marriage.
- Impediment to marriage
- Marriage law
- Marriage preparation
- Marriage preparation protocol
- Civil marriage
- Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria Information on church weddings
- Trausagh.de - Information from the EKD on the wedding ceremony
- Information pages of the Diocese of Augsburg on Roman Catholic marriage
- Marriages Between Orthodox and Roman Catholics: The Pastoral View of the Problem in 21st Century Russia
- Council of Trent, Session XXIV, Decree Tametsi
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- CIC c. 1116
- Catholic Catechism of the Dioceses of Germany. Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) 1955, p. 186.
- CIC c. 1112
- Cf. Udo Breitbach : The authority of the Church of Jesus Christ over the marriages of the baptized. On the legal subordination of marriages of non-Catholic Christians (= Tesi Gregoriana. Diritto Canonico series. Vol. 27). Pontificia Università Gregoriana, Rome 1998, ISBN 88-7652-786-9 , pp. 20-22 , (also: Rome, Pontificia Università Gregoriana, dissertation, 1997).
- Cf. Joachim Piegsa : The Sacrament of Marriage (= Handbook of the History of Dogmas. Vol. 4: Sacraments, Eschatology. Fasc. 6). Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) a. a. 2002, ISBN 3-451-00740-1 , p. 61.
- Liturgical Institutes Salzburg, Trier and Zurich (ed.): The celebration of the wedding. 9th edition, edition for bride and groom and congregation. Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) a. a. 2006, ISBN 3-451-21877-1 , p. 10.
- Cf. Udo Breitbach: The authority of the Church of Jesus Christ over the marriages of the baptized. On the legal subordination of marriages of non-Catholic Christians (= Tesi Gregoriana. Diritto Canonico series. Vol. 27). Pontificia Università Gregoriana, Rome 1998, ISBN 88-7652-786-9 , p. 7 , (also: Rome, Pontificia Università Gregoriana, dissertation, 1997).
- Cf. Erich Saurwein: The origin of the legal institute of the papal dispensation from the incomplete marriage. An interpretation of the decretals of Alexander III. and Urbans III. (= Analecta Gregoriana. Vol. 215 = Analecta Gregoriana. Series Facultatis Iuris Canonici. Sec. B, No. 43). Pontificia Università Gregoriana, Rome 1980, pp. 12-24 , (at the same time: Rome, Pontificia Università Gregoriana, dissertation, 1977).
- Cf. Georg Fischer: The problem of marriage as a contract and sacrament in the development of ecclesiastical marriage law (= European university publications. Series 2: Jurisprudence. Vol. 3594). Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2003, ISBN 3-631-50331-8 , pp. 115–121, (also: Marburg, Universität, Dissertation, 2002).
- Petra Schiefer: Separation of table and bed University of Vienna , March 8, 2012
- Otto W. Ziegelmeier - CFS GmbH: Church wedding without a registry office? In: www.theology.de. Retrieved November 8, 2016 .
- CIC 1627
- Council of Trent, Session XXIV, Decree Tametsi
- Cf. Bertram Zotz : Number of children and will to marry. Considerations on the relevance of consensus law of the previous limitation of the number of children from a specifically intended marriage. In: Konrad Breitsching, Wilhelm Rees : Law - guarantor of freedom. Festschrift for Johannes Mühlsteiger SJ for his 80th birthday (= canonical studies and texts. Vol. 51). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-428-12262-3 , pp. 877-889.
- Preaching of the Faith for Adults - German Edition of the Dutch Catechism, Imprimatur Utrecht March 1, 1966, Herder-Bücherei Vol. 382, p. 439 ff, Verlag Herder KG Freiburg i. B. 1969
- Notes on the establishment of an ecclesiastically invalid marriage. (PDF; 408 kB) Archived from the original on September 23, 2015 ; accessed on January 22, 2019 .
- Andreas Föhl: Put the common way of life under God's blessing. Evangelical Church in Württemberg, archived from the original on January 14, 2014 ; accessed on January 22, 2019 .
- Questions and answers from the EKD
- Bode: Reflect on the Blessing of Homosexual Couples. Retrieved June 20, 2019 . The Fall of Man in Wetzlar. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung, May 17, 2010. Accessed June 20, 2019 .
- "Marriage for everyone": Homosexuality is normal and therefore also homosexual marriage. Retrieved June 20, 2019 .
- More than just a blessing. Retrieved June 20, 2019 .
- Evangelische Landeskirche Baden: Synod resolves marriage of same-sex couples.
- NDR.de: Landeskirche Hannover introduces marriage for everyone
- NDR.de: Oldenburg Church decides marriage for everyone
- Ekkw.de: Traugesetz will also apply to same-sex couples in Kurhessen-Waldeck in the future
- Morgenpost: Marriage for homosexuals, finally equality.
- Stern.de: Small Churches Revolution, Evangelical Church marries first homosexual couple.
- Rhenish Church allows homosexual couples to marry. In: Evangelical press service. Archived from the original on January 25, 2015 ; accessed on January 22, 2019 .
- Morgenpost: Marriage for homosexuals, finally equality.
- Evangelische Landeskirche Baden: Synod resolves marriage of same-sex couples.
- Ulf Preuß: marriage order also for homosexual couples. In: Reformiert.de. November 24, 2017, archived from the original on December 1, 2017 ; accessed on January 22, 2019 .
- Der Tagesspiegel, Aug. 12, 2016
- Der Standard: Church weddings for Danish lesbians and gays.
- Bishops unanimously for marriage for all - Norway's Church opens marriage to gays and lesbians. Queer.de November 2nd, 2015
- BBC: Scottish Episcopal Church approves gay marriage.
- CNN: Presbyterians vote to allow same-sex marriage.
- NBCNews: Episcopalians Vote to Allow Gay Marriage in Churches.
- Guardian: Anglican church of Canada backs same-sex marriage, a day after rejecting it.
- queer.de: Episcopal Church wants to bless gay couples.
- Newshub.com: Anglican Church wants to bless same-sex relationships, May 9, 2018
- IEAB synod adopts same-sex marriage canon (en) . In: Anglican Ink 2018 © , June 1, 2018. Archived from the original on June 5, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- Stances of Faiths on LGBTQ Issues: Eastern Orthodox Church. Retrieved June 25, 2019 .
- Michael Eckert: God's blessing for the second marriage !? A Catholic outlook on Orthodox theology of marriage and the prospects for the divorced remarried. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2013, ISBN 978-3-7322-8136-7 , pp. 83 ff.
- Marriage Association examples of use at Mydict
- For example the Central Conference of Central and Southern Europe 2005 of the Evangelical Methodist Church .
- marriage in a Catholic wedding liturgy in December 2004.
- Marriage covenant among Catholics , seen May 16, 2008.
- Ernst Haag : The marriage bond between Yahweh and Israel in Hosea 2. In: Rainer Kampling , Thomas Söding (ed.): Ekklesiologie des Neue Testament. For Karl Kertelge. Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) a. a. 1996, ISBN 3-451-23830-6 , pp. 9-32.
- For Protestant theology: PRINCE, Derek , Der Ehebund (4th edition) ( Manfred Gerwing )
- In CS Lewis , author of The Chronicles of Narnia in his conversion story
- Esther Keller-Stocker: I. Thessalonicher 1. Paul and patriarchal shadow. December 28, 2003, archived from the original on October 10, 2007 ; accessed on January 22, 2019 .
- Christian Strecker : The liminal theology of Paul. Approaches to Pauline theology from a cultural anthropological perspective (= research on religion and literature of the Old and New Testaments. H. 185). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999, ISBN 3-525-53869-3 , p. 400, (At the same time: Neuendettelsau, Augustana University, dissertation, 1996: Transformation, Liminality and communitas in Paulus. ).
- Inscrutabili dei consilio section 14, online on the website of the Holy See  (English, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, unfortunately not in German)
- Sites.arte.tv - How to wear the wedding ring
- Americamagazine.org - Vena Amoris
- Juwelier-schmuck.de - Guide - Why do you wear the wedding ring on the right in Germany?